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Cheating - An Ethical Issue

It’s just not cricket: A case of ethics, integrity and organizational culture within a national sport governing body

Patrick Murphy knew he would be up for a challenge from the moment he accepted the position of Integrity Manager at Cricket Australia (CA). He was no stranger to the sport industry, holding an impressive resume including recent stints at the Australian Grand Prix Corporation (AGPC) and Tennis Australia (TA), helping these organizations re-package aspects of culture and rebuild their public profile. He relished the challenge of developing credibility and trustworthiness as part of a sport organization’s corporate culture. More specifically, he was able to demonstrate how an organization was able to project a renewed culture to external stakeholders. His reputation in this domain had been held in high regard, drawing global interest as an eminent integrity and culture renewal consultant. 

Growing up in Victoria, Australia, Patrick was well aware of the importance sport played in Australia’s national identity. Although he never truly adopted the passion for the athleticism and intrigue of some sports like his peers, he had always been captivated with the way sport organizations managed ethical situations and what part the sport’s culture played in being socially responsible. He was notorious for his expert handling the negative public opinion of the Australian Grand Prix within Melbourne’s Albert Park boundary. For much of his time at the AGPC, he ensured various stakeholder groups supporting, protesting and reporting the event were engaged equitably and honestly. In particular, the Save Albert Park group had been particularly vocal for over 20 years and their often obstructive protests for staging the Australian Grand Prix at the public open spaces ofAlbert Park in Victoria (see required a delicate balance of Murphy’s public relations skills and organizational socially responsible practices. 

He would watch and read news stories across the globe with a keen interest for developments in sport related to organizational culture and ethical behavior, as well as maintaining a general interest in social responsibility. At his last job with Tennis Australia, he
managed to build an inclusive culture with the organization’s management, staff and playing personnel. This came about because Australian players were becoming known more for their on-court antics and mediocre results than for their sportsmanship and successes (Pettigrew, 2017). Added to this was the increasing pressure being put on the organization with regards to match fixing (Howard, 2017), and the controversial decision to maintain the naming of Margaret Court Arena, despite Margaret Court’s public disapproval of same-sex marriage laws (Puvanenthiran, 2017). Patrick’s plans included the creation of an Integrity Unit at TA and a selection of educational strategies which successfully put an end to the culture of entitlement. It made him the most likely candidate to take on Cricket Australia and its own set of drama. Despite his experiences and expertise, he knew CA was going to be an entirely  new test.

1.From Patrick’s review of the five files, what are the main issues at Cricket Australia?

2. With the use of examples from the case and supporting theory, undertake a culture audit at Cricket Australia.

3. What ethical considerations are confronting Patrick and how might they be addressed? Investigate other instances where good ethical practices have occurred in sport.

4. As the Integrity Manager, what strategies do you propose the Board of Directors at Cricket Australia endorse? Draw on evidence from the culture audit and ethical issues to create a range of strategies marked as either “immediate” or “future consideration” to assist with organizational culture renewal and support Cricket Australia’s vision. 

Cheating - An Ethical Issue

The aim of this report is to identify issues prevailing at Cricket Australia in relation to Sandpaper Gate Incident that took place in March 2018. The incident shocked the whole Australia and also all the cricket fans and players throughout the world. The unethical and immoral act which was performed by the captain, vice-captain and the bowler, that is, Steve Smith, David Warner and Cameron Bancroft was recorded on camera and all the media houses all over the world broadcasted it repeatedly questioning the current standards of beliefs which are followed in the Cricket Australia. This brought embarrassment and portrayed Australia in a bad image in front of the whole world. The Australian cricket team is considered as one of those teams who believe in fair play and inspire the upcoming Australian play to work hard and play fair. But this incident was a bad example. There are issues which have been recognized as unethical, against the culture and the organizational belief. This was a pre-planned incident which makes these issues even more serious as this displays a gameplay which is against the rules of cricket. Cricket is known as the gentlemen’s game, a game of grace, integrity and honesty, but with incidence like this there are some alarming signs which arises associated with the management of players in Cricket Australia. The players committed the biggest mistake of cheating in the game, which have serious repercussions and thus due to this the captain Steve Smith has to step down from his position along with the vice-captain David Warner. The people of Australia reacted strongly to this incident and their reactions were an amalgamation of anger and sorrow. They did not expect their favorite players to indulge in a false play. The Cricket Australia is in need for setting up better presidents for the current lot of players and also for the future one. There is a need for conducting tests on the player’s behavior that will further help in focusing on the areas which needs improvement individually on each player. Also the ethical policies, cultural and organizational beliefs require some changes which will help in uplifting the player’s standards of play, eventually helping in improving the image of the Australian cricket team in the eyes of the entire world. The issues have to be tackled with an approach that brings a strong realization in the players who committed the mistake and also sets an example for the others that they do not commit such activities in the future. This incident has brought down the image of the Australian team drastically, it will take a long time and many attempts to create their past image of fair play in the eyes of people, especially for the citizens of Australia. For this reason, the Cricket Australia is going to devise a number of strategies which will help in improving the player’s standards, their ethics, morals and the importance of culture. Also the Cricket Australia will further implement more strategies which will help in improving their image in front of Australia and the entire world.

Damaging the Spirit of the Game and Its Integrity - A Cultural Issue

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There are a number of issues at Cricket Australia as a result of sandpaper gate and this section will be addressing those issues and the associated theory linked to those issues. The sandpaper gate incident has brought the Australian Cricket Association to a standstill and also did shocked the entire nation. The incidents highlighted many issues which were not abiding to the rules of ethical, cultural and organizational aspect of the game. These issues have also raised questions about the integrity of cricket Australia, which is going through one of the darkest period in the history of cricket in Australia (Ahmad, 2015).

There is a thin line between the gray area and the black area. In the same way our naivety can slip into culpability in no time and without any realization. The first issue which has been identified in the sandpaper incident is cheating. This unethical act is analyzed through the ethical decision making framework. The players Steve Smith, David Warner and Cameron Bancroft pre-planned an unethical act of tampering the ball and this act clearly raises an issue of cheating. They cheated with their teammates, with the opposite team player, with the cricket association, with every sportsman and all the fans of cricket all over the world. Ball tampering is allowed only through natural ways like rubbing on the uniform and using spit, but using an unnatural thing to tamper the ball and create a diversion is unethical. The thing which makes this cheating incident even worse is that it was pre-planned and was executed in the guidance of the team’s captain and vice-captain. The whole Australia felt cheated and embarrassed due to this incident. The former players raised questions on the ethical standards which are moving down on the slope rapidly. The last time Australian cricket team was involved in an unethical play was years back and but the recent times have seen some incidents which are unethical and puts a big question on the ethical standards of Cricket Australia (Ball & Hryomallis, 2012).

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The other issue which has been identified from the sandpaper incident is the damage which has been caused to the spirit of the game and its integrity. The issue of damaging the spirit of the game has been identified as a cultural issue and the different social theories of sports have been utilized to analyze this issue. Sports and culture go hand in hand and cricket is a national sport of Australia. It’s not just a sport, but it’s much more which is worshipped by a large number of people. The sport cricket has a reputation of being a gentlemen’s game and the act of sandpaper gate affected that reputation and ruined the spirit of the game. The element of critical theory of the social theory focuses on a cultural production, so that the future of Australia follows a path which is fair and is a solid example of inspiration and motivation for the next generations. The act of Sandpaper has affected the reputation of cricket Australia and have given the society a bad example that will have a huge impact on the future generations of cricket in Australia. There are some cultural guidelines those are the beliefs and the values that have to be abided by. Sports is a reflection of the culture of a country and their society (Beltrame, 2011).

Leadership - An Organizational Issue

The third issue which was the main driving force of this act is Leadership. Steve Smith and David Warner, the captain and the vice-captain respectively, displayed a bad example of leadership. There is a thin line between leading effectively and misusing leadership. In the sandpaper gate incident the leadership was misused. If the captain and the vice-captain had been true to their leadership values the incident would never have taken place and Australia did not have to get embarrassed in front of the whole world. The theory of moral development has been utilized here to analyze this issue. Leadership is an activity which requires correct influence on others which helps in achieving the goals appropriately and rightfully. According to the moral development theory, leadership is a moral activity too, which requires a set of rules and beliefs which have to be followed to achieve the desired goals. The act of sandpaper gate was in the knowledge of the leadership group which included only certain players on the team including the captain, vice-captain as the main leaders. The coaching team was not informed about it and also not the other players of the team. This also raises another issue that there is a lack of cohesiveness in the team. The leadership group did not betrayed just with the rival team, but also with their own teammates. By keeping them uninformed and also jeopardizing their reputation in the eye of the world, speaks volume of an issue which is deeper than what is being anticipated. The issues of leadership and lack of cohesiveness are one of the major organizational issues that brings togetherness, transparency and trust in a team. According to a sports psychology, cohesiveness in a team does not only mean the working of all the team players together, but the cohesiveness also come in sharing the responsibilities and repercussions equally. A victory of a team is always not a single player’s work, but it’s the team effort. In the same way, a loss of a team is not due to a single player it is due to the entire team. The sandpaper gate incident may include only three player’s but the repercussions of it has to be bared by the entire team (Brukner, Gara & Fortington, 2018).

The cheating in sports can be curbed by utilizing a social and psychological evidence strategy which involves three approaches that are, create strict rules against cheating, catch them cheaters in the end and try reducing the dishonesty in the team and between the players. The Hans-Georg Gadamer’s theory of play is an effective strategy for a good play, which will follow the right rules and beliefs. This will also help the Australian cricket team in reducing and controlling their inappropriate behavior in the game.

Cultural Audit of Cricket Australia

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The ball tampering incident has brought forward several aspects which requires a cultural audit of the Cricket Australia. The hampering of the sport which has been committed by the three players and the effect on the country Australia as a whole. The audit will examine the entire situation in the context to the cultural sentiments which have been disgraced and the cultural values preached at Cricket Australia. According to the Cricket Australia, cricket is a sport for all Australians.

Mission Statement

The Cricket Australia is the official governing body for the cricket activities in Australia. The mission statement of this national governing body of Australia is very simple and this is the beauty of it which inspires one and all in Australia to play cricket. The main mission of the association is that the sport cricket should be loved by all Australians that inspires the maximum people to play cricket and make it a part of their life. This mission statement successfully inspires many people to make cricket a part of their life which is the main cultural indicator. The cricket Australia is trying to create a strong cultural of cricket in Australia by inspiring as many people adapt it in their lives (Chalkey, MacMohan & Ball, 2013).

Core Values

The Cricket Australia has introduced new values for their session from 2017-2022, the three tier model has been utilized for its analysis. There are three main core values which are practiced and preached in Cricket Australia, they are-

How they play?

The values for how we play are built by four hundred people across Australia and have been built around the behavioral aspect of the players. The first one is to be real, which focuses on showing respect, being straightforward and should have the courage to accept the challenges and also have the capabilities to challenge others. The second one is smash the boundaries which focus on inculcating the habit of not getting afraid of failure and changing the world with the right attitude like innovation. The third one is made every ball count that encourages the players to make the right decision and relentless, pushing the players forward to win. The fourth one is stronger together, this focuses on doing the best activities which are best for cricket (Cheng, Takla & Subic, 2011).

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  • The spirit of the Cricket

The spirit of the game lays the guidelines for all the players and especially the captain the rules which have to be strictly followed on the field, otherwise there are repercussion for not abiding by them. The spirit of the game is concerned with the code of conduct of the players on the field which has been laid by the MCC. The spirit of the game include qualities like respect, togetherness, fair play, honesty and graceful behavior.

  • Mission of Cricket Australia


The cricket Australia have a responsibility towards maintaining the integrity of the game and this is conducted through their integrity management. Under this management system they have various programs like anti-corruption program, anti-doping, illicit substance programs, the conduct of the player’s program, and also the player’s contract.

All these various new policies are for the betterment of the players, but they are lacking cultural values and ethics. They are focusing on making good players, but they are not aimed at making great players like the past players Shane Warne, Glenn McGrath, Bret Lee and Ricky Pointing.

Policy Statement

The main policy statement of the Cricket Australia has five key areas which are, a protocol for sustainable participation, gender diversity, and growth of women’s cricket, more fans as women and girls and a selecting unique talent for the teams. According to the four sector model, all these policies are mainly focused on the emergence of women’s cricket team and also there is not a single policy which focuses on the behavioral and ethics test for the future players and the present ones too.

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Organizational Structure

The model which has been adapted to analyze the organizational structure is four typologies. The Australian cricket is governed by a single national governing body, along with the six state association and also the associations of two territories. This is almost the entire Australia. Cricket is practiced and followed in the entire Australia and the involvement of the almost entire Australia talks about the strong cultural bond in the country (Home, 2010).

Physical Environment

The four typologies of culture model have been used for the analysis of the physical environment in cricket Australia. The physical environment in the Cricket Australia is very healthy with each person from the director to the normal employees are working for the national interest and have responsibilities which are being efficiently fulfilled for the nation’s reputation. The current incident of sandpaper gate ball tampering have questioned the physical environment of the Cricket Australia too.

Communication & Language

Tim Whittaker is the head of the communication department in Australia and have previously worked with the International Cricket Council too. There is a systematic way which is followed to ensure that all the information conveyed to the players, committee members, directors, media is free from any unethical mark and does not create any confusion. This analysis has been conducted on the basis of the three tiered model.


Each cricket team in Australia has a leadership group which is made up of the captain, vice-captain and few more members. This is the core committee in the team, which finalize on the strategies and other various plans. The binary model has been taken into use to audit the leadership feature in cricket Australia. In the recent Sandpaper gate incident the leadership group was involved in the main act which got Australia a lot of disgrace. The leadership group is a good initiative for the in terms of finalizing strategies and knowing the opinions of different people. But including just few members is unfair to the rest of the team.

Responsiveness to Change  

The four sector model has been taken into use for analysis the response to change in cricket Australia. The Cricket Australia regularly reinvents itself for the next five year session under this the association forms new policies, values, ethics, strategies and a plan which is strictly followed. After the recent ball tampering case, the Cricket Australia has shown the seriousness over the matter and has brought some alteration in their policies and cultural values and stricter rules for not following those rules. The Australian teams accepted those changes, for a better cricket environment in Australia (Leonard, 2014).

Roles, Models & Heroes

The Australian Cricket team has created bigger role models which are for the present and the future generation of the Australian cricket. The heroes like Shane Warne, Bret Lee, Michael Hussey, Michael Clarke, Allan Border and many others. The cricket Australia also has a McGrath foundation which has been created on Glenn McGrath and his huge contribution to the Australian cricket. The binary model has been used to understand this feature of cultural mapping.

Artifacts & Memorabilia

The cricket Australia have a store for all the cricket fans all over the world. Here the most memorable objects and items has been displayed for fans of cricket all over the world. All the items have a story to tell of a great victory or a person related to the Australian cricket. Some of the items are also available for sale. The three tiered model has been used to analyze this feature.

Stories, Myths & Legends

There many stories about the most famous cricketers of Australians who have contributed to the world of Australian cricket hugely. They are the legends who followed the strong ethics and cultures of the cricket and created a magnificent body of work with their hard work and dedication which is an inspiration for the people of Australia both from the cricket and the non-cricket background. The four sector model has been applied to understand this feature (McGrath, 2014).

Rites, Rituals & Ceremonies

The cricket Australia annually organizes awards to notify the huge contribution of the various past and present players. The binary model has been used to analyze this feature. This is conducted to keep the cultural heritage alive by awarding the players who have retired now but still they means a lot to the committee of Australian cricket

There were a number of ethical issues which happened during the Sandpaper gate incident. These issues have raised a number of questions regarding the current standards of ethics being practiced in cricket Australia on the management level and also by the players. The current state of ethics at cricket Australia has to be checked as there is a balance between the values and the rules which are followed in an organization. The players committed a mistakes, but there are more people involved who are responsible for such actions too.

The first ethical issue which has been identified in the cricket Australia is integrity. Integrity is part of the three core rules which are followed by the cricket Australia. The integrity has been brought down by the players by conducting such act. They have been dishonest with their teammates, the rival team and also the fans of cricket all over the world. The dishonest play also hampered the grace of the game cricket and thus brought a lot of embarrassment for the entire country Australia. The new policies have integrity as one of the key rules, but the players did practiced it and this affected the complete association, questioning their methods of preaching and educating ethics to the players (Mire, 2013).

The second ethical issue which has been identified is leadership. Leadership is an organizational belief which every player should use it in the correct direction to motivate other players to give their best performance for the nation, rather than use this trait for cheating and then winning. An ethical person knows the importance of leadership, as it is also the way you display your behavior to the huge followers. In the sandpaper gate incident the leadership group was very popular which comprised of a captain, vice-captain and many more players, while this was found that even the coach was not informed about the plan of using a sandpaper, this shows a very unethical behavior. The thing which was more shocking that the bowler Cameron Bancroft is one of the most junior players of the team was asked to do this sneaky and disgraceful act by the captain. This sends out a message which is very wrong for the future generation of Australian cricket. Leadership is a quality which requires certain standards and examples which has to be set up for the other members of the team (Morton, 2018).

The other ethical issue which has been identified is exploitation. There has been a number of cases in the recent times, highlighting how the employees are exploited by their seniors. Bancroft being the most junior player of the team was asked to do an unethical deed by the most senior players. He also would have faced a lot of consequences if he would have denied to do what his seniors commanded. This ethical issue is also a major organizational issue and this is setting a wrong example to the individuals who desire to become cricketers like Steve Smith and David Warner.

The other issue which has been identified here is cheating and then proudly admitting it. The players admitted that they did use the paper for creating a deviation in the ball. But the captain and the vice-captain openly admitted that this act is not so big that they have to step down from their position. Also, the pressure from the media made the players admit their pre-planned mistake. Cameron Bancroft did not admit to using the sandpaper for deviation in the initial interactions, but after being continuous persuaded he finally gave up. They cheated first and then lied for a number of times. The matter got serious after the captain and vice-captain was sent back to their home and were suspended for the next match. These continuous practices of the players which are unethical and also made the situation worse. The power to commit so many unethical activities raises question on the working of the cricket Australia and their management (Peploe, McErlain-Naylor, Harland & King, 2017).

There are high standards of ethics which has to be followed in any sport. The sport earns the respect through these morals and ethics which the players practice in their game. They are the source of inspiration for the future players of a nation. People decide to make it a career only by observing the fair play being practiced by their favorite players. But in the current scenarios the ethical issues which has been identified in the game has brought the cricket Australia into scrutiny and their various approaches for preparing a professional player. The values which are incorporated in them, the organizational environment which is provided to them, and the beliefs which are the main driving force all are being scrutinized. After the recent incident of ball tampering the Australian cricket association has asked the ethics center to conduct a review of the behavioral qualities of the players and also on their beliefs and values.

After the overall analysis of the various aspects like culture, ethics, behavior and many others, there is an urgent need for immediate actions which will help in retaining and restoring the reputation of the game. There has to be some strict rules against such acts which will set as an example for the future generation of Australia who wants to be a part of this game. This act is very crucial as this has brought a bad impact on the game and also for the citizens of Australia. These steps will ensure that such acts are not practiced again in the future. The cricket Australia is in need for a strategy that will help in overcoming the issues which have been generated due to the sandpaper gate incident and also for addressing their social responsibilities effectively. Thus, the best strategy for them right now is the proactive strategy (Singh & Sharma, 2017).

Required Steps for Current Situation.

The current situation has to be dealt in a manner which puts a good example on the future generations of the cricket and also helps in improving the image of cricket Australia in front of the entire world. The initiation from the cricket Australia by appointing the ethnic center for reviewing the behaviors of the players to finalize their punishment accordingly. The normal punishment for a ball tampering is deduction of few runs and a suspension from a match. But the cricket Australia went forward and stated a ban of twelve months on the captain and the vice-captain. This approach has shown the seriousness of the Australian cricket association towards unethical practices.

Rules for putting the reputation of the country in jeopardy and also for jeopardizing it.

There is an emergence for making harder rules for the players who put the position and reputation of a country into jeopardy and brings disgrace to it. This is required as such acts should not be happening again. There are some more hidden reasons which have been identified with the working of the association and dealing with the players. Such circumstances should also be taken into consideration so that there are better strategies which have been incorporated for dealing with such situations (Sturm, 2015).

Rules for disgracing the game.

Though there are already a number of rules for people who have disgraced the game and also have to face their repercussions. But with the changing time there is a need for increasing discipline in each team player. There is a need for programs which will incur more focus on the ethics, cultural values and the correct organizational governance in the players. This is required because after seeing the standard from the current incident the values have been massively disrespected and the immoral and amoral behavior of the players, there is a necessity. The immoral and amoral behavior can be identified in cricket Australia too, as organization functions on the core grounds of values and ethics. The players have been inspired from the management activities and analyzing many situations together, this is recognized that all the fault is not by the players only.

Rules for breaching the trust of their team players.

This area should be given special attention. Now, the whole world is criticizing the entire Australian cricket team due to the activities of three players. This is a known fact that the rest of the players did not have any inclination about the sandpaper usage. But still after all this the entire team has to bear the repercussions of being slammed by their fans, the entire nation, the world players and the entire media. Every player has been brought under the radar of suspicion which is questioning the integrity of the true players who have been honest towards the game throughout. There is a need for building rules for the betrayal of trust of the teammates. The teammates should not be cornered and be betrayed by their own teammates, sends a message out in the world that the Australian cricket team is not united and their core value has been insulted by the seniors of the team (Utting, 2015).  

Rules for conducting such offense and misleading the fans

The Cricket Australia have a mission of making most people love cricket and make it a part of their life. There has to be certain rules which have to be made in accordance with the damage which is conducted on the fans by hurting their feelings and also misleading them through the players various unethical activities. People worship cricket in Australia. It is just not a game or a culture, it is even more than that which cannot be expressed in words. The feelings of the fans which is damaged by the players cannot be expressed in words. The fans were shocked after the incident and this affected younger children who aims to become a cricket player, a teenager who is part of the under sixteen squad of cricket questions the management and the committee and the adults who have taken inspiration from cricket to do work which will make their country proud. The feelings of all these people have been damaged and thus there should be some strict rules for dealing with such players who commit such offense.


The analysis has shown a bad image of team Australia that says a lot about their current practices which are being adopted by the new generation people for achieving success in their respected field. The emergence of acting on such incidents and setting up a president for the future players who have such a huge responsibility towards their game, country and fans. The steps suggested has to be strictly followed for restoring and retaining the reputation back of the Australian cricket and Australia. There are problems which are visible for everyone, then there are issues which have been identified and then there are issues which are still not identified and are unknown. The unknown issues can only be identified through an investigation, which is the need of the hour for cricket Australia, to work on them and make the necessary changes which are required. The ethic center reviewed the player’s behavior and the punishment has been finalized. But there is a need for making sure that the main problems which are in the management which might have provided power to the senior players that has given them the potential to commit such big mistakes. There is a partiality towards the senior players which is one of the hidden issues for committing such a big mistake and disgracing the nation Australia in the entire world. This act will make people judge and see Australia in a different manner. So the investigation is required to analyze the entire incident and the working of the complete management in great details. The ethical values, cultural belief and organizational governance are the three main pillars of any sport. These are the driving force for the players and also for the future players. After this incident there is a need especially to be conducted by the selection committee, the organizing team, the medical team and the players along with the coaches. Each player has to be reviewed for improving their standards of playing according to the culture and ethics which makes the country proud and shows immense respect towards the game cricket. Inspiration should be taken from the past players which motivated many players of today to become a cricketer, they have to be reminded of the standards of fair play which the Australian cricket team is known for in the entire world. But there are some changes which have to be brought immediately after seeing the reaction of the players who committed the mistake, the past players, the international cricket association members and all the fans of cricket in the entire world.


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