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Present State of DSS

Describe about the Database Management for Managers and Decision Makers.

Managers and decision makers in an entity use computer-based decision support system to make vital, decisions inherent to an organization. Managers are faced with the hurdle of selecting the best choice among alternative solutions. Findings from Acito, & Khatri (2014) publication denoted that computer-based decision support system has the capabilities of analyzing information fast. Empirically, the initial decision faced by manager includes increasing the market share, increase business productivity and enhance the quality of good and service delivery. A  DSS is an interactive computer-based database with people, procedures, telecommunication, and devices that aid decision makers to solve structured and non-structured business problems (Atkinson et al. 2013).

DSS support system has evolved over time from simple oriented mode to advanced multi-function database systems. The entity databases are connected with mainframe computers, which managers use to come up with structured and periodic reports. Other decisions supported by the database include production, pricing, marketing, and logistical functions. Advanced database technology has embraced client and server technologies that provide real-time analytics of the market and consumer behavior. Many entities have started to upgrade their data warehousing, object-oriented technology (OBT) and Network Infrastructure. The upgrade has a mark on Decision Support system (DSS) in firms. Additionally, the rapid evolution of the Internet-based capabilities has made DSS a reality.  

Presently, there are many new innovative systems such as OLAP, Sage, and Pastel. All these computer based database systems have had a profound role in aiding managers make vital decisions for an entity.  According to Baltzan  (2012), the conceptual framework of these data based models is essential in understanding the actualization of a DSS in a firm. Managers mainly use DSS  for searching,  retrieving and analyzing data. Users of this database system search for co-relation between data, analyze the data, allow for trend analysis, and create reports (Chang, 2016). Additionally, managers can carry out the conjoint analysis by having alternative scenario by asking “what if”’ queries. Subsequently, DSS supports both strategic and tactical decisions which are employed to, leverage manager experience in a particular field. This paper hence presents a detailed literature review on how could business decisions be better supported with databases.

This proposal envisions in the completion of the research project on how could business decisions be made better supported with databases. Presently, many publications have affirmed the role of computer-based database systems in decision-making. The DSS is made up of the transaction system that provides the manager with real-time information used for decision-making. The emphasis of the computer-based database does not focus on information quantity, but rather the quality. Characteristics of data quality include relevancy, timeliness, accurateness, unbiased and consistency. My main objectives in this paper will be:

  • Exploring the impact of a database in business decision making.
  • Identification of the merits of using database system   in business decision-making
  • Establishing the factors that have led to the success of database system in business decision making.

Research Question

 The study hypothesis for this study will be

  • Every manager relies on database management system to make the vital decision in a firm.
  • Many organizations have adopted the data based systems in their decision-making chain
  • Adoption of the database management systems has a profound impact on decision making in an entity.

Managers in the business organization have a reason to adopt the database management systems in the decision-making process as denoted by Coronel & Morris (2016). The main research question will be; what is the impact of adoption of database systems in business decision making?

Before technology development, many organizations had a long decision-making process. It was essential for companies to consider embracing technology when making vital decisions. Earlier purchasing managers had a challenge in inventory tracking. Inventory would be easily lost since tracking mechanisms were cumbersome and inefficient. The introduction of DSS computer based systems presents a better way where business decisions are made efficiently. The database decision-making system can provide comparative sales figures, projected revenues and consequences off past decision making. Top tier management uses DSS to make strategic decisions; middle-level management can use to make the tactical decision while the lower level management uses it for day-to-day operations. The rationale for this paper is to depict that database management systems can be used to control inefficiencies in decision-making.

Data based Cloud connectivity in inventory management

Hair (2015) denotes the use of cloud connectivity technology to track and manage inventory in real time. Private cloud computing will increase track and manage inventory efficiency from about 63%  to about 78% thus driving SCM management adoption up from 58% to about  71%. Additionally, there will be a shift of more enterprise workloads to cloud computing. 17% of SCM process is tracked by cloud computing technologies. Use of Source tagging to keep track on inventory and stocks is necessary.  A data based tagging solution has been taunted as the best way of tracking inventory from the point of purchase to the warehouse (Hernandez, 2013).

To align supply and demand,   managers ‘may use network cloud that will track market changes. Managers can use the cloud connectivity system to adapt to seasonal trend and other fluctuation that may occur in the market. The cloud connectivity technologies such as e- procurement network are an essential feature that can be used by managers ‘to predict supply chain disruption and adapt quickly to business processes (Hubbard, 2014).This system will enable managers ‘to know the entire supply chain, not just suppliers, but also the source of the vendor's merchandise. The e-procurement network will aid Managers in responding to risk pro-actively by creating precautionary measures against inventory management. Firms should have a cloud based product code-named NetScaler. This e-procurement software Product is competing against established products such as F5 Networks and A10 networks. NetScaler present an ideal internet based SCM application software solution (I??k et al. 2013). However, the company should put in efforts to make sure it perfects it e- procurement software in tracking and managing inventory.  Projected analysis for Microsoft Cloud Product has been used by managers to track the movement of inventory. CRM, Azure, and Office365 are expected to be adopted by many firms in 2018. Additionally, Amazon data Web services will generate about $7.78 Billion of income in 2019. Efficiency in the cloud computing industry is set to intensify because of entry of IBM in the provision of private and hybrid cloud infrastructure service (Jarke et al. 2013).

Justification and Potential Output

Managers’ use Source tagging to determine the volume and location of all merchandise across all distribution channels. Source tagging is an important SCM mechanism of inventory tracking thus minimizing wastage. Managers’ (CEO) may continue monitoring stock level and replenish the stocks when sensor detect stock is running out of control. Essentially, a more precise level of visibility ensures that the retailer has the information on the product in the supply chain (Johnson, 2014).Managers ‘may also embrace having a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) that will allow her pinpoint inventory at the three branches in real time.

Essentially, ABC systems assign each cost to products and services. Managers may use the idea of this management accounting tool to improve operations of the company (Kaufmann & Wittman, 2016). They can utilize this robust estimation method to measure the performance of his entity. Additionally, he can use ABC to identify, describe, and assign the cost. ABC costing system is more efficient than the traditional costing method because Managers can use ABC costing to identify opportunities that will improve the effectiveness of business processes (Österle, 2013).The real value of stock, are ascertained through ABC method. Managers ‘can assign the value to each item thus gaining the better understanding of productivity of each item. The company corporate strategy involves embracing business and accelerating mobile technology by having a smooth decision-making process within SCM departments in the entity

The standalone software uses data from ERP and WMS to evaluate the entire network and determine the best inventory prices for each outdoor product sold. The optimizations tools take into account in demand and supply variability by determining the amount of inventory to be held. The popularity of these tools can be attributed to their ability to provide optimization capabilities (Peirson et al. 2014). However, Managers ‘must make sure that the systems are free from human intervention because if tampered they cannot depict the real inventory variability.

The days of cash flow management vis Excel spreadsheets are over. Managers ‘should adopt a great operation and sales plan solution that use unifies model of demand and financial data. Managers can use this analytics to determine an efficiency of each branch cash management systems.  Also, they can perform rapid, scenario planning and carry simulation thus supporting planning and cash flow management (Power et al. 2015). Having, a centralized platform where one picture of inventory and cost is shared, Managers will have real-time information on cash movement readily available.

Conceptual Framework: Literature Review

Managers’ are obliged to conduct an in-depth evaluation and implement revised inventory and purchasing program. .Moreover, the sales plan for all departments should be sent to SCM in the head office. Inventory process from branches should be consolidated into one system; The SCM department communicates with the purchase managers in offices to prepare a procurement plan. Additionally, Managers’ should come up with an inventory process that embraced demand and supply in the market.( Rodríguez-Enríquez et al., 2006). The new program should evaluate forecasts, ordering procedures with detailed analysis by SKUs. Managers will realize that simulation of inventory will yield saving opportunities. Managers ‘ought to adopt an action plan to restructure firm inventory and purchasing functions.

For business efficiency; Managers’ are deemed to make all branches purchase supply and demand management to be amalgamated to one fold controlled by the CEO. These sales department, Logistics, and production should be integrated and transferred to the SCM of the head office. Efficiency would be realities when the SCM department receives an order from customers and comes up with a procurement plan .To ensure branch efficiency; Managers’ should institute Key performance index metrics on the purchase and inventory management department.Managers ‘should replenish systems, evaluate vendor orders, and receipt cycles. They will understand that operation costs of the inventory value will be reduced to 25%. Moreover, the product list volume will increase from 20% to 40%.

Data based systems can be used by managers to enhance business communication. Communication between staff members is done via the signal flags. They act as multiplexers. Each student is assigned a multiplexer (a line sharing device) that will group small streams of traffic together and align them to achieve a high capacity speed transmission. At the end of transmission, a multiplier allows transmission of messages emanating from multiple sources, while also maintaining separation between words. Staff members use the time division multiplexing (TDM)   where signals from each device are separated into single bit periods. The lead controller interleaves the signals altogether and merges them into one multiplexed signal.Our system embraces message clarity. With a combination of the color folder signal and different body language to communicate, we believe our message will be sent quickly and accurately. To enhance clarity, the manager utilizes his or her own Open System Interconnection model (OSI) model (Rosu et al. 2012, July). The application layer enabled the student’s application programs to interact with the networks. We could have used the application layer for database management or mail transfer. The model also incorporated the presentation layer. Specifically, this layer defines the way data from all student is presented, coded, and converted. Although the staff member usually gives handwritten information, the presentation layer transmits the message in language a computer can understand.

Data Based Cloud Connectivity in Inventory Management

Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix is an efficient management tool in auditing and evaluation of the large internal strengths and subsequent weaknesses in the functional areas in an organization. Moreover, the matrix provides a basis for evaluation of relationships among functional areas of business. Mainly, this data based model is used by managers as a strategy formulation technique. In some aspects, this method correlates with the balanced scorecard. Besides, the IFE matrix uses internal factors, weaknesses, and strengths to evaluate the competitive position of an entity in the industry. Further, the company resources and capabilities are used   to compare the industry success to the post of the company in the same industry

Innovation that changes the cloud connectivity starts at this stage. Decision-making between departments starts mainly in three business units namely; Workspace services, mobility apps and Workspace Services. Communication between these units is executed through virtualization, networking, data sharing, web collaboration and IT support. Marketing and Communication team drives firm’s mission and vision around the globe (Zikmund 2013). Further, this team is tasked with branding and creation on the corporation image. This team has incorporated corporate branding,   product marketing, alliance marketing, and field marketing. Further, e-commerce and creation of SMB demand are implemented within this department.

Decision making for this entity in issues regarding accounting, financial planning, and investor decision are made in the head office. Moreover, the organization responsibility for supply chain management, global IT strategy, and partnership with other businesses are executed in the head office while communication is conveyed to the branches. The finance department holds the responsibility for shipping teams, facilities, and purchasing. Human Resources Managers considers database recruitment softwares for hiring and placement. Specifically, the HR have as strategic look at the entity with a complete emphasis on retaining a talented and a motivated workforce, Some of the profound HR services include Hiring and staffing, learning and development, compensation, consulting, corporate citizenship and employee citizenship

The operational steps of research from the hypothesis to final data analysis are known research methodology as denoted by Scholz (2012). On the other hand, the study design is the analysis of data, which aims at combining research relevance with the underlying procedure. The design involves observational. Sampling and operational design for the study on how could business decisions be better supported with databases. Profoundly, the study will embrace quantitative and qualitative study methods.

According to Zikmund et al. (2013), the sampling design adopted in the survey is based on representational analysis of the survey. Random sampling will be used when evaluating research variables. The study will make sure manager selected have adopted database management techniques in decision-making.

Data Based Source Tagging in Decision Making

Random questionnaires will be distributed to all randomly selected managers. Consequently, the study will come up with a record of executives’ respondents as it comes up with the kind of information to be filled in the data. Random sampling is favored since it simple to use and capable of data and sampling method (Stein et al. (2013)

The observable method in this study involves a different method of collecting primary and secondary data. Researchers prefer survey method in the collection of primary data. However, this study will embrace direct interviews carried on managers in the chosen organizations. The questionnaires will be tailored towards the collection of information regarding the impact of a database system in decision-making (Simon, 2013).

The interview method will involve a presentation of oral verb response from the targeted managers. This interview method is fastest and the most flexible method used to identify relevant question used in this study

The study questionnaires will be formulated on the basis globally accepted security privacy regulations. The majority of the research questions are subjective to a no or yes answer. Other questionnaires will be multiple-choice questions. After filling the questionnaires, they are forwarded to the respective HR department for collection.

Statistical tools are crucial as the help the researcher to analyze data collected and design the research process thus researchers can draw the conclusion of the study. Additionally, the tools are important in testing the research hypothesis. In this study, SPSS statistical software and advanced Excel analytics will be used as data analysis tools. ANOVA test will be used to experimental data variability. Chi-Squares tests will be used to extract data from excel. Hypothesis testing will be evaluated using significance levels generated from cross-tabulation of collected data.

First, the progress of the research project will involve sending the request to carry background checks on decisions reached by management in different institutions. Subsequently, it will be followed by identifying chosen data collection methods to collect the necessary data for research. The main challenge we are likely to face financial hurdles when carrying this whole process.


Cost in USD ($)


$ 200


$ 100



Data analysis

$ 150


$ 490.00



Data collection


Data Analysis


Report presentation





Acito, F., & Khatri, V. (2014). Business analytics: Why now and what next?.Business Horizons, 57(5), 565-570.

Atkinson, M., Baxter, R., Brezany, P., Corcho, O., Galea, M., Parsons, M., ... & van Hemert, J. (Eds.). (2013). The data bonanza: improving knowledge discovery in science, engineering, and business (Vol. 90). John Wiley & Sons.

Baltzan, P. (2012). Business driven technology. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Chang, J. F. (2016). Business process management systems: strategy and implementation. CRC Press

Coronel, C., & Morris, S. (2016). Database systems: design, implementation, & management. Cengage Learning.

Hair, J. F. (2015). Essentials of business research methods. ME Sharpe.

Hernandez, M. J. (2013). Database design for mere mortals: a hands-on guide to relational database design. Pearson Education.

Hubbard, D. W. (2014). How to measure anything: Finding the value of intangibles in business. John Wiley & Sons.

I??k, Ö., Jones, M. C., & Sidorova, A. (2013). Business intelligence success: The roles of capabilities and decision environments. Information & Management, 50(1), 13-23.

Jarke, M., Lenzerini, M., Vassiliou, Y., & Vassiliadis, P. (2013).Fundamentals of data warehouses. Springer Science & Business Media.

Johnson, P. F. (2014). Purchasing and supply management. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Kaufmann, E., & Wittmann, W. W. (2016). The success of linear bootstrapping models: Decision domain-, expertise-, and criterion-specific meta-analysis. PloS one, 11(6), e0157914.

Österle, H. (2013). Business in the information age: heading for new processes. Springer Science & Business Media.

Peirson, G., Brown, R., Easton, S., & Howard, P. (2014). Business finance. McGraw-Hill Education Australia.

Power, D. J., Sharda, R., & Burstein, F. (2015). Decision support systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Rodríguez-Enríquez, C. A., Alor-Hernández, G., Mejia-Miranda, J., Sánchez-Cervantes, J. L.

Rosu, D., Cheng, W., Jan, E. E., & Ayachitula, N. (2012, July). Connecting the dots in IT service delivery: From operations content to high-level business insights. In Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics (SOLI), 2012 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 410-415). IEEE.

Scholz-Reiter, B., & Stickel, E. (Eds.). (2012). Business process modelling. Springer Science & Business Media.

Simon, P. (2013). Too Big to Ignore: The Business Case for Big Data (Vol. 72). John Wiley & Sons.

Stein, A. D., Smith, M. F., & Lancioni, R. A. (2013). The development and diffusion of customer relationship management (CRM) intelligence in business-to-business environments. Industrial Marketing Management,42(6), 855-861.

Zikmund, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & Griffin, M. (2013). Business research methods. Cengage Learning.

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