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Service Quality

Discuss abuot the Internal and External Service Quality Relationship.

People around the world always have the desire of desiring the best. The service providers always strive to offer quality services to the clients irrespective of whether they are the monopoly or not. According to Akbar and Parvez (2009), external factors that include the customer satisfaction is one of the major drives that have excited an enormous increase in productivity. In foods and beverages industry where service is given priority, the external service quality directly corresponds to increase in profits of any business enterprise since more customers are attracted by the external appearance and reputation of the service. As the number of customers increases, the turnover also increases accordingly. Foods and beverage outlets should ensure quality service since it attracts return customers, who in most cases, recommend the same to their friends. Smith also noted that social influence is a critical issue that needs to be addressed since most of the recommendation will be affected by the initial service, and the manner in which it is offered.

The employees of every firm are the internal customers, who largely depend on the outputs of their colleagues in various departments to serve their external and internal customers, and therefore, there is need to provide an internal service quality. The business should strive to satisfy their employees, which are their internal customers, for them to provide quality services to the external customers. Failure to address the needs of one of the internal quality chain participate will contribute to a series of problems on other sections which directly or indirectly affects the internal and external customers. The customers provides judgement about the services provided basing on their perceptions and whether their expectations have been met or not. The link that exists between both internal and external quality services is derived from analyzing the individual quality dimensions

Service quality of food and beverages companies or restaurants has developed as an essential capacity under dialog in most of the countries which has been recognized as one of the productive structures for the performance of most of the hotels in the competitive industry. The service quality of the hotel and foods and beverages industry provides nearly similar services, building up high service quality, supplement consumer loyalty, and extend the hierarchical benefit of suppliers and piece of the overall industry (Chou et al. 2011). Most restaurants conduct research on the criticality of issues, to assessing service quality, consumer loyalty, and client assumptions in regards to the administration quality. As Gonzalez, and Comesana, (2007), service quality has developed as an issue of significance for the foods and beverages business it has been distinguished as a standout among the best means by building a focused position and enhancing authoritative excellence. Consumer loyalty and client desires are two vital factors in assessing the service quality and settle on fundamental choices concerning the future investments. A standout among the most vital improvement angles in foods and beverage framework is the developing thought toward benefit nature of restaurants by conveying valuable information and quality support of the clients. The service quality can either be internal or external.

External Service Quality

This includes services that directly or indirectly influences the customer’s demand for particular beverage or food from specific outlets.

It refers to the overall reputation of the foods and beverage firm which builds the confidence of the external consumers. It is the outlook of the restaurant, treatment of customers, the appearance of the waiters or staff. The brand image may attract more customers to purchase the product, and this depends on the first impression that the customers gain from the environment.

The factor describes the accessibility of the restaurant to most of the population, the various variety of the dishes, the waiters address and responses to customer’s demands and questions. The several varieties will give the external customers the ability to select the brands or favorite dishes and beverages from the available alternatives (Dhurup, 2012).

It refers to the hours of operation that gives convenience to the customer’s needs and demands. The business should ensure that they serve their customers giving priority to individual attention.

The factor takes into consideration the prices offered by the restaurants and other outlets are in conformity with the quality. The packaging sizes, tastes, quality of the brands as well as the appearance should be in line with the demands of the customers.

It refers to the ability and availability of the staff members such as the waiters to respond to the demands and requests of the customers. The staff should always be eager to serve their customers by delivery quality services possible.


The factor describes the interactions among the individual member staff, which in this manner should be polite and proper addressing of the internal providers. It describes the feeling of satisfaction as a result of interactions and transactions with store keepers and the kitchen personnel in the restaurant or any outlet.


It describes the attractive nature of the dishes and beverages offered. The personnel should have sufficient knowledge on how to prepare attractive and quality food.


It refers to efficiency and punctuality in service provision by the kitchen staff to their fellow waiters. Factors, such as the appropriate temperature reaching to customers, is as a result of quick and good flow of service offered to the waiters by the chefs.


This describes the confidence that is provided through self-trust by the internal workers of the restaurant. The good appearance of the service providers instills the necessary confidence that inspires individual members internally.

Organizational Image


The factor characterizes the accuracy through accurate keeping of kitchen and other records such as store details.  The kitchen staff and waiters should always be accurate and keep their timelines accordingly to ensure consistent reliability of the services they offer to customers.

Employee satisfaction is the ability of the company to serve their employee needs, listening to complains and responding to them promptly. Satisfied employees are productive and improves the quality of services provided which boosts the reputation of the organization leading to subsequent increase in profits.

Customer loyalty depends on the treatment offered by the restaurant management. The management should be friendly, especially if they are providing quality services.

Employee productivity: this is the case where employees use their abilities to full potential in working environment. Chefs for example should show competences and ensure they deliver quality dishes that will create customer’s attraction.

Customer satisfaction: refers to contentment of the customers due to the service delivery offered by the waiters and other responsible personnel in the restaurant. To ensure customer satisfaction, the services should be prompt, and the quality and standards required by the clients be met.

The demands of both, the internal and external customers should be considered, especially during the process of service delivery. In measuring service quality, either internal or external, SERVQUAL is the most used tool. In this tool caparison of before and after service is done. The dimensions that are put into consideration include: responsiveness, tangibles, assurance and reliability.

The setting of service quality has not been seen consistently. (Kumar, Tat Kee, & Taap Manshor, 2009).) for example depicted two arrangements of quality setting: objective, and saw quality; the main concentrates on the measures and rules being set up by proficient bodies, while the second relates to clients’ recognitions. Essentially, the administration quality into specialized and practical. All things considered, writing on benefit quality has been arranged behind the most recent class while kept up a level of deterioration with the first. Then again, researchers have tried to enhance benefit quality. Their models that conceptualize benefit quality change incorporated the disconfirmation, saw quality, SERVQUAL, and Six Sigma (Ladhari, 2008). Also, Mosahab, Mahamad & Ramayah, (2010) explained two different models in particular Berry’s model and Gronrros’ model, however put them inside the setting of the inner promoting hypothesis. Be that as it may, the previous models saw benefit quality from a thin point of view; none have had an all-encompassing perspective of value. This clarifies the irregularity in conceptualizing administration quality where the apparent administration quality continued to gauge clients’ fulfillment specifically.

Safety and Choice

In the food and refreshments business, most investigators are possessed with extending customer dedication; satisfied customers tend to return and make the advantage to business. The described buyer faithfulness as a measure of how the customer sees advantage movement. As indicated by Santouridis, and Trivellas, (2010), shopper dependability is a segment of organization execution concerning the customer seek. Thus, it is basic to perceive how customer covet is confined with a particular true objective to perceive the components of organization satisfaction. As (Yee et al. 2010) inspected the way that unmistakable customers have different cravings, in light of their understanding into a thing or administration. This can be surmised that a customer may survey what the organization execution will be or may think what the execution ought to be. If the organization execution meets or outperforms customers’ needs and wants, the customers will be satisfied. The services rendered by these businesses should meet the expectations of their customers to avoid frustrations and negativity towards the firm. As noted above, a more noteworthy number of fulfilled clients will make the lodging business more fruitful and more beneficial. Past research investigated consumer loyalty in regards to the administration nature of all territories in the lodging with the goal that the inn can evaluate the client observation. This examination distinguished five variables of administration quality by concentrating on the front office staff just, and investigated the customers and desires and observation levels of these services. The aftereffects of this quantitative appraisal of administration quality might give a few bits of knowledge into how clients rate the administration quality and evaluated customers and fulfillments.

There is a constant competition between business entities which offer similar goods and services globally. The measure of this competition keep rising annually and the need to enhance hierarchical execution has never been more prominent. Numerous businesses regularly spend adequate assets to pull in individuals who are appropriate for the higher positions. Frequently there are huge expenses related with drawing in, preparing and terminating of an awful or frustrating workers, and the cost of the more it takes to understand that a sufficiently representative not expanded. Hence, cautious choices are given toward beginning about who to get included can be very cumbersome. Thus, the group of the choice is made more than one individual to assess and select a viable representative.

The focal part of representatives in the hierarchical viability and service quality is recognized by analysts and experts (Siddiqi, 2011). The general population working in the organization, the source and reason for the utilization of different sources (Ladhari, 2008). Therefore, by methods for a viable determination framework, an organization's representatives are, fundamentally, a key resource.


Outlining the primary discoveries of this work, majority of clients are satisfied by the quality service offered by the restaurant, whereby most supporters being more fulfilled than first time guests.  Factor investigation of client information uncovered six elements (measurements) of outside administration quality, four of which (security and decision, sympathy, unwavering quality and responsiveness) were like those found in the writing while the other two (item and hierarchical picture) gave extra help to the perspective.


For one to raise the service quality delivery in the foods and beverage industry, one needs to employ and assess the regularly to ensure that their experience and services correlates with the needs and objectives of the firm. Both, the internal and external customers takes into critical consideration on attributes such as the reliability and high levels of quality in services offered by the internal providers. For restaurants and other similar outlets to make viable progress, they need to understand how their clients view their service quality, and to understand how to measure such quality. By measuring the service quality, the management is able to obtain vital information that they will subsequently use in offering quality services to their clients.

From the above, it can be seen that supervisors of food and beverages outlets should concentrate on ensuring that internal service quality is always upheld if they wish to enhance outside administration quality, e.g. improve internal correspondence and coordinated effort among offices that are connected in work process and help evacuate bottlenecks and take part in critical thinking (Gunawardane, 2011). Regarding particular arrangements that might be promptly actualized, discoveries demonstrate that it might be sufficient to gather information from internal clients (a less demanding assignment) with a specific end goal to get an inclination for the nature of service towards outside clients. Additionally, since outer clients detailed that they got institutionalized services, it might be a smart thought for internal providers (i.e. chefs, or those working in the kitchen) to be more adaptable with the goal that they may react to individualized client needs. At last, the consequences of this examination convey the consideration of specialists to the idea that while the item (i.e. sustenance) may fulfill needs of external clients (i.e. eatery benefactors), low quality of services may in any case negatively affect the general achievement.


Akbar, M. M., & Parvez, N. (2009). Impact of service quality, trust, and customer satisfaction on customers loyalty. ABAC Journal, 29(1).

Bouranta, N., Chitiris, L., & Paravantis, J. (2009). The relationship between internal and external service quality. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(3), 275-293.

Chou, C. C., Liu, L. J., Huang, S. F., Yih, J. M., & Han, T. C. (2011). An evaluation of airline service quality using the fuzzy weighted SERVQUAL method. Applied Soft Computing, 11(2), 2117-2128.

Dhurup, M. (2012). Determinants of internal service quality and the relationship with internal customer satisfaction. African Journal of Business Management, 6(11), 4185-4195.

Gonzalez, M. E. A., Comesana, L. R., & Brea, J. A. F. (2007). Assessing tourist behavioral intentions through perceived service quality and customer satisfaction. Journal of business research, 60(2), 153-160.

Gunawardane, G. (2011). Reliability of the internal service encounter. The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 28(9), 1003-1018. 

Hu, H. H., Kandampully, J., & Juwaheer, T. D. (2009). Relationships and impacts of service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and image: an empirical study. The service industries journal, 29(2), 111-125.

Johnston, R. (2008). Internal service - barriers, flows and assessment. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 19(2), 210-231. 

Kumar, M., Tat Kee, F., & Taap Manshor, A. (2009). Determining the relative importance of critical factors in delivering service quality of banks: an application of dominance analysis in SERVQUAL model. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 19(2), 211-228.

Kuo, Y. F., Wu, C. M., & Deng, W. J. (2009). The relationships among service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and post-purchase intention in mobile value-added services. Computers in human behavior, 25(4), 887-896.

Ladhari, R. (2008). Alternative measures of service quality: a review. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 18(1), 65-86.

Mosahab, R., Mahamad, O., & Ramayah, T. (2010). Service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty: A test of mediation. International business research, 3(4), 72.

Santouridis, I., & Trivellas, P. (2010). Investigating the impact of service quality and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty in mobile telephony in Greece. The TQM Journal, 22(3), 330-343.

Siddiqi, K. O. (2011). Interrelations between service quality attributes, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the retail banking sector in Bangladesh. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(3), 12.

Yee, R. W., Yeung, A. C., & Cheng, T. E. (2010). An empirical study of employee loyalty, service quality and firm performance in the service industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 124(1), 109-120.

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