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Theoretical Framework


Write a research proposal on the topic of Employee Engagement and its impact on the Organisational Performance.

The Tata Group is built on a foundation of trust and transparency which is the basis of every business which the company is a part of. The group is shaped by a lineage of sound and straightforward business principles. “The Tata Group” was founded by Jamsetji Tata in the year 1868 and is headquartered in India. “The Tata Group” is famous as a global business conglomerate that operates in over 100 countries across 5 continents. “The Tata Group” at present has a strong presence across diverse industries such as “automotive, chemicals, construction, finance, consumer products and hospitality”. There are 29 publicly listed Tata enterprises which include the “Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Teleservices, Tata Communications and Indian Hotels”.

The Tata Projects now expect opportunities in several infrastructure sectors namely “civil construction, power generation and transmission, the railways, metals and minerals, water, oil and gas”. In addition to this, the company has diversified into urban infrastructure and is one of the fastest growing sectors in the country. The organisation needs to take its profitability to a much higher level in order to improve the cash flow. This is considered as the short term challenge of the company. Consumers face issues due to international competition and also in terms of implementation.

The chosen topic is “The impact of employee engagement on organisational performance in Tata Group”. Therefore the objective of the research is to understand what is the actual impact or the effect of employee engagement on the ultimate success and the performance of the organisation. Tata group has been the pioneer in providing products and services to the consumers and its plethora of clients all over the world. The research objectives aim to understand the problems which the organisation is facing and work on it. The challenges which the organisation is facing are that of attraction of proper talent and its retention.

The research questions aimed at are:

“Does employee retention prove useful for organisational performance in the long run?”

“Does employee engagement have an impact on employee performance?”

“Is organisational performance affected by the most efficient employee’s non-retention?”

“Can the organisation successfully retain its employees by proper incentives?”

The Tata Group performance analysis needs to be studied properly so that it is helpful for answering the research questions and objectives.

Research Methodology

The scope of the research is to focus on the factors which affect employee satisfaction which impacts the retention of the employees and ultimately the organisational performance. The sense of achievement which comes from appreciation is one of the main factors which needs to be studied and covered under the scope of research. The factors including the monetary benefits, the sense of fairness, the employee’s feeling of belonging, a mixture of a formal and informal approach as an when necessary, adequate working conditions, credit system, the nature of challenges, the existing safety and security of the job needs to be studied properly.

The limitations of this particular topic of research is that it is extremely subject specific and cannot be helpful in answering research questions other than those covered in the study. This is due to the fact that the issues are company specific and will not be indicative of the issues in any other company. In case the issues in a particular organisation are applied in case of another organisation it would not be accurate. Thus the research in this case is limited to the study of Tata Group only. The issues of employee satisfaction, the working conditions of the company and the factors which affect the employee performance are taken into consideration. The research does not include any factor which is not linked to the employee performance.

The research needs to be conducted as the issues of the organisation need to be solved at any cost. The Tata Group is one of the most prestigious organisations in the country, India. Therefore it is necessary to solve the issues, the employees need to be retained in order to ensure that the organisation performs and fulfils al the duties it is entitled to complete. In case the contributory factors to employee performance and employee retention are addressed, it helps in the organisational performance as a whole. Unless the issues which plague a particular organisation are solved it is bound to lead to increased number of employee dissatisfaction and hence their resignation.

“Employee engagement”, is a topic of discussion among different researchers. The engagement concept can be defined to be a popular topic as it is related with performance of the organisation.  The more efficiently the employees work the more the revenue that will be generated by the company. This is because of the fact that the leaders of an organisation aim to search for a bettered employee performance in the workplace (Akhter and Equbal 2012). The degree to which the employees are motivated for contribution to the success of an establishment, are willing to give requisite effort and accomplish tasks are defined as employee engagement (Mishra, Boynton and Mishra 2014).


Engagement is defined as a work related state of mind which is characterised by dedication, vigour and absorption. Engagement is also concerned with a level of emotional involvement (Wang and Hsieh 2013). The concept of emotional involvement depends on how the employees relate to the values of the Tata Company (Vardhan 2015). The same is applicable in case of the intellectual components (Pathak 2015). It is also about people going that extra way and giving extra discretionary effort which they will proudly do for the organisation (Andrew and Sofian 2012). The topic of engagement also includes, quality management, internal supplier relationship, performing to the best of one’s ability and helping each other at work (Vardhan 2015). Employee engagement is also concerned with the awareness regarding the business context, the work dynamics with the colleagues and also the peer groups for improvement of the performance within the job for the benefit and ultimate excellence of the organisation. It is also concerned with a positive employee attitude, towards the company and its values as a whole (Vashishtha 2016).

There can be several viewpoints of “employment engagement” which can be considered from several perspectives. The perception of the employees and their beliefs concerning the organisation and culture come under the cognitive aspect (Vardhan 2015). The degree to which the employees are willing to give proper efforts to the company helps in the determination of the value added benefit to it. All in all the employee engagement is one of the main determining factors in the organisational performance (Gupta and Kumar 2012).

The theoretical framework is concerned with identifying factors which contributes to the employee satisfaction in an organisation. (Patten 2016). There are several business models for the human resource management in organisations. There are the hard and soft models, the contextual models involving the importance of social, institutional and political forces and the matching model in context of the organisational strategy. In this connection the 5-P’s model of HRM can be used where the policies, programs, the practices and processes are formulated and implemented for carrying out of the activities. In certain cases application of the contextual model is also appropriate in case of the Tata Group (Vardhan 2015).

The research methodology of the study is aimed at the collection of suitable data and its analysis for the suitability of the study. For the research, data are collected from the Tata Group managers and employees. The nature of the data collected is primary. It is to be collected, in order to understand the employee reactions and their opinions about the workings in the organisation. The primary data is to be collected from the employees and also from the managers of the organisation. The employees need to be interviewed and their responses to the questions would comprise of the qualitative data which needed to be analysed. A sample of 10% of the total employee count of the organisation can be taken as a suitable sample and the responses of these employees can be properly arranged which comprise the qualitative data that are to be analysed.

Apart from this the managers of each subdivision also need to be interviewed and their responses also need to be analysed. It can further be tested whether there is a correlation between the opinions of the managers and the opinions of the employees. The responses of the managers also need to be collected for analysis (Patten 2016).

The sampling procedure which needs to be performed can be a simple random sampling without replacement. This is to be done so that the sample of responses which have been collected is a proper representative of the population.

The research program comprises of organising a particular team of officials to carry out the research activities. The team also needs to ask the research questions effectively in order to elicit suitable responses to the questions which will ultimately pave the way for suitable analysis of the research problem. The nature in which the questions should be asked also needs to be mentioned to the team. The team should also comprise of trained members so that the questions are accurate and maintain a certain amount of sensitivity (Seidman 2013).


Akhter, S. and Equbal, I., 2012. Organized retailing in India–Challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(1), pp.281-291.

Andrew, O.C. and Sofian, S., 2012. Individual factors and work outcomes of employee engagement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, pp.498-508.

Anitha, J., 2014. Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International journal of productivity and performance management , 63(3), p.308.

Breevaart, K., Bakker, A., Hetland, J., Demerouti, E., Olsen, O.K. and Espevik, R., 2014. Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engagement. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 87(1), pp.138-157.

Creswell, J.W. and Creswell, J.D., 2017. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Garg, P., 2014. Impact of employee engagement on it sector. International Journal of Management Research and Reviews, 4(1), p.62.

Gupta, V. and Kumar, S., 2012. Impact of performance appraisal justice on employee engagement: a study of Indian professionals. Employee Relations, 35(1), pp.61-78.

Mishra, K., Boynton, L. and Mishra, A., 2014. Driving employee engagement: The expanded role of internal communications. International Journal of Business Communication, 51(2), pp.183-202.

Pathak, S., 2015. Role of Employee in Brand Building of the Organization-Business Branding through Employee. Journal of Marketing Vistas, 5(2), p.1.

Patten, M.L., 2016. Proposing empirical research: A guide to the fundamentals. Taylor & Francis.

Pattnaik, C., Chang, J.J. and Shin, H.H., 2013. Business groups and corporate transparency in emerging markets: Empirical evidence from India. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 30(4), pp.987-1004.

Seidman, I., 2013. Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. Teachers college press.

Vardhan, J., 2015. A review of market based management as a strategic performance tool-an illustrative example through Tata steel. International Journal of Accounting and Economics Studies, 3(1), pp.54-59.

Vashishtha, S., 2016. Employee Engagement, Training and Career Development (Tata Tele Services Limited –A Case Study). Journal of Commerce and Trade, 11(1), pp.101-108.

Wang, D.S. and Hsieh, C.C., 2013. The effect of authentic leadership on employee trust and employee engagement. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 41(4), pp.613-624.

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