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School Supplies Pty Ltd is a Brisbane based business which supplies stationery (paper, pens, labels, etc.) to business clients but mainly specialises in educational supplies (text and exercise books, classroom aids, etc.) to schools and parents with school age children. School Supplies’ busiest time of year starts towards the end of the school year supplying back-to- school book and stationery packs to parents and schools.

School Supplies was bought by businessman and ex school principal Gerry Lane in 2012 and has become well respected for its quality range of educational supplies and the good advice Gerry is able to give teachers and parents. School Supplies is especially well known among the Home Schooling community who value Gerry’s advice and the range of text books that are always in stock and exclusively available at School Supplies. Management and Retail sales processes are managed through the accounting software Quickbooks. Gerry has a small but good team of staff with Rebecca as general manager, Janice is great managing the retail shop floor, Joe manages the warehouse and Bev in accounts keeps the business accounts organised.

A big business earner for School Supplies is the annual back-to-school (BTS) process where over 4500 school pack orders are received, packed and delivered to the parents of school children. This starts early November, runs through Christmas and winds up a few weeks after school goes back in early February. The BTS is one of Rebecca’s special areas of expertise where she has many years’ experience in 4 different businesses and knows all the products well (Joe in the warehouse is sure she can read barcodes!). During this BTS time of year Rebecca manages 5 extra people to pack boxes and help with the BTS process. There is a particular skill required in making sure packers are packing the right items for the right people in the right school. There are thousands of different items and each school is very particular about which products they want! However, Rebecca is continually frustrated by the online ordering system which Gerry inherited from the previous owners. It is basically functional but Rebecca has to be very gentle with it and is constantly contacting the support people when things don’t go quite right and something else is broken as a result of a previous ‘repair’. One of its good features is the online systems ability to interface with Quickbooks where it automatically enters an order, adjusts stock levels and generates an invoice. Rebecca knows exactly how the process should work and has worked with a number of very effective (but proprietary) BTS systems, she has been talking with Gerry for a while now about allowing her to work with a good information system designer to redesign the BTS system.

Ideal Workflow Process for BTS Stationery Packs

The typical (ideal) workflow process for BTS stationery packs starts with parents placing orders. This can be done (and paid for) in-person, over-the-phone or online. Because it is easier to have everything online, School Supplies staff will enter online the in-person and over-the-phone orders. When a person logs on to the School Supplies online site they will select their school along with a ‘passcode’ for that school (Gerry and Rebecca will have negotiated with each school to supply book pack items at the individual school’s particular price and the school will have specified exactly what items it requires and how many of each). The next screen will invite the parent to create a School Supplies online account  where they will enter delivery and contact details, and a username (email address) and password. The next screen will present them with a login screen where they will log in and specify book packs for each of their children. Having logged in, parents are presented with a list of the children for whom they are purchasing book packs. They can press on an ‘Add student order’ button and start a new book pack order. After entering the student name they will select the year group (Prep to year 12) and then be presented with an auto filled list of all the items and the quantities for their particular book list for their school and year group. The numbers of each item can be adjusted by the parent and then that book pack can be submitted and added to the of student book packs for that parent. When the parent has entered all the book packs they want to order they can press the ‘Order’ button at which point the totals and details of the order are confirmed with the parent. The parent specifies if they would like the orders delivered or picked up (sibling book pack orders are kept together so parents only pay one shipment fee for up to 3 student book packs). Once delivery details are confirmed, parents are then transferred to the online payment system. When the payment has gone through each of the student orders are emailed through to the parent. Also at this time there is an order and invoice generated in Quickbooks. At the start of each day a report on the previous day’s online orders are automatically printed out and matched with the bank statement (to make sure the payment has gone through) and with the QuickBooks invoice. These orders have a barcode and are scanned at different stages in the process so parents are able to log onto their account and track how their order is progressing. When the order is ready for pickup the BTS System will finalise the order by either creating a courier consignment note or notify the parent for pickup. When the order is despatched to the parent or courier the online BTS order will send an order finalisation email to the parent.

Manager’s Request for a Brief Memorandum

School Supplies are wining more and more BTS contracts because of their excellent reputation, and ability to deliver the right items on time. Parents of uncontracted schools are asking if their school’s book packs can be put up online for ordering as well. However, the increasing work highlights the inadequacies of their current online BTS processing system which is increasing staff stress levels in the office. Rebecca is the only person who can manage the current online system because it so brittle and has many fatal errors which only Rebecca knows how to correct. Gerry is making enquiries about his options with a new system. He knows he needs a system which is intuitive for both BTS parents and his staff to use. Gerry likes to be able to provide work for less able people especially in the packing area so the system must also cater for their user needs as well. Gerry knows that his business viability and reputation depends on having effective information systems in order to keep parents happy and coming back. If parents are happy then the school will be easier to negotiate with and Gerry won’t have to compete so much on BTS pack price.

Question 1: Essay

Your manager has done some reading and is sure that an adaptive systems development approach is necessary for the new information systems project to develop Online Back-to- school ordering system.

  1. Your manager has asked you to write short essay on adaptive systems development discussing the various methodologies of adaptive development. State under what circumstances each methodology would be used and how they may be applied to your case study
  2. You manager has asked you to choose and justify the use of a methodology for the case study

Your target audience is executive business people, who have extensive business experience but limited computing knowledge.

Question 2: Memo

Review the School Supplies case study and answer the following question with reference to the information in the case study.

Your manager has requested that you write a brief memorandum for the owner Gerry Lane and his management team commenting on the different ways you might handle the design of the Human Computer Interface of this new Online Back-to-school ordering system.

There is limited information available to you at this time but you are required to make reasonable assumptions based on the information that you have. Assumptions should be noted and specifically mentioned within your memo.

Review the School Supplies case study and answer the following questions with reference to the information in the case study.

Do NOT extend the scope for any of the following solutions beyond that specifically described in the case study above

You are permitted to make reasonable assumptions where necessary but these should be noted.

It is recommended that you review all documentation for this case study before finalising any single solution. Ensure that the required consistency has been included within and between each question solution. Consult Rubric in Appendix A for more details on how these questions will be marked.

a) Event Table

Review the School Supplies case study and prepare an event table for the information system to support the business processes as described. Use at least the following headings for the Event Table:


Event Type



Activity/Use Case

System Response/



Review the School Supplies case study and your event table solution from question 3a above to prepare a Use Case diagram for the supporting information system.

Solutions must follow the methodology as outlined within the Satzinger et al (2016) textbook. Solutions are expected to align with the components as shown in figures 3-12 and 3-15.

Prepare a dully developed Use Case description for the 'Create Online Account' use case, as documented in the event table solution and the use case diagram solution.

Solutions must follow the methodology as outlined within the Satzinger et al (2016) textbook. Solutions are expected to align with the components as shown in figure 5-2.

Review the School Supplies case study to prepare a domain model class diagram for the supporting information system.

Solutions must follow the methodology as outlined within the Satzinger et al (2016) textbook. Solutions are expected to show:

  • The class name and attributes list for each class and sub class asrequired
  • All requiredassociations
  • All attributes as specifically mentioned in the case study must bereflected
  • Other attributes as needed to support the described

It is not necessary to show methods, however you may include them if you wish. Solutions are expected to align with the components as shown in figures 4-16 and 4-21. Consult Rubric in Appendix A for more details on how this question will be marked.

Prepare a Design class diagram for the Client and School classes ONLY. These two classes should be part of the Domain model class diagram solution for the previous question.

Each of these design class diagrams are expected to have a complete attributes list and a comprehensive methods list which supports the specified functionality as described in the case study.

Solutions must follow the methodology as outlined within the Satzinger et al (2016) textbook. Solutions are expected to align with the components for the ‘Design class diagram Student’ as shown on the right hand of figure 12.4. Consult Rubric in Appendix A for more details on how this question will be marked.


Adaptive System Development

The current system requirements require employment of more adaptive and predictive methodologies because of the changes in business processes (James, 2013). Where high value results are required adaptive approaches to system development can be considered where rapid prototypes are developed rather than focusing on enhancement techniques to improve the system already in place. Highsmith (2013) have supported the ideology that system adaptability id more essential that system optimization. In predictive approach, the outcome or the final product is already known and thus, the development team is task with ensuring that the projected result is met. With adaptive methodology, the end result is not known.

System Development Methodologies refers to the approach in implementing the system development cycle. Analysis, planning, design and implementation are the basic steps in of System development. In the planning phase, it identifies why the system would be build and the process of its creation. Through studying the existing nature and identifying the risks, the team conceptualizes the new system, in design phase, members finalizes how the system operates. (Dennis et. al 2009)

General advantages of Adaptive system methodology include: it allows in-depth engagement of the key stakeholders before the project is started. Secondly, because of continuous engagement between the clients and the development team, the project is more transparent (Peter and Jain, 2016). Thirdly, regular meeting between the stakeholders ensures that the project objectives are met on time and within the budget. One key benefit od adaptive methodology is the fact that the development is more focused on the user which ensures that all the user requirements have been captured which eventually leads to development of a high-quality software product (Pradeep, 2017).

However, this approach is faced with some setbacks like continuous and regular engagement with the client consumes a lot of time and may lead to the client getting bored. In the course of engagement, new requirements may emerge which may delay the delivery of the software product or may lead to development of a totally different software that was not intended (John, 2016).  Abrahamson, Warsta, Siponnen and Ronkainen (2013) have argued that testing the solution extensively may lead to failure of the project and may cause the client to incur loses because of the resources that had been dedicated to the project.

The various methodologies of adaptive system development, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed below. According to Rising and Janoff (2010), agile techniques are recommended for adaptive methodology while waterfall approach is recommended for predictive methodology.

Ideal Workflow Process for BTS Stationery Packs

This is a software development design that tries or aims at improving the speed, quality and response to the dynamic requisites of the client or the customer. It allows flexibility within the design process and it is a software build within an unstable environment. It can be grouped into categories which include; fine- scale feedback- this is a test-driven development and it entails planning game and pair programming (John, 2015). Secondly is Shared understanding, it includes software language and coding standards or conventions, a collective code ownership etc.

Some of the advantages of using this approach is that it creates rational schedules and plans, lays concentration of client involvement, more commitment to the project by the development team, and the team is equipped with more enhanced skills to deliver a quality product. However, this approach has some disadvantages for instance, regular meeting is required thus time wastage, development changes are many, the end result is not known, and it’s the people involved that determines the usefulness of the end product.

RAD is a system development approach where solutions are developed rapidly with the intention of offering the quality software quickly. Most online business employ the use of this methodology as it is also convenient to use and not complex (Rihanis and Geyor, 2011, p. 241). This approach is focused on improving the overall functionality of the software development process with emphasis on the active user participation.


  • Enables customers to have quick access
  • There is feedback from clients for maximization of relations
  • Quickens the development process


  • Requires the effort of many people
  • This methodology restricts working on systems that are modularized.
  • Requires high investment
  • Needs more advanced experts for the complex operations

The method is good for any business entering online system. Its operations are designed such that a mistake in a previous stage can be corrected later or in the next phase (John and Robert, 2015).


  • There is transparency
  • High quality for fixing problems
  • Responds well to evolving changes


  • Inefficient documentation and more focus are on the software.
  • There is a high chance of developing undesired product.

This is one of the oldest approaches in software development where the development process is in linear sequence, that is, the second phase depends on the first step, the third step depend on the second step and so on. This ensures that all the requirements are met at every stage and that the next stage improves the result of the first step (Larman, 2015). The happenings in one phase cannot be undone or the process cannot be reversed.


  • Easy to understand
  • Easy to handle
  • Faster analysis and testing
  • More functional and saves time

The focus of this approach is to minimize the risks that are normally faced in the early stages of the project.

Developers initiate a lower level where risks can be eliminated at any incident, as the process can get into the initial circle part. The triumph of this model is based on observant, consistent and conversant project administration and management (Snoeck and Doden, 2014, 174).

Manager’s Request for a Brief Memorandum


  • Reduced risk factors
  • Suited for large products
  • Allows room for extra additions to the software
  • Suitable for more complex, integrated projects that are risk


  • Very costly
  • Not suitable for low risk investment
  • Failure in risk analysis might cause problems to the projects.

This is an incremental and repetitive approach almost similar to rapid application approach but concentrates more on user engagement and involvement. The goal of this methodology is to is to offer the development team an allocated budget and specified timeline for the system development (Reed, 2010). As the name suggest, this methodology works more with the changing needs of its development, this system works best for an integrated system for any business.


  • Quick functional options and icons
  • Easy access for end users


  • A costly undertaking to develop
  • Not suitable for small investments or projects

Agile System Methodology

Basing on the above-mentioned methodologies, the best system development methodology that school Supplies Pty Ltd can use would be the Agile System Methodology, this is because the system provides organizations with an ability to quickly transform IS solutions (Highsmith, 2013). As the business is in the risk of old and new changes and technicalities which may include shortfalls in real time production and proceeds, externally and internally performed tasks or unwanted system changes from external factors or overhead competition (Cockburn, 2012). Thus, this requires the implementation or development of a software for a business to responsive to change.

This methodology has the ability to respond quickly to changes ranging from requirements of the system, technology advancement to people, meaning therefore that it can accommodate changing requirements and customer involvement, Rebecca can therefore easily run the activities of BTS Ltd efficiently, as it will help improve shared responsibility and accountability between staff members (McMenamin, 2011). Due to its speed, it will facilitate communication and collaboration between BTS staff and the clients or the customers and thus helps in avoiding delays and time wastage as the system is constantly progressing and sustainable.


TO : Gary Lane & Management


DATE : 1st October, 2018

SUBJECT : Human Computer Interface Design

Having gone through your case study and specifically on the new user human computer interface requirement, we specialize in design, evaluation and implementation of interface computer system. The company's decision on the design was based on the understanding of psychological, organization and social factors of your team and so the company decided on the methodology to aid in the appropriate design that would bring efficient and effective interaction for single users. HCI is the interaction between the user and the computer, it encompasses the design, aesthetic value of the screen and other phenomenon necessitating human use, in creating, and the following Norman’s Seven Principles apply;

  • Making things visible
  • Make the structure simple
  • Standardize when everything fails
  • Get map scope right
  • Convert challenges to advantages
  • Model for a flaw.

Heuristic Evaluation

A methodical sequence of looking user-interface usability challenges. When such a problem is noted in the design process, they are worked on as the empirical or minor involving part of the continuing design process. The following design controls have been considered in coming up with this memo; empirical measurement and early focus on activities and users.

Different Ways to Handle the Design of the HCI

Iterative design

HCI design approaches varies from one designer to another but nonetheless, al must follow the existing approaches which include; Empirical Approach, Predictive Approach, Modelling Approach, Anthropomorphic Approach and Cognitive Approach (Karl and Joy, 2013). BTS system will apply the use of two approaches; Predictive Modelling Approach and Empirical Approach. This design approach is paramount in determining, comparing and examining the conceptual designs usability (Bain, 2016). Pre-production stage is preferred in testing by conducting tests on usability and counter balancing design whereby users mostly prefer design concepts of each element.

Empirical Approach

A web page and its important usability can only be assessed through user preference on conceptual design task performance (Ambler, 2014). One or more conceptual design can be given to a user for testing in a lab, any doing that relates to the web task goal associated to it. For example, if you want to check the user performance then check if the user accomplished or failed to accomplish his intention for example if the user was to do a certain task in five minutes and with less than three errors, if otherwise results are observed, then the amount of time and frequency of errors has to be related to the standard as the substitute to the parent design for the web (Tan and Truex, 2009, p. 122).

Predictive Modeling Approach

GOMS is a technique used to measure individual components of a user experience in relation to time the user comfortably accomplishes the task or achievement of goals. Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection (GOMS) rules (Shalloway and Trot, 2014). The objectives are the desired outcomes of the website. The development team utilizes operators or atomic-level actions to achieve the objectives such as perceptions, motor actions, and cognitive abilities. The sub-objectives and the series of atomic-level actions are the factors that the user engages with to meet the objectives using procedural techniques. Selection Rules means a decision of the user on which technique will work on a specific problem (Evans, 2012). Different styles can be compared based on the total time to finish an activity. This will help in identifying the most efficient method for completing the task.

First, the overall screen design will have three in build windows or screens. The first window upon opening of the website will be company's portal; this not included in the design requirements but based upon assumption of the company's experience. The portal will have companies;

  • Home page
  • About us
  • Join us
  • Products and services
  • Contact us
  • Reviews and feedback
  • Delivery

Best Regards,


Event Table




Activity/Use Case

System Response/Output


Parent creates account

Enter Username (Email) and




Account created


Parent log into the account

 Enters email and Password


View children list

Drops children list

Children list

Add Student order

Enter Student Details


Add student details

List of items and quantities for the students

Create Book pack

Create student’s book pack.

Select the items required


Create students book pack

Show the items of the book pack.

Added Book Packs

Send finalization email

Finalize Order


Send finalization email

Send Email to Parent


Admin Login

Enter Login Details and press Login

BTS System Admin

Confirm Login Details

Successful Login


Register School

Enter School Details

BTS System Admin

Submit School Details

School Successfully Registered

View School Details

School Login

Enter School login code


Log into BTS System

Confirm Login Details


Select Year Group

Choose a Year Group


Submit Year Group

Select Year Group’s Booklist

View booklists

Use Case Name



Order book

Event triggering

Customer login to the account to make an order

Short Explanation

User orders the item, the system verifies the information a complete menu drops, the staff, Rebecca and Gerry create new order, order transactions are created, and finishes the ordering process


The customer, Seller (Rebecca), and Grey

Associated use cases

Find out if the item is in stock


Primary information is provided by the sales department and then delivery is done by the shipping department


Customer exists

Items are available for order

Post conditions

The user must create an order

Activity flow

Actor                                                System

1. Rebecca receives the order

2. Creates new order

3. Add items to the order

4. Creates order transaction

5. Finalizes order delivery

6. Customer indicates end of order

1. Display customer information

2. Creates new order

3. Display item information

4. Add an order item

5. Completes order

6. Computes total cost

7. Finalize order

Exceptional Condition

1. If item is not in stock, the customer may decline to buy it

2. If payment is incomplete, the order is cancelled


Reference List

Abrahamson, P. Warsta, J. Siponnen M.T. and Ronkainen, J. (2013). New Directions on Agile Methods: A Comparative Analysis. The paper was presented at the 25th International Conference on Software Engineering, Portland. Oregon.

Ambler, L. (2014). Agile Model Driven Development with UML 2.0. Cambridge University Press

Bain, S. (2016). Emergent Design. The Evolutionary Nature if Professional Software Development. Addison Wesley. Boston USA.

Cockburn, A. (2012). Writing Effective Use Cases. Addison-Wesley, Boston, MA. USA.

Evans, E. (2012). Domain Driven Design. Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software Engineering. Addison Wesley. Boston USA.

Highsmith, J.R. (2013). Adaptive Software Development: A Collaborative Approach to Managing Complex Systems.

James, A.H. (July 2013). Adaptive System Development. A Collaborative Approach to Managing Complex Systems: Addison-Wesley Professional

John, S. (2015). Systems analysis and design in a changing world. Boston: Cengage Learning.

John, S. (2016). Oriented analysis and design with unified process. Oxford University Press

John, W.S. and Robert, B.J (2015). System Analysis & Design. 5th Edition. Cambridge Mass Course Technology

Karl, W. and Joy, B. (2013). Software Requirements, 3rd Edition. Microsoft Press.

Larman, C. (2015). Applying UML and Patterns: An Introduction to Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. 3rd Ed. Prentice Hall, U.S.A

McMenamin, S.M. (2011). Essential System Analysis. Yourdon Press. NY, USA.

Peter, M. & Radhika (2013). Agile Software Development. Adaptive System Principles & Best Practices, 23:3

Peter, M. and Jain, R. (2016). Agile Software Development: Adaptive Systems Principles and Best Practices. Information Systems Management, 23(3), pp.19-30

Pradeep, M.N. (2017). Predictive cum Adaptive System Development Methodologies

Reed, P.R. (2010). Developing Applications with Java and UML. Addison Wesley, Boston, MA, USA

Rihanis, S. and Geyor, T. (2011). Complexity: An Appropriate Framework for Development Studies. 1(3). 237-245

Rising, L. and Janoff, N. (2010). The Scrum software development process for small teams. IEEE Software, 17(4), pp.26-32.

Shalloway, A. and Trot, J. (2014). Design Patterns Explained. Anew Perspective on Object Oriented Design. Addison Wesley, Boston USA.

Snoeck, M, and Doden, G. (2014) Core Modeling Concepts in Object-Oriented Conceptual Modeling in Proceedings of the Technology Object. pp 170-176

Tan, J. and Truex, D. (2009). Growing Systems in Emerging Organizations. Communications of the AGM. 42(8). 117-123

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