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Explain the historical and cultural origins of different meat and seafood products and meat and seafood dishes
b) Interpret legislative requirements pertaining to special dietary requirements in Australia
d) Compare a variety of culinary preparation techniques for meat, seafood, and shellfish dishes

Choose one (1) significant cultural or historical event that has influenced Australia’s contemporary meat and seafood cuisine.
- Discuss how this event has influenced Australia’s meat and seafood supply, and the subsequent changes to: menus, specific dishes, specific new products available in the marketplace, cooking methods and serving styles at the time.
- Identify and discuss how this event has impacted the environment and may have even challenged government policy.
- Name and describe four (4) specific dishes and two (2) changes in serving styles that have arisen from this and changed the Australian way of eating.

History of Indigenous Australians and Australian Cuisine

Indigenous Australians has a historical impact on food practices of Australia. Indigenous Australians are the historic people of Australia. Mungo Man and Mungo Lady are the earliest humans found in Australia (Nam, Jo & Lee, 2010). Indigenous Australians have a number of cultures and a great diversity among different communities and societies of indigenous people, everyone with their own mixture of culture, customs, and language. World War II brought about many changes in Australian cuisine. People brought new crops, seasoning and cooking methods from Europe and Asia.

Meat has been a large part of the Australian diet, the consumption of meat has decreased at the end of the twentieth century. Now Australian meals are more diverse simply cooked meat and three vegs are popular. Most popular dish of Asia i.e. stirred fry or chicken curry and annual sales of sushi are increasing to rival the traditional meat. Earlier indigenous people eat more beef every year, but currently, modern people eat chicken more. The consumption of mutton and lamb has decreased to one-fifth of the previous level. Except for seafood, all regularly eaten foods were introduced after European settlement.

Microwave cooking helps the speed of cooking the process by Australian people, and this also helps to keep their kitchen cool and clean. There are so many changes in food preference patterns. Meat consumption was started to decline in 1940s after 1960s poultry consumption has increased since 1930 there here has been a doubling of seafood. Therefore, in the 1950s there is a rapid growth in the consumption of fruit and vegetable. Australia deals more in everything that is required to make a decent meal. In Australia the cuisine is more simple and easy. The effect of environmental disparity is highly apparent in the out-dated culture of indigenous Australians. Primarily variations in climate are the most significant factor of change. Due to less rainfall in Australia can cause a problem in water quality and availability (Simoons, 2014).

Four specific dishes of Australia

  1. John Dory Fillets: - In Australia, John Dory is a popular fish variety cuisine. It is commonly found in water including Sydney Harbour. Maltreated and deep-fried and presented with chips, or it is cooked in a pan with herbal oil served with crushed potato with salad, this is handy, and meat fish are the most popular food in
  2. Barbecued snags: - Australia is famous for barbecue. Australian snags are the heart of people living there from the traditional chicken or grumble, to those flavored with basils and seasonings from all across the world. The snag is something disheveled in roll or a piece of bread covered with sauce and served with some cooked onion on top with potatoes on the side (Schösler, De Boer & Boersema, 2012).
  3. Prawn Cocktail: - Traditional seafood appetizer is a Prawn Cocktail. This is prepared up of bombed prawns with dressing by tomato and mayonnaise, and then it is presented in a glass or many times served in a lettuce
  4. Sausage rolls: - Sausage rolls are draped in pie and oven baked. Australians eat these rolls as their lunch. Australia like the taste of good sausage rolls. Cooking influences from around the world to create exclusive taste involvements and a actual Australian food.
  5. Two changes in serving style in Australian food
  1. In 1950s meat was always the main meal for Australians for Whether meat is served as a hearty sausage, beef, lamb chops or mixed grill. This was a weekly ritual for many Australians during that time. Families would join each other at the dining table and everyone will eat roast lamb or beef. Now things are much more different. A typical weekly dinner is replaced with the bowl of pasta with sauce, vegetable stir-fries, salads or simple vegetable dish.
  2. Earlier desert was not a ritual for Australian people and even not necessarily enjoyed every night. In 1950s weeknight dessert was a bowl of jelly or fruit served with cream. Now Australian people are more likely to have a bowl of premium ice- cream with peanut butter and caramel to chocolate and cherry ripple or sticky date pudding (Horng, & Tsai, 2010).
  3. PART: - B
  4. Six (6) current restaurant menus, and analyze the different meat and seafood: products, cuts, preparation techniques, cooking methods, sauces, and garnishes

Restaurant Name

Menu Analysis

1.      Attica

Different types of meat and seafood are Prawns, Clams, Sea flora, and Sea urchin. Cooking methods are they soak fish in fresh water to remove sand. Garnishes with one small packet of prawn floss. Served with sea flora like sea lettuce, samphire and saltbush (Stern, 2010).

2.      Marque

Different types of meat recipes are Foie Gras and Beetroot, Fried Duck Egg with Bonito Butter. Cooked to medium rare when it feels soft with the blunt tongs. Roasted and served with finished tomatoes and mushrooms and garnish that add texture to the finished dish.  

3.      Vue de Monde Beef

Different meat and seafood are beef, bone marrow. Dijon mustard. To prepare beef they clean off sinew and fat. Cook in water at 58C, then place into an ice bath until it cool. To serve beef they wrap apple ribbon around the beef and place it on the plate. Garnish with roasted and pickled onions and the herbs and flowers (Sharma, Jacob, Tandon, & Kumar, 2010).

4.      Sepia

Sepia is heavily focused on Australia’s extraordinary seafood. Served with little spots of prawn mayonnaise. Garnish with grilled mushroom and very light tempura of prawn.

5.      Rockpool

Rockpool menu is mainly focused on seafood and beef. Garnish with a rainbow of carrots, baby turnips, tufts of fennel greens and rounds of radish laid over a slick of garlic sauce.

6.      Royal Mail

Royal Mail menu focuses on beef products like Brook trout, beetroots, and smoked paprika. They marinate the beef with corn-starch and soy sauce. Served with Chinese brown sauce (Charlebois, Sterling, Haratifar & Naing, 2014).

Three (3) most common Categories and examples

  1. Red Meat: - Red Meat is a popular food in Australia. Red Meat is a rich source of protein, fat, iron, zinc and vitamin B. To help red blood cells for transport oxygen iron is needed. Children, elderly people, and pregnant women are the people who have a deficiency of iron. The strong immune system is build up and for DNA synthesis Zinc is needed. Example of Red Meat is Pork, Ham, Lamb, Beef, etc.
  2. White Meat: - White meat is pale in color before and after cooking. Poultry meat is the most common kind of white meat. Poultry white meat is prepared up with muscle fibers, while red or dark meat is prepared up of muscles with fibers. Examples are Poultry includes rabbit, the flesh of milk-fed young mammals, fish, etc.
  3. Seafood: - Seafood is the form of food which is found in the sea. It includes trawl, lobster, and Lobster includes the type of mollusks, shellfish, and echinoderms. Sea creatures like monsters and dolphins are also consumed as food (Bone, Head, Barraclough, Archer, Scheib, Flight & Voulvoulis, 2010).


Four (4) food allergens related to meat and seafood and the symptoms and prevalence of these meat and seafood food allergens


Shellfish can cause an allergic reaction; the most likely to be eaten by humans are prawns, crabs, lobsters, shrimps, and abalone. People who suffer from a shellfish allergy can be affected by snails, mites, cockroaches, and dust (Smith, & Acton, 2010).

Changes in Australian Food Preferences

The symptoms of shellfish allergy are:-

  • Itchy in the mouth.
  • Vomiting, diarrhea, and
  • Irritation in the skin.
  • Fainting and dizziness.
  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • Swelling on the throat.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Increase in pulse rate.

People should be very careful when it comes to shellfish because just a piece of shellfish can cause a serious reaction.

Hen’s Eggs

Eggs are an essential ingredient in many kitchens and meals. People suffer from an egg allergy mainly because of hen’s egg.  Allergy to eggs mainly affects young children (Rebora, 2010).

The symptoms of Hen’s Egg allergy are:-

  • Infection in the skin.
  • Sneezing and nasal congestion.
  • Stomach pain and diarrhea.
  • Coughing, the problem with

Therefore medical professionals recommend avoiding the ingestion of eggs or products containing egg. Eggs are also used as medicines and cosmetics as well.

Cow’s Milk

Cow Milk is one of the utmost frequent allergies across the world. People are likely to be affected by the lactose or the milk protein who suffer from an allergy to milk. A milk allergy can also cause difficulty in gaining weight or height.

The symptoms of milk allergy are:-

  • Irritation in the skin.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Coughing, sneezing and runny nose.

For example soymilk or almond milk is the substitutes of milk for people who have a milk allergy. Milk has a number of nutrients in it so avoiding milk altogether is difficult.  


Fish allergies are more common in people with a high rate of seafood consumption. Approximately 1 percent of the world’s population suffers from seafood allergy (Bach-Faig, et. al., 2011).

The symptoms of seafood allergy are:-

  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Swelling in throat, nose, and
  • Skin allergy.

People who are allergic to fish are also allergic to shellfish. It is important that food handlers maintain a high level of safety in preparing food and disclose every ingredient they use in cooking.

Five (5) important measures to minimize the instance of a meat or seafood allergic incident happening in Australia

  • We should keep raw meat, hen, and seafood in separate plastic bags to preserve their juices by keeping away from other foods. As from the juices of the raw meat bacteria can come. Therefore raw meat should be placed on the lowest shelf so that the danger of drenched juice on other food should be avoided.
  • If we are planning not to use meat within a few days of buying then it must be kept in the freezer for melting at a later date.
  • Plastic or glass surface plates must be used for chopping raw meats.
  • To cut seafood, raw meat and poultry one should use a chopping board.
  • While cooking keeps the kitchen clean and free from all bacteria and properly label the indigents before we use it (Kim, 2015). 


Bach-Faig, A., Berry, E. M., Lairon, D., Reguant, J., Trichopoulou, A., Dernini, S. & Serra-Majem, L. (2011). Mediterranean diet pyramid today. Science and cultural updates. Public health nutrition, 14(12A), 2274-2284.

Bone, J., Head, M., Barraclough, D., Archer, M., Scheib, C., Flight, D. & Voulvoulis, N. (2010). Soil quality assessment under emerging regulatory requirements. Environment International, 36(6), 609-622.

Charlebois, S., Sterling, B., Haratifar, S. & Naing, S. K. (2014). Comparison of global food traceability regulations and requirements. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 13(5), 1104-1123.

Horng, J. S. & Tsai, C. T. S. (2010). Government websites for promoting East Asian culinary tourism: A cross-national analysis. Tourism Management, 31(1), 74-85.

Kim, K. O. (2015). Rice cuisine and cultural practice in contemporary Korean dietary life. Re-orienting Cuisine: East Asian Foodways in the Twenty-First Century, 3, 71.

 Nam, K. C., Jo, C. & Lee, M. (2010). Meat products and consumption culture in the East. Meat Science, 86(1), 95-102.

Rebora, G. (2010). Culture of the Fork: A Brief History of Everyday Food and Haute Cuisine in Europe. New York City: Columbia University Press.

Schösler, H., De Boer, J. & Boersema, J. J. (2012). Can we cut out the meat of the dish? Constructing consumer-oriented pathways towards meat substitution. Appetite, 58(1), 39-47.

Sharma, A., Jacob, A., Tandon, M. & Kumar, D. (2010). Orphan drug: development trends and strategies. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 2(4), 290.

Simoons, F. J. (2014). Food in China: a cultural and historical inquiry. Florida: CRC Press.

Smith, D. P. & Acton, J. C. (2010). Marination, cooking, and curing of poultry products. Poultry Meat Processing. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 311-336.

Stern, B. R. (2010). Essentiality and toxicity in copper health risk assessment: overview, update, and regulatory considerations. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 73(2-3), 114-127.

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