Food Production and Supply
Write about the Report on "Is Food Security Really Just About Food".
Venessa Barrington. The green plate: The 10 biggest issues with the global food system. Ecosalon publishers. October 5, 2010.
Food security has become a matter of concern is most regions across the world reaching the level of becoming global issue. Food security broardly include the conditions associeted with food supply and access to food. Food security, therefore, is not only about food but also about factors influencing food supply, availability and access. Supply of food on the one hand, sorounds food production. food access include factors that affect transportation and marketing of food commodities. Some factors that affects the food production while other factors affect economics of food leading to improved food security or reduction of food security. The following paper examines food production and supply factors and food acces and nutrition as determinants of food security.
There are various factors that affect production and supple of food commodities. These factors include geopolitical factors, food production labour, human migration and settlemnt patterns, human activities, global food policies, developmental goals, regionality in production and energy requirement for food production.
When examining the issue of food security there is need for considering the geopolitical environment. According to Brown L., there is connection that exist between food price and geopolitics. Geopolitical factors influences both the food production which and food prices in the international market and local market. Brown, L. examines the effects of the food prices on people’s life citing strategies used by richer nations to solve food crisis. Furthermore, the effect of climatic change on crop production need the solution through crops that use less water. In effort to solve food security issues, richer countries forms secrets farming contracts with the local government to cultivate food and industrial crops that has high prices. Food security is not just about food instead of food security require examination of geopolitical environment that influences food production and marketing.
Food security requires examination of labour as factor affecting food production. Quisumbing, A., Brown,L., Feldstein, H., Haddad, L. and Pena, C, interestingly present report that shows women as the key source of labour that influence to the food security. There are evidence that shows minimal labour available to increase food production. Men are rerely involved in production henec the role played by women in food economics is great despite gender inequalities. Gender inequalities and poverty undermines role of women in food production affecting the food security. In addition, women play role in ensuring good family nutrition thus improving food security. Women maintain nutrition among children and when a woman get the adequate education, employment and the empoverment nutrition status of the family also improves. There is also need to adopt use of current technology in food production to improve food security.
Food production is influence by human migration and settlemnt patterns. Urbanization is typical example of settlement patthern that influence food consumption and lowers agricultural food production. According to Satterthwaite, D, G McGranahan, and C Tacoli, there is connection between the number of food producers, food consumers and the impact of increasing urbanization trends. The increase in refugues issues is one of the key factor that affect both food production and increaes food consumption. Continous migration on the other lowers food production affecting food security. Rural urban migration increases food requirement and consumption in urban areas, the number of consumers increased with no change in number of producers hence the trend remain the same. Food security therefore includes human migration and settlement patterns.
Global food policies are key determinants of food security. Global Food Policy Report is a report on food policy published by IFPRI at the biginning examining food policies in relation to global food issues. The currents food policies present challenges to sustainable food productions systems. The primary purpose of food policies should evaluate performance of food policies in sustainable food production and food availability. There is need to reshape global food systems which is key to tackle food security issues. Food security, therefore, involves the review of food policies toward the good of sustainability.
Food security needs consideration of developmental goals set by international communities. The state of global food insecurity published by The Food and Agricultural Organization rewiews the progress developmental goals. FAO through the Sustainable Development shows that to solve the food malnutrition there is the need for sustainable political commitments that reduce hunger thus improving food security. In addition, the report shows that there is the need for good food enabling environments. A study conducted in seven different countries to identify the food security environments shows that different countries have responded differently to goals that influences global food security. Few countries recognizes importance of sustainable development goals thus remaining food insecure through out the year.
Food security is about adoption of current technology in food production and distribution. Prahlad, K. (2009) presents the implication of technology in food production as the way of improving food security. There are various technologies that can be used to increaes food production, distribution and marketing. Technologies such as biotechnology, information technology and nanotechnology can be used in crop improvement. The article explores technological resources available that with the view to asses their usefulness in improving food production and subsequently food security. Food security is not about food but about food production technological improvement.
Labor and Employment
Embrace science to address global food security is an article written by Sara Wyant in 2016 to show usefulness of technology and innovation to solve the global security issues. The author cite biotechnology as one of the new technology that needs to be embraced to improve food production as a strategy for food security improvement. The author further indicates that all is not about food security; it is about nutrition improvement and poverty reduction. The author uses literature review approach to examine the research works by different writers on the technology topic. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance and uses of technology in the improvement of food production. The overall article has good technological findings though it only concentrates on biotechnology that is not acceptable by most countries.
Regionality of food production is another factor that influences food security. The burden of food importation is globally felt on food prices. Joel, K. and bourne J. (2009) analyzes the burden of food production that causes of food crisis. Studies shows that most of food are produced in different places across the world and when trasnported raises the cost of production. The burden of food production is often felt when there is the increase in food prices. According to the report the food crisis felt globally need the critical examination of food production systems. Food crisis witnessed through burden of food production greatly influence food security. The only challenge is on how to localize food production as many countries still remain underdeveloped. Much effort need to put in local food product in order to resuce importation cost. This strategy can help reduce cost of food production lowering food prices hence improved food security.
The food security issue is tied to the energy and energy sources used in food production. Application of bio-fuels in food production is most likely to reduce food prices downwards. Lantz B. and Hertel, T. cites that there is most likely that the food prices will reduce downward with introduction of bio-fuels as the alternative source of energy used in food production. As most of writers show that food prices will continue to increase Lantz B, and Hertel, T. (2016) proves that bio-fuels will reduce oil prices lowering food prices.
Human activities such as industrialization, deforestation and overcultivation influences food security. Venessa, B. cites food safety, socio-economic factors, declining natural food production systems and poor agricultural productions as factors that affect food the availability. Industrialization causes environmental pollution that threatens existence of natural resources. Different food productions systems and their effect on natural food systems affect the availability of the food that is consumed by individuals globally. Food producers needs to adopt better agricultural production for increasing food availability and limit environmental pollution as food security strategy. Good agricultural production leads to increase food availability thus improving food security.
Global Food Policies
Climatic change is another key determinant of food security that needs to be examined. Research conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (2016) show that climatic change is most likely to cause poor agricultural production. The erratic climatic change has the detrimental effect on the soil, forest and ocean causing poor agricultural food production. In event to expand on the effect of climatic change affects communities that largely depend on farming, pastoral and fishing as source of livelihood are most likely to be affected. Those communities that largely depend on natural ways to produce food are the casualties of climatic change. Food security form this point of view requires adoption of irrigation and other controlled agricultural production environments.
To understand food security there is need to understand factors that influence access to food and nutrition. Some of the factors that determine access to food and nutrition are socio-economic factors, consumption trends and drivers, infrastructure, people’s culture and food wastes.
Caswell, J, and Yaktine, A. (2013) present socio-econmic factors that influence the choice of food consumed by individuals and households in. socio-economic factors that influence food consumed by individual consist of factors that affect acquiring, preparation and consumption of food. Firstly, the choice of food consumed as a factor affecting food security is determined chiefly by time availability, food preference and resources availability for purchasing food. These factors influence the choice of food consumed resulting in good or poor nutrition. Secondly, social and economic issues also relates to food procurement, preparation and consumption to explaind dynamics of food security. Therefore, the issue of food security indicating that the process of acquiring, preparing and consuming food are important food security aspects. In contrast, the author give no information on food production since food production also affect food consumption.
The food security also encompasses food consumption trends and drivers as described by Kearney, J. (2010) shows the key drivers for increase food consumption trends that are seen across the world. The increased agricultural production has increased food availability resulting in increase food consumption. Consumption of food such as cereals, meat, eggs and dairy product has increase globally and is promising to remain the same. There is indication that the increase food consumsion trend has a projection up to the year 2050. The statistical data available on food consumption to trends and drivers shows that food security need careful consideration of ways to increase food production. FAO (2011) affirms the infrastructure as driver of food consumption since infrastructure influence marketing of food that has been produced. Infrastructure facilitate trade leading to access to food in different places. Development of road network is important as it ensures that food commodities are transported to places it can be access by individuals. Morover, infrastructure facilitate importation of food commodities from one country to another.
Technology and Innovation
Food security revolve around people’s culture and cultural preference. Reseach shows that food consumption culture differs globally. Western cultures has embrace consumption of junk foods while most cultures ecourage consumption of stapple food. Global food crisis has triggered cultural shift towards junk food consumption. The culture shift involve adopting of junk food consumption as a eating culture contrary to staple food. High food prices and high poverty level in developing country have cause people living in this regions to change food their culture. The cultural change is used as the way to improve food security and solve the food crisis though this junk food contain simple ingredients such as sugar, starch and fats.
Food security also need consideration of amount of food wasted and environmental consequences. A research published by Ron, N. shows the effect of food wasted in the united states landfills on food security and environment. The research indicates that many tons of food decompose in landfills which is economic social and environmental issue. Though the food mostly is wasted in the United States, the effect is felt globally since the decomposing food produces gasses that eventually cause climatic change. Ron creates awareness to the government, environmentalists and the global community on the effect of wasting food. The prevention of food wasting is key to solving food crisis and improving food security. As various contries strive to maintain or solve food security, some reasonable amount of food is wasted. It is therefore important to consider food wastested.
Brown, LR. “The New Geopolitics of Food.” The Food Issue: 57-62, 2011.
Caswell, J, and A. Yaktine. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US), 2013.
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Climate Change Undermine Global Food Security. Jordan news agency (Petra ): Rome, Italy, 2016.
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Women – Key to Food Security. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2011.
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The State of Food Insecurity in The World 2014: Sustainable Development. United Nations, 2014. https//www.fao.org/publication/sofi/2014/en/
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). 2016 Global Food Policy Report: How We Feed The World Is Unsustainable. Global Agricultural Research Partnership: CGAR, April 22, 2016. https//www.ifpri.org/gfpr/2016
Joel, K. and bourne Jr. The Global Food Crisis: National Geographic Society . June 2009.
Kearney, John. “Food Consumption Trends and Drivers.” Philosophical Transactions About the Royal Society B: 365(1554): 2793–2807, 2010.
Lantz Baldos, and Thomas Herte. Debunking the ‘new normal’: Why world food prices are expected to resume their long run downward trend. West Lafayette, USA, March 2016, 1(1): 27–38.
Prahlad Kasturi. “Technology and food security”, Humanomics, 25(2): 163-168. Ranford, Virginia USA: Emarald Group Publishing Limited, 2009.
Quisumbing, AR, LR Brown, HS Feldstein, L Haddad, and C Pena. 1995.Women: The Key to FoodSecurity. Food Policy Report, Washington DC: The International Food Policy Research Institute.
Ron Nixon. “Food Waste Becoming Serious Economic And Environmental Issue.” New York Times: Washington, February 25, 2015. https//www.mobile.anytime.com/2015/02/26/us/food-waste-is-becoming-economic-and-environmental-issue-report-says.html?_r=0
Satterthwaite, D, G McGranahan, and C Tacoli.. “Urbanization and its implications for food and farming.” Satterthwaite D, McGranahan G, Tacoli C. Urbanization and itsimplPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences:365(1554):2809-2820, 2010.
Sara Wyant. Vilsack: Embrace science to address global food security. Agri-Pulse Communications Inc. Iowa, 2016. https//www.Agri-Pulse.com
Vidal John. Global Food Crisis Triggered Cultural Shift Toward Junk Food. New York: The Oxfarm and Institute For Development, 2016.
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