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Case conceptualization of the client

The paper performs critical evaluation of a case scenario based on five stages of Worden Task model as well as meaning reconstruction model focusing on grief and loss. The focus is to understand the experience of bereavement from a loss of a relationship, employment position, opportunity and others. Worden’s tasks of Mourning are evaluated based on the grief theory reflecting the creative, concrete, outside-the-box and practical thinking and their integration of culture with the way human beings’ function (Corr, 2019). There are many contemporary grief models such as biopsychosocial model, meaning reconstruction model to grief and loss that are used to evaluate the provided case scenario of Bo-Chang and the way his grief of losing job and negative financial impact on social engagement.

Brief demographic: The demographic is young adult between 20 and 30 experiencing active life-style of social engagement, investment in holidays, rental apartment and new cars. Based on the background of Bo-Chang who came from Beijing at the age of ten-year-old to Brisbane with his family, it can be stated that it was a drastic change that he experienced. The experience of a busy city with excessive social engagement and people’s enjoyment being an integral part of their lives has led to Bo-Chang becoming the same way. Due to his high-paying job, he has always maintained a busy life in society and his personal life leading to a rental apartment on the Brisbane River, new car and on holidays. These investments had a serious impact on his financial savings considering he has recently lost his job leading to facing serious stress.

  • Client name – Bo- Chang
  • Contact details – Lives in Brisbane
  • Age – 28 years old
  • Employment status – Works in an Airlines company
  • Relationship status - Single

Reason for referral - Feeling anxious and stressed from the loss of his high-paying job leading to financial concerns due to no savings and excessive social engagement. His visit to his general physician has confirmed that he is in need of counselling considering he has been feeling nauseating, experiencing insomnia and lethargic.

The scenario is evaluated based on his continuous display of a lifestyle that is not supportive of the financial condition he is experiencing especially after losing his high-paid job with the airline company. Career wise he’s feeling lost but to maintain a social front, he is continuously getting involved in social engagement leading to a large credit card debt. He is confused on the ways in which he can start gaining qualifications or trying to find new employment leading to serious mental health issues (Smith & Delgado, 2020). Evaluating this condition and the behaviour that he is displaying in the form of excessive smoking and spending his days playing video games online sitting on the couch is an apparent reflection of his state of denial. Based on Worden’s tasks of mourning, the first step is to accept the reality of the loss which is not reflected in the way Bo-Chang is handling his loss of employment (Fiore, 2021). All the signs of loss that Bo-Chang is experiencing is being overlooked by him while he is maintaining a front of “business as usual”. Critically analysing the conditions and the behaviour of Bo-Chang, it is clear that the grief all the pain from the loss that he’s experiencing is impacting him mentally and the social pressure of maintaining a happy and socially busy identity on social media has seriously put him into complex issues and high risk of suffering (Sidhom, 2020).

Critical evaluation of Bo-Chang scenario

The four tasks are significant in terms of analysing both Chang and his condition of loss of employment and the experience of grief. The task model proposed by J. William Worden has four stages as follows:

  • To accept the reality of the Loss
  • To work through the pain of grief
  • To adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing
  • To find an enduring connection with deceased while embarking on a new life

The first task is both complex and simple considering it is a basic way of accepting the reality of loss leading to identification of its significance and impact on the present lifestyle. Bo-Chang needs to except that he must move forward from his past job and look for other employments. His behaviour during the loss of employment is clear indication of the stigma that he’s experiencing especially due to the loss of job (Sanders, Tvedte & Espinal-Lujan, 2017).

In the second task, the focus is to become more practical in terms of experiencing the pain of grief which is difficult yet it is necessary. Bo-Chang must experience despair, fear, sadness, blame, shame, relief and other emotions so as to acknowledge his position of employment as well as the loss of his busy social life. He must not let situations such as his online social media followers, expectations of families and friends influence his way of accepting the grief and working through it (Walter & McCoyd, 2015).

In the third task, Bo-Chang has a serious responsibility towards his lifestyle and the improvement that he must implement in terms of adjusting to the new environment once he has lost the job and the way he needs to move on from it (Jacobsen & Petersen, 2019). He must accept that his social media identity will not contribute to a better and secure physical and mental health life instead it might push him towards serious illness. His experience of anxiety, sleep deprivation, lethargic lifestyle and other such harmful ways are the results of his inability to adjust to the new environment after the loss of his employment (McCoyd, Koller & Walter, 2021).

His goal is to withdraw the emotional energy that was connected to his last job and focus on new opportunities that will contribute to effective development and growth in his lifestyle. Not only that the need to accomplish something in his life and be successful must be his future goal leading to iteration of relocating the emotional balance and implementing a balance between personal and professional lifestyle. He needs to implement financial savings as well as stop pretending for the social media (Warden & Bayley, 2020).

The theory is used to perform evaluation of Bo-Chang and his scenario in terms of his experience of grief and loss of his employment. Addressing the issues, the theory contributes to developing context that is supportive of the way an individual experience the aftermath of a loss. It is also important to consider that in solution-based approach, the coping strategies are health based and practical. The experience of Bo-Chang is evaluated through written section describing the symptoms of bereavement that is observed. As a client, Bo-Chang is described in details in terms of his behaviour and responses to crisis situation. The solution based needs a written verbatim of the conversation between the client and the councillor so that it provides a detailed understanding of the psychological perspective of Bo-Chang. Once, the interaction is constant, an online video lecture is shown to Bo-Chang so that he can understand the significance of his issues and the changes that he needs to implement in himself. He also needs to receive a complete demonstration of the abilities that he must encourage within himself (Iglewicz et al., 2020). The solution-focused scaling reflects the way interventions are used in the following ways:

  • The direct and indirect compliments must be given to Bo-Chang about his identity
  • He must be asked to share his perspective and the input provided by the therapist
  • The alliance between client and therapist must be addressed through amplification of problem-solving factors

Worden’s Task Model and its implementation

Demonstrating these solution-based intervention contributes reflects the way cognitive requirements can be satisfied effectively. implementation of therapy hours will contribute to the way information of Bo-Chang can be used to identify his triggers and help him with his behaviour issues (Neimeyer & Sands, 2021).

Presentation problems

Bo-Chang has been experiencing grief and pain of loss from employment being lost, his social position experiencing serious damage, emotional and mental gap from friends and families as well as developing behaviour that is arrogant. He requires counselling in terms of addressing the emotional stress and anxiety that he is experiencing as well as the negative lifestyle of playing video games online and smoking leading to a probability of developing mental health disorder (Corr, 2019).

The factors that contribute to making a person vulnerable in relevance to chronic social stressors, medical and psychiatric history and temperament genetics has been observed in Bo-Chang’s case. The predisposition risk factors that were identified in the case scenario increases the likelihood of Bo-Chang suffering from a certain mental health disorder however there is no guarantee of it continuing. The high paid job based on which she flaunts his lifestyle in front of his friends often leading to them requesting or borrowing money from him and others (Fiore, 2021).

As a patient, Bo-Chang requires counselling or therapy because of the precipitating factors that has led him to the present condition. The decision to come or approach for a counselling session is the trigger that arise from the experiences of his current symptoms, behavioural responses, inciting events, concurrent illness and others. Bo-Chang has been recently experiencing anxiety, stress, insomnia, lethargy, nausea and other physical and mental issues. This has severely impacted his health leading him to visit his general physician it is his general physician who has suggested that he needs counselling considering he has a high susceptibility of developing a serious in chronic mental health disorder (Harris, 2019).

The factors that have contributed to the condition of Bo-Chang as he endorsed his behaviour and current symptoms can be identified as perpetuating because they are continuing to the worst level. The concurrence of insomnia, stress and anxiety seriously impacted his way of resolving the issues he is facing especially in terms of applying for new job opportunities or educational qualifications. His unresolved precipitation of feeling like a loser especially with the loss of his job has made him desperate to maintain a lifestyle that will not disclose his actual employment condition or position (Shear, Boelen & Neimeyer, 2021).

The reduction and prevention of mental health disorder that Bo-Chang needs is by implementing the protective factors that must stop the reoccurrence of same behavioural, social and mental traits. Bo-Chang must work towards his strength, resilience and support from families, friends and social group by making them aware of his employment conditions. To work effectively on himself, Bo-Chang needs to pursue his counselling to develop healthy habits of maintaining real persona on social media, having financial stability, connecting with friends and family on a deeper level as well as developing educational growth in his personal life (Gillies, Neimeyer & Milman, 2021).

Solution-Focused Brief Theory

Through the implementation of reconstruction theory proposed by Robert A. Niemeyer, it is important to evaluate the emotional attachment that Bo-Chang had with his high paid job in the airlines company. He has shaped his lifestyle and developed his social media identity and image. His relation with friends and family mostly was based on showing off his financial Prowess and not help me friends who requested to borrow money from him (Neimeyer & Sands, 2021). This reflected a streak of superiority complex in him therefore this demonstration of ongoing attachment and the sudden loss of employment has led him to experience denial. Bo-Chang will be provided with effective experience that will help in making sense of his life through searching for opportunities (Neimeyer, 2019).


In conclusion, the case scenario of Bo-Chang has evaluated install three contemporary grief and loss models and it is clear that his be right state of mind must be critically analysed and effectively supported through counselling. These models were able to provide an in-depth understanding and evaluation of the behaviour that watch and has been expressing especially in relevance to his emotional attachment to the job. The social image and identity that he carries on with the employment in front of his friends and family as well as online social media has led him to experience the denial. It is not only lead to serious mental health issues but has a high probability of him incurring mental health disorder that can be chronic. Helping Bo-Chang accept his condition, understand it and just stories surrounding environment and effectively work towards implementing new opportunities will contribute to the way he can come out of the grief and loss.


Corr, C. A. (2019). The ‘five stages’ in coping with dying and bereavement: strengths, weaknesses and some alternatives. Mortality, 24(4), 405-417.

Fiore, J. (2021). A systematic review of the dual process model of coping with bereavement (1999–2016). OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 84(2), 414-458.

Gillies, J. M., Neimeyer, R. A., & Milman, E. (2015). The Grief and Meaning Reconstruction Inventory (GMRI): Initial validation of a new measure. Death Studies, 39(2), 61-74.

Harris, D. L. (2019). Non-death loss and grief: Laying the foundation. In Non-death loss and grief (pp. 7-16). Routledge.

Iglewicz, A., Shear, M. K., Reynolds III, C. F., Simon, N., Lebowitz, B., & Zisook, S. (2020). Complicated grief therapy for clinicians: An evidence?based protocol for mental health practice. Depression and anxiety, 37(1), 90-98.

Jacobsen, M. H., & Petersen, A. (2019). 12 Grief in an individualized society. Exploring Grief: Towards a Sociology of Sorrow, 30.

McCoyd, J. L., Koller, J., & Walter, C. A. (2021). Grief and loss across the lifespan: A biopsychosocial perspective. Springer Publishing Company.

Neimeyer, R. A. (2019). Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: Development of a research program. Death Studies, 43(2), 79-91.

Neimeyer, R. A., & Sands, D. C. (2021). Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: From principles to practice. In Grief and bereavement in contemporary society (pp. 9-22). Routledge.

Sanders, S., Tvedte, M., & Espinal-Lujan, M. (2017). Grief and Loss. In Encyclopedia of Social Work.

Shear, M. K., Boelen, P. A., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2021). Treating complicated grief: Converging approaches. In Grief and bereavement in contemporary society (pp. 139-162). Routledge.

Sidhom, N. L. (2020). Community, Continuity, and Faith in the Midst of Loss: Culturally-Sensitive Practice Guidelines for Clinical Work with Grieving Coptic Clients (Doctoral dissertation, Fuller Theological Seminary, School of Psychology).

Smith, P. H., & Delgado, H. (2020). Working With Non?Death Losses in Counseling: An Overview of Grief Needs and Approaches. Adultspan Journal, 19(2), 118-127.

Walter, C. A., & McCoyd, J. L. (2015). Grief and loss across the lifespan: A biopsychosocial perspective. Springer publishing company.

Warden, J., & Bayley, M. (2020). A framework for medical rehabilitation: Restoring function and improving quality of life. In Pulmonary Rehabilitation (pp. 3-9). Taylor & Francis Group, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742: CRC Press.

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