Let's consider the example of an integrated library system (ILS), which is much like the library community's equivalent of an enterprise resource planning system. An ILS is a large enterprise software that drives a lot of the library's business operations. In this example, a public library system was migrating to a new ILS from its previous administrative system, which combined a vendor-supported and customized system with the library's original homegrown system.
The library's acquisitions staff was responsible for purchasing and acquiring books, movies, periodicals, and other items that constituted the collections, as well as entering all of that information into the ILS and establishing a unique barcode for each item. Under the old system, the staff members would barcode all copies of a single item, such as all copies of a particular book, at the same time, with each copy receiving a sequentially numbered barcode. For example, 12 copies of the Harper Lee novel To Kill a Mockingbird might be numbered 101–112.
During implementation of its brand-new ILS, the library discovered a significant and showstopping difference in how the ILS handled the process for barcoding multiple copies of the same item. The Acquisitions module of the new ILS required the information for each unique item to be entered individually—meaning that the information for the library's collection of To Kill a Mockingbird would have to be entered 12 times—once for each copy of the book. If the library staff had to enter all the information for each acquisition one at a time, coding all the countless newly acquired items per year would simply be unachievable.
According to the ILS vendor, reworking the Acquisitions module to allow multiple items to be barcoded collectively—like the way that the library's old system worked—would necessitate customizing the module.
You (as an experienced business analyst) have been asked to facilitate the customization of ILS module. As a part of this assignment, your task is to present an abstract level view of activities that should be performed in six of the Core Knowledge Areas of Business Analysis - as listed below. You are also required to highlight the underlaying competencies and tools appropriate for conducting each of the knowledge areas.
An integrated library system is an automated system,whereby the functional modules form a part of a shared referential database.The term Integrated means that a system in which the automatic library functions are administered against a master referential file(Fu.and Fitzgerald 2014). An ILS is essentially an electronic program that helps librarians and users of data to track the movement of items as well as interact with databases from other libraries.An ILS is meant to surge the output and efficiency of a library , and improve the resource access for its patrons, thereby automating the system that was previosly employed manually. Use of an ILS provides a massive benefit and its impact is obvious.The use of an automatic system exponentially increases the productivity of the labour.Use of module such as copy cataloguing means a librarian can simply import existing MARC records from other institutions in their database, instead of doing the whole process from scratch((Fu.and Fitzgerald 2014).Circulating items involves only scanning barcodes , rather than manually writing on library cards and data stamps.
As part of customizing the ILS module, it is important to switch to a reliable ILS that would allow the acquisitions module to collectively barcode the multiple items.Koha is an integrated LMS that is intended to manage physical collection of items.It provides a host of functions including cataloguing, searching member/patron management, an acquisition systems ,and circulation(Ahammad 2014). Its user interface is very configurable and adaptable and is easy to use. It can systematically help in printing barcodes , without any manual help( Kumar and Jayapradeep 2015).This makes Koha the perfect integrated library software to be applied in this case and customized as per needed.
This analysis is done with a view to determine what kinds of activities that should be performed with view to the ILS.. Koha software system is attaining favor over other solution sin information management solutons.It offers a variety of benefits that include economical benefits, compact base of customers and effective online support(Ahammad 2014).Koha software allows automatic information and knowledge management operations that include administration, acquisitions, cataloguing, circulation and OPAC.Further, this software augments and advances services delivery to the customers(Adesola et al.2015).This software makes tracking information resource and service possible starting from the point when the order is done and received in the acquisitons, then processed , next circulated and eventually disposed off.Supplementary analysis proved that the integrated software evades repetition of multiple entries of referential records in the system.This facility offers a single entry only(Yeh and Walter 2016.). The inference of Koha on library systems and technical staffing models is related to two main facets , with number one being software architecture and number two being workflows and functionality.While the previous vendor supported and customer system represented a more manual style of servicing this software is completely automated and delivers multiple benefits that includes no purchasing costs, low cost setups, frequent upgrades and updates and high scalability benefit(Adesola et al.2015).With the help of this model,the providers of service can distribute services to their contributing associate establishments on an exceedingly accessible platform where wholly relevant updates and required augmentations happen in an automatic fashion through the net.The diverse participating establishments can use this service to organize and tailor their views of the applications with their own brand ideas, colour subjects and navigation reins(Yeh and Walter 2016).Web scaling services lessen the proprietorship cost by distributing set-up costs across all contributing member establishments(Henry 2017). The providers of service have a far-reaching control over all hardware and software for all contributing member establishments , thereby eradicating investments of a capital nature on local hardware, software and other outlying services(Adesola et al.2015).Service provides can implement applications and make upgradations centrally . They can also integrate across all types of services and make system extensive structure requirements like reliability, safety, privacy and dismissal(Yeh and Walter 2016).
The ILS are no longer bleeding edge- but managing dozens of library sytems all on the same system .There is a need to collaborate to facilitate free flow of information .Shared qualities are found in open source development communities that include unselfishness, persistence and clear obligation of accountability. There is a growing prevalence that librarians are self sacrificing and persistant.They are noticeably engrossed about information sharing (Corby, Jeffries and Nichols 2017). Hierarchal association is clearly an essential feature of library management.The meeting of qualities estimates that there is a sound professional match between ILS specialists and open source developers. These two groupshow a similarity in attitude.
The arrangement of these two groups will assist both small and big libraries. The improvements in library management include better secutity reports that fix bug errors and feature needs that only benefit the software company and indirectly the customers(Walter 2017). On the other hand, new open ended systems benefit all types of users. Code or documentation from small ,one branch libraries will be applicable to bigger libraries. Instead of keeping hold of developments, the company should share them with other communities(Corby, Jeffries and Nichols 2017). This is a completely dissimilar pattern from that of proprietary ILS. The removal of developing idleness generates an extra savings in cost. As soon as the initial conversion and installation period is finalized, continuing upgrades will save a lot of funds(Henry 2017).
Also there is a growing advantage when it comes to pursuing necessary rights. People have the fundamental right to access any type of information and libraries help get that access.There is a question that needs to be asked about the relationship with that of proprietary software(Corby, Jeffries and Nichols 2017). Libraries need to ponder whether they should be subjected to external change or should they grow and develop through self-growth and learning. The open ended software, through collaboration urges library systems to grow and evolve benefitting a whole host of users(Henry 2017).There is a philosophical correctness to libraries that enables the sharing of various library organizations. In hindsight, software is an alternative type of information. Libraries warrant learning and growing just as patrons do(Walter 2017)
Solidifiying the group of libraries is essential to ensure the capability to reinforce the attentions of patrons universally. That is a vibrant assistance that mutually benefits all parties, all possible through collaboration practices(Corby, Jeffries and Nichols 2017).
An ILS, like Koha usually encompasses of a rational database, a software that can interact and relate with that database and two graphical user interfaces .Koha uses distinct software tasks that can be converted into isolated programs called modules where they are individually assimilated with a combined interface. (Ptak and Schragenheim 2016).
The integrated library systems , bring an automatic software upgradation falls under the purview of system development life cycle .This process is applicable to information development projects safeguarding that all practical and user necessites can be done with the help of an organized and homogeneous process through all stages of a system’s life cycle(Le Blanc 2015).The systems developed under this system provide reliable and long term performance.
The various phases of SDLC include:
Koha is an automatic system that serves the needs of the whole community and has a stake or interest in the library as well.it will immensely help in improving the quality of education and research and will help both patrons and staff as well(Grant 2016).The four basic reasons that explain the need to incorporate this system in the development of an information strategic plan are:
Finally, in term of a strategic plan for the incorporation of an ILS in the library, this system would also help in:
While contemplating over which ILS can be chosen for the library, it is vital to ponder over numerous influences including scope, capital and compatibility with each other. It is also vital to get an overall feel of the system.Therefore it is necessary to do an all-encompassing research before implementing what kind of an ILS best suits for a particular library(Thüm et al.2014).In this case we have taken Koha to be the integrated library software for the library, which best alleviates the barcoding issue and enable a better working acquisition model(Beich et al.2017).
An efficient ILS software should have a no vendor lock in , thereby denotating that the program will have a free rein and will enable libraries to download and install that software by their own. (Ericson 2015 ).It should have a lot of modules that is totally inclusive in the cataloguing function.It should be operable in the MARC records which helps in acquisitions. This happens in improving the workflow of operations. This creates a smooth transition into a free system(Thüm et al.2014).
While evaluating the solution the following criteria should be observed:
The pros of implementing Koha include:
The implementation of Koha has its fair share of disadvantages as well:
The recommendations while customizing ILS’s could include
From the following analysis, it is clear that customizing the module to allow multiple items to be barcoded individually with the help of Koha integrated software is a viable strategy.It has clear financial, operating and functional benefits as well.It supports a growing list of developers, clients and support vendors and helps in integrating workflows.It provides a simple and a clear search interface for all users.It makes managing library operations very systematic and efficient.The business analysis also incorporates the need for collaborating and sharing information among library communities. It also necessitated the various modules of Koha including cataloguing, circulation and acquisitions that integrates into the whole structure of the software.It evaluates the use of the software and its relevance with reference to the case study.The analysis further reaffirms the implementation of ILS in providing a more beneficial and affordable solution.This would save a huge amount of cost and time in the long run.
Adesola, A.P., Olla, G., Oshiname, R.M. and Tella, A., 2018. Reports Generation with Koha Integrated Library System (ILS): Examples from Bowen University Library, Nigeria. In Library Science and Administration: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 631-645). IGI Global.
Ahammad, N., 2014. Implementing the Koha integrated library system at the Independent University, Bangladesh: A practical experience. The Electronic Library, 32(5), pp.642-658.
Beicht, B., Breuer, M., Krick, F., Muehge, T. and Rueger, E., International Business Machines Corp, 2017. Library system with integrated label printer. U.S. Patent 9,718,280.
Corby, K., Jeffries, S. and Nichols, D.P., 2017. Cooperation, Collaboration and Coordination: Education Librarians in Michigan. Education Libraries, 22(3), pp.13-19.
Ericson, C.A., 2015. Hazard analysis techniques for system safety. John Wiley & Sons.
Fu, P. and Fitzgerald, M., 2014. A comparative analysis of the effect of the integrated library system on staffing models in academic libraries. Information Technology & Libraries.
Gireesh Kumar, T.K. and Jayapradeep, M., 2015. Perceptions of LIS professionals on open source integrated library system and adoptability of Koha over LibSys in India. International Journal of Information Dissemination and Technology, 5(2), pp.100-105.
Grant, R.M., 2016. Contemporary strategy analysis: Text and cases edition. John Wiley & Sons.
Henry, R.L., 2017, October. Maintaining Effective Collaboration: Supporting a Shared Library System Across 39 Academic Institutions. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Annual Conference on SIGUCCS (pp. 45-50). ACM.
House, M.D., 2016. Implementing the open-source Koha-ILS at the Deutsche Schule Charlotte. Digital Library Perspectives, 32(4), pp.253-269.
Le Blanc, D., 2015. Towards integration at last? The sustainable development goals as a network of targets. Sustainable Development, 23(3), pp.176-187.
Morse, J.M., 2015. Critical analysis of strategies for determining rigor in qualitative inquiry. Qualitative health research, 25(9), pp.1212-1222.
Plevin, R.J., Delucchi, M.A. and Creutzig, F., 2014. Using attributional life cycle assessment to estimate climate?change mitigation benefits misleads policy makers. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 18(1), pp.73-83.
Ptak, C.A. and Schragenheim, E., 2016. ERP: tools, techniques, and applications for integrating the supply chain. Crc Press.
Shawish, A. and Salama, M., 2016. Cloud-Based Digital Library Era. In Special Library Administration, Standardization and Technological Integration (pp. 226-247). IGI Global.
Smith, L.C. and Wong, M.A ., 2016. Reference and Information Services: An Introduction: An Introduction. ABC-CLIO.
Thüm, T., Kästner, C., Benduhn, F., Meinicke, J., Saake, G. and Leich, T., 2014. FeatureIDE: An extensible framework for feature-oriented software development. Science of Computer Programming, 79, pp.70-85.
Walter, S., 2017. Engelond: A model for faculty-librarian collaboration in the information age. Information technology and libraries, 19(1), pp.34-41.
Yeh, S.T. and Walter, Z., 2016. Critical success factors for integrated library system implementation in academic libraries: A qualitative study. Information Technology and Libraries (Online), 35(3), p.27.
Zhu, L. and Spidal, D.F., 2015. Shared integrated library system migration from a technical services perspective. Technical Services Quarterly, 32(3), pp.253-273.
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