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Visit your local city’s web page (e.g., New York City’s web page is  and the city of Miami’s .

  • Identifytwo resources offered by your city and two resources offered by FEMA to aid victims recovering from a terrorist attack or natural disaster, and analyze how these resources work and how victims can utilize and find these resources.
  • Evaluate how local, state, and federal agencies could better advertise and be more organized to provide meaningful mental health and trauma support to victims of disasters.

The paper must be five pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least three scholarly resources other than the textbook to support your claims and sub claims. Cite your resources in text and on the reference page. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar, in your online course?

Summary of the Disasters Psychological Symptoms

Fortunately, most people learn about disasters from books or movies and not through direct experiences. The books or films are dramatic snapshots of heroism, life and events that do not show the long-term impact of disasters on psychology. Natural or human-made hazards pose a level of threat to the environment, health, life and property (McMahon, 2011). Crashes are far from rare events. They usually result in the death of several people while at the same time leaving several homeless.

Some natural disasters are predictable for instance hurricanes like the hurricane Katrina hence give people enough time to prepare on how to cope with the event while others such as terrorist attacks like the 9/11 terrorist attack are unpredictable. Disasters have psychological reactions which follow specific patterns (Landau, Mittal, & Wieling, 2018). Psychologists are always mobilised to help whenever there is a disaster of any magnitude (Mooney, et al., 2011). They offer necessary emotional support to those affected by the floods. In this paper, the response to the 9/11 terrorist attack and Hurricane Katrina will be analysed.

Summary of the Disasters Psychological Symptoms

Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina has been on the public domain for long as the most devastating and powerful hurricanes the United States people have ever gone through. It is a feat of its own to experience such a storm and survive. The experiences of the hurricane are far from ending to most of this people. Children among other survivors developed mental problems even though the issue is overlooked over the deaths and damages that the hurricane caused.

The storm caused great psychological blows to the people who experienced it. Some of the experiences include people being separated from their children, neighbors, friends and their relatives. Homes of various people were also destroyed or damaged by the storm.  The storm saw some people being hurt and contracting diseases as well as witnessing violence or crime. Impacts of these damages have been proven by various symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorders that were found on multiple people who were interviewed by researchers from the University of New Orleans.

The scars of the Hurricane Katrina are still visible in New Orleans ten years later after the storm. When the storm hit, more than half a million people fled from their homes and many never came back even to date. Large areas of the city are sparsely populated more so the neighboring regions that witnessed the most severe flood damages. Psychological scars continue to linger in the area. Many of the people who survived the hurricane continue to experience mental health problems that have a close link to the storm regardless of whether or not they returned to New Orleans as some researchers pursuing the hurricane put it. Many of the individuals show social support network complications as well as unstable environments for their kids.

Hurricane Katrina

The hurricane was unique due to its magnitude as Joy Osofsky a clinical psychologist at the Louisiana University in the New Orleans puts it (Reardon, 2015). It damaged a large area equivalent to the United Kingdom. Essential resources such as health clinics and schools were destroyed to the degree that has not been paced to any other destruction in the recent US past. Most residents saw lifeless bodies of their loved ones floating on the water as they waited to be evacuated from their flooded homes.

Also, victims of the tragedy often experience trauma that result to psychological disorders like post-traumatic stress disorders, lack of sleep, feeling upset, trying to avoid feelings and thoughts about the storm, feeling tensed, having worries about future storms, substance abuse anxiety and depression (Tull, 2018). The hurricane and its after-effects left the whole community exposed to such psychological stress disorders, not because of the resulting stress but also because of the difficult circumstances that many victims of the weight lived before the hurricane occurred. The loss of the social network that came with familiar surroundings, school, neighborhoods and job led to psychological health problems.

Among those who were affected by the storm were children (Lowe, Godoy, Rhodes, & Carter, 2013). Most of the children who experienced the storm or even those who were affected by it indirectly do require special attention. Two studies that were conducted by different researchers from Louisiana State University and Columbia University found out those children who experienced the storm show high rates of depression, behavioral problems, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders. During the research, it was found that 54% of children who were displaced as well as well those who returned were experiencing symptoms that led them to further mental health care. Many of these children were replaced from their schools and had to move to other schools. This led to difficulties in concentration and enjoyment of normal activities.

9/11 Terrorist Attack

September 11, 2001, was the saddest day for the United States residents. Four planes were hijacked by 19 militants who were associated with the Islamic Extremist group popularly known as al-Qaeda (Engel, 2017). The aircrafts were used to carry out suicide attacks against victims in the US. One plane hit the Pentagon outside Washington, D.C, and two planes were flown into the twin towers of the Global Trade Center found in the New York City. The last one crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. This saw the demise of more than 3000 people.

Psychological Impact of Hurricane Katrina

Those who were affected by the attack have shown mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety as well as physical health problems. Besides, there are a full, severe mental health and behavior outcomes affecting children and grownups who were directly exposed to the 9/11 disaster. Out of the researches that were carried out, different people show different psychological symptoms associated with the tragedy. Most of the people reported that they were experiencing anger after the attack. It was difficult to get help after the attack.

Only family members and friends were available to offer assistance. Those people who were initially alcohol takers increased their alcoholic drinks intake. Similarly, those who used to smoke cigarettes were said to have increased their rate of smoking. Many overreacted to alarms and loud noises, and many could not sleep as they replayed the disaster in their minds after the attack. This is a brilliant show that most of the people were psychologically disturbed.

Response to the Disasters

Hurricane Katrina

The tragedy recovery response to the storm included federal government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, private individuals, local and state agencies as well as federal and National Guard personnel’s (Henderson, Roberto, & Kamo, 2010).  Several troops responded to the disaster. The monetary donations that were received were way below the records that were set by the tsunami and 9/11 efforts in the states. In what seemed to be a reverse of the typical issue, the United States received aid from other nations.

Concerning the response, local governments in the US sent assistance in different forms including search teams, disaster supplies and ambulances. Those who were displaced received help from as far as Utah. The Arkansas Ministry of Tourism and Parks consulted with travelers who had booked reservations at the countries parks to request them to offer their rooms to people who were fleeing Katrina.

This disaster saw the highest relief mobilization in its history with the aid of victims of Hurricane Katrina. Thousands of volunteers were mobilized by the local chapters for deployment in the tragedy region. Amateur Radio Operators also helped to alert people how the situation was at the ground for an immediate offering of assistance. The U.S also accepted to receive support from other countries as the reports of the damages brought up by the storm grew grimmer. FEMA failed in its mission to respond to Hurricane Katrina.

9/11 Terrorist Attack

The U.S government under the leadership of President George Bush issued funds to the families that were affected by the attack (Laura, 2011). The government also gave plans for the war on Terrorism, reconstruction of the Lower-East Manhattan as well as the Invasion and investigation of the Afghanistan and Iraq. The Red Cross opened few shelters even though no one came to them. It also made attempts to trace missing persons to no avail. FEMA helped the state and local emergency management efforts in the local agencies and New York. In Virginia, it came to the aid of the Pentagon officials.

Response to the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

Long-Term Effects of the Disasters on Victims and Rescue Workers

The Hurricane Katrina saw more than a million people forced out of the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2005. The hurricane saw more than 200,000 homes destroyed as well as massive physical and economic dislocations among other impacts. The cyclone generally had broad and repeated implications on where people live. Most of the people remain geographically displaced several years after the storm. There is a micro transitory implication on the total earnings of the disaster's victims. In the year 2006, just one year after the storm, most of the victims of the storm earned roughly 13% lower compared to those living outside New Orleans (Deryugina, Kawano, & Levitt, 2013).

Remarkably, the deviation disappeared in 2007 making the tragedy’s victim earn higher wages as well as total incomes than their counterparts outside New Orleans. The water left by the storm saw the growth of all manner of bacteria as well as breeding of mosquitoes. This made several victims sick. Infectious diseases that were rising from the area due to poor hygiene as a result of lack of clean water were a threat to rescue workers.

Barely a month after the 9/11 attack most people who were engaged in an interview about their health status said that they had a throat, eye and nose irritations. Respiratory hospitals received a higher number of individuals who were suffering from respiratory problems. Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease admissions also went higher especially among women and aged people above the age of 65 years. Fetal growth among women also reduced due to the environmental exposure as well as attack related stress.

The economy of the U.S was profoundly impacted by the offence (Ranabhat, 2015). The World Trade Centre housed hundreds of business which were all destroyed in a few minutes. This led to the loss of jobs for many of the survivors of the tragedy. The rescue team that was deployed to tackle the attack was impacted in some ways. The team members are at risk of dying early due to several respiratory diseases. Complications related to mental disorders such as risk-taking behaviors may also orchestrate the premature deaths.

Impacts of the Disasters on Children versus Adults

The effects of Hurricane Katrina are visible. Since the tragedy hit the U.S Gulf Coast, a considerable number of people, as well as communities, have felt its effects. Negative impacts of the storm continue to be felt today among children and adults. Children were profoundly affected by the wind compared to adults (Kousky, 2016). Most children experience a great deal of stress due to the exposure to the storm. The storm displaced most of them and as well made them lose their items. Due to this stress that the children were exposed to, they show high levels of depression and PTSD symptoms.

9/11 Terrorist Attack

On the other hand, the event was traumatic to adults. Most adults who wanted the help most likely never got it. Their children may have been on the worst point since they even never knew whether there was something like mental health treatment that existed. Parents never knew where to seek help or even how to reach where assistance was being offered and even how to pay for that help.

Long-term research on the impacts of the 9/11 attack shows that kids were more vulnerable to the effects of the storm. The first study interviewed 100 mothers as well as their young preschool children who were exposed to the attacks on the World Trade Center attacks. Children were found to have psychological torture symptoms such as sleep problems, depression, aggression and anxiety.

The studies also found that the mental well being of these children was directly affected by the wellbeing of the mothers. Parents who showed a higher prevalence of PTSD are the ones who had seen the planes hit the buildings. Many such individuals always feel that the event is happening again shortly. In addition to avoiding moments or issues that may remind them of the tragedy such as movies about a particular scenario, public spaces. Most of the adults have a feeling that the world is a dangerous place to be. All these are enough proves that the disaster had significant impacts on parents.

The Role the Media Played In Response to the Disasters

After the storm hit the U.S, many news media representatives became directly involved in the events that were unfolding instead of merely reporting what was going on (Ali, 2013). Since most communication means were lost such as cellular telephone and land-based systems, the reporters who were at the field became conduits for information between victims and even between victims and the authorities. This information either reduced to some people or increased to others psychological symptoms that the victims experienced from the storm. Multiple reporters reported several victims who had been stranded in various areas for different agencies who had been located on the ground.

This saw rescue missions of such individuals successful as the authorities coordinated rescue teams to the field via the news reporters. For example, Geraldo Rivera and his co-reporter Shepard Smith both from Fox news reported thousands of people who had been stranded at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center. This saw the rescue of such people hence reducing their psychological symptoms. Some reporters also spread false rumors of lack of order among the victims. They spread unconfirmed rumors that cases of rape and violence were present. Media also helped people locate their loved ones. This saved them from the feeling that their loved ones were lost forever.

Psychological Impact of the 9/11 Terrorist Attack

The impact of the 9/11 attack extends to several people several years after it occurred. The radio industry removed certain songs from the playlist as a means of response to the attack. The attacks have subsequently been used as background thematic or narrative elements in music television, literature and film. Running television shows that were developed after the 9/11 attack serve to help those who witnessed the event forget about it hence reduce psychological symptoms. For some, it served to console them cope with the loss of their family members. To others, it reminded them of the attack and its impacts on their life hence agitating their psychological symptoms.

Conclusion

Disasters affect people psychologically once they occur. The mental state and behaviors of the victims of the Hurricane Katrina, as well as those of the 9/11 attack, were affected. The psychological implications of the Hurricane Katrina will remain a fundamental health issue for many years to come. This paper concludes that the victims of the storm were subjected to a considerable number of traumatic happenings and experienced several psychological symptoms immediately after the hurricane. Most people were separated from their loved ones, neighbors, and relatives. This happening led to mental problems which were evidenced by the victim's lack of sleep and feeling upset among other psychological symptoms.

Long and short-term psychological effects of the 9/11 have spread far beyond the towns that the attacks happened. Mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression are evident on those who directly witnessed the offense as well as those who were indirectly affected by it. Most of the victims have been experiencing anger decades after the attack. Several victims lacked emotional assistance after the offense as the most people who were available to help them were only their friends and family members. Many of the victims of the attack overreact to loud noises and alarms.

There is nothing that can completely prevent disasters from happening. People can only predict and prepare psychologically for the emergencies. Trauma profoundly changes people. Living through loss of family members, children, loved ones, as well as the destruction of homes, always affect one's mental health. Victims of any disaster require psychological help to help them recover from the disaster's psychological impacts.

References

Ali, Z. S. (2013). Media Myths and Realities in Natural Disasters. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 125-133.

Deryugina, T., Kawano, L., & Levitt, S. (2013). The Economic Impact of Hurricane Katrina on its Victims: Evidence from Individual Tax Returns. 1-39. f

Engel, P. (2017, September 11). What happened on 9/11, 16 years ago.

Henderson, T. L., Roberto, K. A., & Kamo, Y. (2010). Older Adults’ Responses to Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 48-69.

Kousky, C. (2016). Impacts of Natural Disasters on Children. Spring, 73-92.

Landau, J., Mittal, M., & Wieling, E. (2018). Linking Human System: Strengthening Individuals, Families, and Communities in The Wake of Mass Trauma. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 193-209.

Laura, F. (2011). The Government Response to 9/11: Communications Technology and the Media. Library & Archival Security, 103-118.

Lowe, S. R., Godoy, L., Rhodes, J. E., & Carter, A. S. (2013). Predicting mothers' reports of children's mental health three years after Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 17-27.

McMahon, K. (2011). The Psychology of Disaster. Resilience,

Mooney, M. F., Paton, D., Terte, I. d., Johal, S., Karanci, A. N., Gardner, D., . . . Johnston, D. (2011). Psychosocial Recovery from Disasters: A Framework Informed by Evidence. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 26-38.

Ranabhat, K. (2015). Effects of Terrorism in Tourism Industry. A Case Study of 9/11 Terrorist Attacks in World Trade Center, 1-40.

Reardon, S. (2015). Hurricane Katrina's Psychological Scars Revealed. Scientific American , Online.

Tull, M. (2018). Hurricane Katrina's Impact on Children. The Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Children, 

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