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Discuss about the Issues In Structural And Materials Engineering.

Mega truss seismic isolation

The construction of tall buildings has always been human desires despite the resources needed to complete it. The construction of high rise employs the use of modern technologies to avoid various challenges encountered in the construction industry for example high cost and the long period of construction. These technologies include;

This type of technique is mostly applied in areas where an earthquake is greatly experienced (Duncan, 2012, p. 76). The steel mega truss is used in supporting the center of the tall building and it forms the roof of the mega columns below the belt truss. (Elleh, 2016, p. 186)

To reduce the quantity of waste generated during construction, the cost of erecting the building, increasing the standard of the building and reducing the opposing environmental impact in high rise building can only be achieved by using the type of technique mentioned above as explained by Mathew (2013). The advantages of this method include;

Advantages and Disadvantages of Raster Façade Precast Concrete construction

  • High building speed.
  • Good quality control.
  • Prestressing is easily done which can reduce the size and number of the structural members.
  • Rapid construction on site.
  • The error encountered is minimal.
  • Difficult during connection.
  • The usage of precast concrete cannot take place in two-way structural systems since the size of the panel is limited.
  • The building design will be affected by the repetition of forms.
  • The lifting of the panels requires cranes.
  • The flexibility of the building design is limited.
  • Expensive and complex joints between the panels.
  • Application of the panel on the site requires skilled workmanship.
  • Regularly shaped buildings require economies of scale.

According to Lynn (2011), the use of automated welding in the construction industry can provide numerous gains in productivity and profitability during application. In semi-automatic welding, the load is loaded manually by an operator into the welding fixture. Welding system may be completely automated and can include robotic part, load and unload or have semi-automatic capabilities. A fully automated welding can be equipped by robotic part, load and unload and a mechanized programmable tool is used in automated welding to carry out both handling and welding part, for example, gas metal arc welding (Holmes, 2007, p. 98).

The safety of workers is taken care of as well as the quality of work by using automated welding system and it will enable construction operations to take place smoothly without interference. The automation has various advantages in the construction industry which includes;

  • It enhances quality and standardized products.
  • It handles dangerous operations taken by employees
  • It increases productivity and reduces the cost.
  • It carries out labor tasks at hazardous locations, for instance, extensive height places.
  • It promotes a good operating environment since workers are operating in a safe environment.
  • Better welding quality.
  • Increased output is increased.
  • Decreased scrap are decreased
  • The cost of labor is reduced
  • Materials are efficiently used.
  • Safety among workers is improved since certain works are handled by robots.
  • Shorter workweeks for labor and reduced factory lead times.

Disadvantages of an automated welding system

  • The welding system needs a high amount of capital.
  • A regular maintenance is required compared to the manual one.
  • The degree of flexibility is lower.
  • It can lead to unemployment
  • It causes the displacement of workers.

This is the latest technology used in high rise building. This technique improves reliability, durability, and efficiency for the unrivaled elevator. And also improves the performance of the elevator. This technique is beneficial since it eliminates the disadvantages of using steel ropes and it allows 1000 meters to be covered by the future elevator.

Prefabricated construction involves assembling numerous mechanisms of a structure at a manufacturing site and transporting those sub-assemblies to the location of the construction site. This type of construction technique is sometimes referred to as a low-end and mass-produced mode of construction. (Harvey, 2010, p. 98). Prefabricated construction provides numerous benefits to the construction process for example quality of construction.

Raster Façade Precast Concrete System

Advantages and Disadvantages of prefabricated construction

  1. Eco-friendly

Modular construction is normally much-admired for efficient energy as well as supportable construction. Extra materials that result into increase in waste is encountered in the case of traditional construction methods and recycling of extra materials can be done since the construction of fabricated sub-assemblies takes place within the factory. This is a considerable improvement as compared to traditional methods where waste was directly sent to a landfill (Beadle, 2011, p. 56).

  1. Financial savings

Financial savings is one of the greatest advantages that can be achieved as a result of using prefabricated construction. Use of this particular modern method of construction sidesteps the possibility of unreliable contractors and unproductive staff. To lower the cost of construction, there is need of minimizing the time taken to complete constructing a building (Irwin, 2015, p. 76).

  1. Flexibility

The relocation and disablement of modern construction can easily take place at different sites. As a result of this, the overall time, demand for raw material and exhausted energy can be reduced. Flexibility is permitted by modular construction when it comes to the design of the structure allowing for an inexhaustible number of opportunities (Carmona, 2013, p. 34).

  1. Consistent quality

The occurrence of fabricated construction takes place in a controlled manufacturing environment, a specified standard is followed and the sub-assemblies of the structure will be constructed to a uniform quality. By using this particular technique, the building of each subassembly is done by experienced crews. (Craighead, 2009, p. 128).

  1. Reduced site disruption

In this type of technique, the materials and equipment supplied are less since many buildings components are completed in the factory. In traditional construction sites , factors such as noise, pollution, and waste are limited. The use fabricated construction method is beneficial to construction firm since it gets rid of unnecessary distractions and interference in the construction site (Marginson, 2013, p. 55).

  1. Shorter construction period

A construction which is portable takes a shorter time during construction unlike on-site construction. Compared to the traditional method, prefabrication takes less time and this is as a result of better scheduling interruptions and quicker construction. The construction expenses involved are minimal when little time is taken to erect a building and this can only be achieved by practicing a portable construction method (Patterson, 2011, p. 23).

  1. Safety

Problems relating to dirt and moisture can be easily controlled since this particular construction technique entails the creation of sub-assemblies in a factory. With practicing this method, there are fewer accidents experienced among the workers and minimal liabilities. Safety is the greatest importance, workers are exposed to conditions relating to weather and other varying ground condition. Prefabricated construction is the best method to enhance safety in the construction site. (Duncan, 2012, p. 65).

Advantages and Disadvantages of Raster Façade Precast Concrete construction

Modern technologies are mostly used in many Australian construction companies so that they can minimize the time taken to erect the building and also its cost. To ensure completion of the building is done on time and also prevented from collapsing, modern technologies are needed by high rise building. There are numerous issues that are affecting high rise building in Australia and some of those challenges are mitigated by modern technology currently introduced in the construction market (Dehn, 2016, p. 78). Some of these challenges experienced in the construction of high rise building in Australia include;

  1. Rising costs of projects

The rising cost of building high rise building is one the greatest problem facing the Australian construction industry. This comes as a result of high prices of metals, oil, rising interest rate, and a strong Australian dollar. The efficiency of the Australian construction sector is affected by these factors and one of the factor which increases the cost of constructing high rise building is delay in construction thus too much expenses are incurred for example, paying workers as well construction expenses (Wood, 2014, p. 65). This issue can be solved by practicing Raster façade precast concrete system.

  1. Quality Control

Controlling the quality of services rendered in Australia is one of the biggest problem facing the Australian Industry. This is the most nagging issue since there is no regulation or law put in place to control the delivery of quality services. This is because the industry lacks the focus to establish the best standard of services that should be delivered (Stafford, 2009, p. 329). Application of Raster façade precast concrete system assists in solving quality issues.

  1. Reduced workplace productivity

The working hours either lessen or stays the same and this is becoming a greater challenge through which the Australian construction industries have failed to handle. There are numerous workers whose working hours have been slashed while certain workers who are skilled do not get overtime in order to increase production thus a low production is displayed.

  1. Shortages of skilled labor

Underestimation of skilled labor should not be done when looking at problems affecting high rise construction in Australia. The Australian as a nation, is not capable of producing enough skilled or professional workers who are capable of carrying out all operations in high rise building effectively. These shortages will not be able to successfully function thru scarcer trained workers.

  1. Capital supply constraints

The construction of high rise building requires resources to be erected since numerous materials for construction are expensive in Australia. For example, the price of metals needed for construction in Australia are high thus high rise building requires a lot of capital to ensure that all construction materials needed are available in the site and all expenses such as salaries to the workers are paid for within the stipulated time. Adequate capital is needed to cater for transportation expenses which is much costly, since a frequent transportation of materials are needed from the extraction site to the construction site (Sayigh, 2016, p. 432)

  1. Safety Onsite

Automated welding system

Safety on site is one of the crestfallen problems that is being faced by Australian industry. There are certain construction activities that are being encountered by workers that leads to injuries among the workers and that is the reason why insurance cover and compensation claim, are needed for serious injuries (Sarkisian, 2016, p. 76). Safety can be improved by using Automated Welding System and Mega truss seismic isolation.

  1. The long period of construction

Construction of high rise building in Australia takes too long to be completed and this can only be avoided through application of modern technologies. The time taken to construct a building should be minimized since it results into cost overrun. When a building takes too long before completion, then expenses such as transportation and payment of salaries will accumulate when the work takes too long (Reddy, 2009, p. 543). A long period of construction can be solved through BSB prefabricated construction process.

Conclusion

The construction of high rise building requires the use of modern technology to ensure the quality of construction is achieved, the cost of construction is minimal and a short period of completing the construction. There are also certain challenges which affects the construction of high rise building in Australia and these challenges can only be avoided by implementing modern construction technologies such as automated welding.

Beadle, L., 2011. Tall buildings and urban habitat. 1 ed. s.l.: Wolters Kluwer.

Carmona, M., 2013. The design dimension of planning. 2 ed. s.l.: Cassava Republic Press.

Craighead, G., 2009. High-rise security and fire life safety. 3 ed. s.l.: Reed Elsevier.

Dehn, A., 2016. Concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting. 3 ed. s.l.: Hachette Livre.

Duncan, T., 2012. Issues in structural and materials engineering. s.l. Adventure Works Press.

Elleh, N., 2016. Reading the architecture of the underprivileged classes. s.l. Mc-Graw Hill Education.

Harvey, N., 2010. Coastal management in Australia. 2 ed. s.l.: Blackwell publishing.

Holmes, J., 2007. Wind loading of structures. 2 ed. s.l.: Thomson Reuters.

Irwin, P., 2015. Wind tunnel testing of high rise building. s.l.: Woongjin ThinkBig.

Marginson, S., 2013. Tertiary education policy in Australia. s.l.:OLMA Media Group.

Patterson, M., 2011. Structural glass facades and enclosures. 2 ed. Chicago: Carlton Books.

Reddy, N., 2009. Urban redevelopment. 4 ed. s.l.:Grupo Planeta.

Sarkisian, M., 2016. Designing tall buildings. 4 ed. s.l.: Random House.

Sayigh, A., 2016. Sustainable high rise buildings in urban zones. s.l. Casemate Publishers.

Stafford, B., 2009. Tall building structures. 1 ed. s.l.: Media Participation.

Wood, A., 2014. Green walls in high rise buildings. s.l.: Scholastic.

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