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Answer 1

1. What interests or expectations might a stakeholder have in relation to a project? Provide at least five examples of each.

2. How can the interests of stakeholders be included in the project management process?

3 How can the differing stakeholder interests be managed?

4. What action is needed to support each of the groups from the influence chart? What should you take into consideration when determining what actions to take?

5. What interpersonal skills might be necessary when dealing with stakeholders? Provide at least 10 examples.

6. How can these skills be used to ensure effective stakeholder engagement?

7. What is conflict management and why is it needed?

8. What are the five characteristics of SMART goals?

9. What strategies can be used when distributing project work roles among team members?

10. How do you establish your role within a project?

11. Why do project management teams have behavioural expectations and how can project managers help to ensure they are met?

12. What behavioural expectations might be placed on project team members? Provide at least three examples.

13. What is diversity and how should you behave in the face of diversity?

14. What is a performance review?

15. How can a performance review be implemented?

16. What strategies could be implemented if a team (or team member) is underperforming? Provide at least three examples.

17. What is the role of feedback in the review process?

18. What are the benefits of learning or development?

19. What methods can be used to provide learning or development opportunities? Provide at least three examples.

20. How can you document an individual’s development needs? (1 page)

21. What is the importance of effective communication in project management?

22. What do the following terms, relating to stakeholder engagement, mean?

23. What communications tools are usually available to the project management team? Provide at least five examples.

24. What is a communications plan and what do they usually include?

25. What requirements do stakeholders have regarding content and timing of engagement with project management teams?

26. What are the five steps in creating successful stakeholder relationships?

27. What form can agreement on project communication take? Why are such agreements needed?

28. What is variance in a project?

29. How can variance be communicated?

The stakeholders consist of following interest and expectations to a project such as:

Support: They are contributed to success of the project throughout assuring a reliable supply of products and services as per customer’s requirements. They are providing governmental support for the project (Kerzner and Kerzner 2017).

Answer 2

Knowledge: They are focused on development of new knowledge related to the governance frameworks.

Work: They are involving the organizational workers into decision making which enhance the work life as well as make people more satisfied with the jobs.

Time: They are interested to follow flexible working hours which increase the productivity of organization.

Economics: The employment training program helps them to improve the economic prospects for the lower income people (Walker 2015).

The interest of the stakeholders is included into the project management process through use of stakeholder power interest matrix, where the interests as well as respective power of stakeholders are involved into the matrix to identify their importance into the project.

The stakeholder’s interests are to be managed by some of the strategies such as:

  1. Stakeholder mapping
  2. Understanding levels of its influence
  3. Identification of stakeholder triggers
  4. Development of mitigation plan

The action which is required to support the groups from influence chart should be a proper timetable to complete the project activities on time and set of proper steps to help for reaching the objective (Joslin and Müller 2015). At first when determine the actions, the considerations are to estimate the project budget and timeline.

The interpersonal skills necessary when dealing with stakeholders are as follows:

  • Leadership
  • Building of project team
  • Motivation of the stakeholders
  • Communication
  • Decision making
  • Negotiation
  • Building of trust
  • Conflict management
  • Training
  • Influencing

Before the stakeholder’s engagement as well as influence, it is seek to understand people those are working and relying throughout the project phases. Communication helps the stakeholders to share of important information to each other (Leach 2014). Training is required to teach those stakeholders who have lack of knowledge to work into the project.

Conflict management is raised when the individuals have various opinions and processes are not willing to compromise with each others. The conflict is lead to negatively affect the project success.

Five characteristics of SMART goals are:

  • Specific and well defined
  • Measurable into nature
  • Achievable as well as realistic
  • Relevant on the job
  • Time for the success

The strategies used when distributing project work roles among team members are based on project priority, the stakeholders are allocated the project activities as per their skills as well as knowledge as per project requirements (Binder 2016). The consideration which is required to allocate work is person’s availability. Based on interest of the stakeholders into the project work, the works are allocated to the project team members.

The role into the project is established by providing team time to develop, allowing the team to know each others, taking of time to clarify the goals of project and defining the roles and responsibilities of other team members.

The project management teams have behavioural expectations and the project manager helps to ensure that they can meet with the boundaries of project scope, schedule, budget as well as quality (Muller 2017). People behaviour is one of the key factors for driving successful project management.

Answer 3

The expected behaviours of project teams are:

  • Treat with dignity as well as respect
  • Support the inter and intra departmental team members
  • Demonstrate to solve of problems and take of timely decisions

Diversity is referred to variety of differences among the individuals of the organization. It includes of how the individuals are identified themselves and how other are perceived of them. It is into the workplace is encompassed of race, gender, age, status of citizenship as well as religion. The organization faces diversity by making concerted efforts for encouraging the heterogeneous environment throughout promotion of the culture of tolerance.

Performance review is such a method where the job performance of the employee is being documented as well as evaluated.

A performance review is implemented to make the employee redundant. It is also implemented when it benefits the employee by allowing them to provide extra benefits and incentives to improve their working conditions (Muller 2017).

The strategies used to, motivate the underperforming team are:

  • Provide clear feedback about their performance into the team
  • Listening to the point of contention of their underperformed team members
  • Creating performance goals for each employees

Feedback is important as it is the process where each part of output is returned to the input for regulating the further output. It is required for educational purposes, training as well as personal development (Kerzner and Kerzner 2017). It is important as it provides guidance to others for performing better.

The benefits of learning or development are increasing of job satisfaction as well as morale among the employees. It also increases employee motivation and results into financial gain.

Methods used to provide learning and development opportunities are:

  • Written description of the job requirements which details their duties, skills and knowledge of individual
  • Competency standards which outline both skills and knowledge required to carry out particular tasks (Muller 2017).
  • Review of individual performance of employees

Individual development requirements are documented based on competency, skills as well as abilities required to learn and develop more in their current working performance. It is a tool which can organize as well as target the professional along with personal development.

Effective communication is required into project management for following reasons such as:

  • Both the stakeholders and team should inform about what they are expected of them
  • Receiving of important information
  • Changing into the situation into the project work

Role of following into stakeholder engagement such as:

  1. Inform:For those whom changes may provide minimal impact, they are aware that something is happening. It makes effort to inform them before it makes changes.
  2. Consult:For those where there are huge changes, there is requirement of consult about the matter with the higher management team for taking proper decisions.
  3. Involve:For those who are closer to changes, it is better to invite them for participation (Kerzner and Kerzner 2017). They are involved to find the solutions to agree upon the problems.
  4. Collaboration: For those who are into changes can integrate of collaboration with the stakeholders to make the changes as possible.   

Communicational tolls available to the project management team are:

  • Project board
  • Discussion board
  • Email for one-to-one conservation
  • Weekly status report
  • Daily standup meeting

Communication plan is considered as policy driven approach to provide the stakeholders with the information. The plan is defined to provide specific information which is delivered to the stakeholders through use of communication channels.

The stakeholders should require engaging with the project management teams to be informed about status of the project, its progress as per scheduled time and require to know about the project information.

Five steps require creating stakeholder relationships are as follows:

  • Defining the role of the stakeholders in the project’
  • Brainstorming the stakeholders as per their role into the project
  • Prioritizing the list of stakeholders
  • Documenting learning’s and sharing it back
  • Monitoring and refining the project strategies

Standard forms such as cost-reimbursable contracts can integrate on the project communication to coordinate with other agreements which are used into the project (Kerzner and Kerzner 2017). The agreements are required for good documentation of costs which are occurred into the project for ensuring that the contractor is getting paid for their performance.

Answer 4

Variance is a measurable changes form the standard as well as baseline. It is termed as what is difference between what is being expected and accomplished.

The escalation is determined which level of the upper management into the contract is based on degree of variance from the project (Pheng 2018). It is communicated with the stakeholders by conducting a meeting to discuss the issues

References

Binder, J., 2016. Global project management: communication, collaboration and management across borders. Routledge.

Birou, L., Lutz, H. and Zsidisin, G.A., 2016. Current state of the art and science: a survey of purchasing and supply management courses and teaching approaches. International Journal of Procurement Management, 9(1), pp.71-85.

De Araújo, M.C.B., Alencar, L.H. and de Miranda Mota, C.M., 2017. Project procurement management: A structured literature review. International Journal of Project Management, 35(3), pp.353-377.

De Marco, A., 2018. Procurement Management. In Project Management for Facility Constructions (pp. 149-154). Springer, Cham.

Fuller, M.A., Valacich, J.S., George, J.F. and Schneider, C., 2017. Information Systems Project Management: A Process and Team Approach, Edition 1.1. Prospect Press.

Heagney, J., 2016. Fundamentals of project management. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.

Heldman, K., 2018. PMP: project management professional exam study guide. John Wiley & Sons.

Hornstein, H.A., 2015. The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), pp.291-298.

Istrate, M.G., Harrison, T.R., Valero, R., Morgan, S.E., Páez, G., Zhou, Q., Rébék-Nagy, G. and Manyalich, M., 2015. Benefits of Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) specialized training on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation. Experimental and Clinical Transplantation, 13(1), pp.148-155.

Joslin, R. and Müller, R., 2015. Relationships between a project management methodology and project success in different project governance contexts. International Journal of Project Management, 33(6), pp.1377-1392.

Kerzner, H. and Kerzner, H.R., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

Leach, L.P., 2014. Critical chain project management. Artech House.

Lloyd-Walker, B. and Walker, D., 2015, April. Collaborative project procurement arrangements. Project Management Institute.

Mena, C., Christopher, M. and Van Hoek, R., 2014. Leading procurement strategy: driving value through the supply chain. Kogan Page Publishers.

Muller, R., 2017. Project governance. Routledge.

Nojavan, S., Mehdinejad, M., Zare, K. and Mohammadi-Ivatloo, B., 2015. Energy procurement management for electricity retailer using new hybrid approach based on combined BICA–BPSO. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 73, pp.411-419.

Pheng, L.S., 2018. Project Procurement Management. In Project Management for the Built Environment (pp. 177-193). Springer, Singapore.

Schwalbe, K., 2015. Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.

Walker, A., 2015. Project management in construction. John Wiley & Sons.

Whitaker, S., 2016. Procurement Management. In Pass the PMP® Exam (pp. 405-444). Apress, Berkeley, CA

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