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1. Identify and briefly describe the main functional and non-functional requirements for the major systems areas of the case study.

2. Explain the role of use cases for the creation of a domain model of the problem domain and all systems in the case study that show all actors and use cases.

Functional requirements

The below list presents the functional requirements of XYZ Car park system:

Generation of tickets: The system will generate two types of tickets namely Ordinary and Season. An ordinary ticket will be generated to offer the customers with staying for short term in the car parking area. The season tickets could be acquired by customers with paying a fixed amount in advance for a particular time such as three or six to twelve months valid for a specific car park. The holders of season ticket will be able to use only the designated spaces that will not be available to ordinary tickets holders for weekdays however it will be available for weekends to all customers. The ordinary customers will be required to pay as per their time of usage. The season tickets has stored information about the name of individual or company, address, contact number with issue date and expiry date.

Acceptance of tickets: A button have to be pressed on the control pillar by ordinary customers for generation of tickets printed on it with date and time for accessing the car parking area. The system increments the number of car parked with entry of each car and checks capacity of the car park. The season ticket holders does not have to press a button as they require only to insert tickets within the slot present in the control pillar then the checking will be done whether the ticket is valid or expired.  

Handling payments: The system also has the functionality of handling of payments for ordinary customers as they accesses the system only at their time of car parking. The ordinary customers have to pay when leaving the car park area by entering the ticket into the slot. As soon as the ticket is entered into the slot, the information being checked with the stored information and if it matches then the charge is calculated from time of entry and exit. The system accepts payment and generates a receipt for the customer with information such as address of the City administration, car park address, VAT number along with date and the amount being paid.    

Controlling the boom gates: The system is also able to control the barriers on the entry and exit of the car park so that there is no unauthorized access in the car park area.

Recording and Management of problems: The system is able to record the issues occurring while entry or exit of customers in the car park area. The recorded information of the problems will be monitored on a regular basis to ensure smooth operations of the system.

Management of security: The security guards will have access to the office in car parking areas to ensure safety of the vehicles parked within the facility.

The list below represents the non-functional requirements of XYZ Car park system:

Reliability: The system must have the ability to behave consistently in a manner that is acceptable by the user.

Usability: The system must be satisfied with the usability of the system.  

Acceptance of tickets

Dependability: The system must be able to deliver the services as and when requested by the users.

The actors play an important role for the development of use case diagrams. The role played by actors in a use case diagram helps in successful construction of class diagrams. The role that is played by use cases for construction of domain model is presented below with the help of actors identified for the system.

Users of the system: The system will be used by two types of customers such as ordinary and season. The ordinary customers will access the system as per their requirement and each time they park their car. The season customers will have access to the car parking on the basis of their ticket validity such as for three, six or twelve months.  

Display: On every entry and exit of the car park area, there will be display installed in the control pillars so that the customers will have easy access to the system. The display will inform the customer about the steps that they have to follow from time to time while entering or existing the car parking area.

Technician: The technical experts will be associated with the system to collect information and access the data for regular backup. The technicians will be involved to monitor the CCTV cameras functioning and maintenance so that customers can feel safe to park their vehicles.

Sensors: The car park area will be installed with laser and load sensors at different points to maintain the smooth operations within the car parking area. The installation of sensors will facilitate the automated process of parking the car by detecting if there is any space available in the car parking area.

Printers: The control pillars on the entry or exit path of the car parking area are installed with printers for generation of tickets when vehicle enters or exits the parking lot.

Security Guard: The security guards are appointed by the City administration for visiting the car parks at regular intervals. The security guards are responsible for observing and recording the abnormalities within the car parking area.

System Administrator: The administrator of the system is responsible for maintenance and monitoring of record log in a database. The system administrator is mainly responsible administering the system performance and recording of error logs.   

Attendant: The attendant has the responsibility to accept payments from the user and resolve the issues of customers in case of any emergency like opening of the barriers manually.

The actors associated with development of the use cases are to be separated and divided into sub forms to construct the domain models of the system. 

The approach that has been undertaken is Software Development Life cycle for improving the design of the system as well as the functional and non-functional requirements are being reviewed as below:

Requirements Analysis and details: The requirements have been broken down for the development of XYZ Car park system. The modules have been separated in the project and subdivided to determine requirements of the project and start developing the prototype of the system.

Handling payments

Support: The system being developed have to be tested for multiple times prior to implementation in real time. The errors detected in the system have to be debugged and risks associated with the system ought to be fixed during the early stages of development.

The XYZ Car park system will provide the users with automated car parking facilities from ticket generation to parking the car. The system has the ability to generate tickets, accept tickets, handling of payments and controlling of barriers. Further the system also has the functionality of recording problems into a log book. The system will also ensure security measures for the vehicles being parked in the car park area.  

The aim of this system is to improve the operational processes for car parking in the city and smooth operations for users so that they can easily park their cars. The system will help the users to generate tickets as per their own requirement and make payments. The users will be informed if there is any available special within the car park area or not.  

  • Sensors have to be installed at all entry as well as exit points to detect the vehicles.
  • There should be indication of space availability for each floor in the car park area.
  • The user interface must be designed efficiently for easy access of the system.
  • The availability of parking space must be displayed on the control pillars.
  • The charges of utilizing the car park area have to be calculated with precision.
  • The tickets have to be validated and payment to be verified prior to leaving the car park area.

The main target user of the system is the residents under the City Administration who will have access to the facility for parking of their cars. The system is developed for two categories of people who may occasionally use the system and those who might use it on a seasonal basis.

  • Sensors have to be installed in entry and exit points at each floor.
  • The system must support accepting payments from different cards.
  • The occupied place have to be displayed with the type of ticket accessing the parking space.
  • When the ticket is entered in the slot, the type of ticket and other information have to be displayed on the control pillars.
  • In every section of the car park area there must be installation of sensors as well as CCTV cameras so that activities of the users can be monitored from the office. 

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