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Learning Outcomes Assessed

The following course learning outcomes are assessed by completing this assessment:

Utilise effective communication practice in organisations.

Demonstrate expert English language skills in academic and professional contexts.

Evaluate the quality and utility of literature sourced.

Undertake a literature review for an organisational IT research project.

Compose a research proposal and report on a topic related to an organisational IT research project.

Present written and oral reports to academic and organisational audiences.

Sources of Self-Efficacy and Processes Involved

The word self-efficacy can be defined as the belief of people regarding their capabilities for producing certain level of their performance that are designated and also the capabilities that exercise influence on certain events which may affect their lives (Schwarzer, 2014). It is believed that self-efficacy has the ability to determine how the people think, about people’s feelings, and also motivate them. These are usually done through major four processes which involve cognitive, affective, selection processes, and also motivational processes. In this report, definition of self-efficacy is defined in a details way and why self-efficacy is important in human life (Piperopoulos & Dimov, 2015). This report also illustrates how self-efficacy is different from other factors which contribute to efficacy. There is a literature review of self-efficacy which states many information of self-efficacy reviewed from different literatures.

The term self-efficacy is defined as belief of an individual’s capability for achieving a successful outcome or reach to a goal. Individuals who have a great sense of efficacy mostly challenge themselves with all the difficult tasks and can be intrinsically motivated (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2017). The individual who challenges themselves has to put more effort to meet the commitments and thus have to put high degree of efforts. The individuals also have to attribute the failures that are in control of them without blaming others for the failures. If individuals fail in some tasks, they can recover from their setbacks if they are self-efficacious. The self-efficacious individuals are determined to achieve their goals (Ritter & Lorig, 2014). The person having low self-efficacy does not believe in themselves and thinks that they cannot be successful in any of their tasks. Low self-efficacy persons make an extended and concerted effort and thus they considers the tasks that are challenging as a threat and avoid such tasks. The persons with low self-efficacy thus have low aspirations that results in much disappointing performance.

Another definition of self-efficacy is defined by Albert Bandura. This is known as Bandura’s Self-Efficacy. Albert Bandura is a psychologist who has defined self-efficacy as owns belief to complete a task successfully. Bandura believed that to complete a task, the overall thing that is needed by an individual is the confidence within them (McCarroll et al., 2014). The self-efficacy is referred by Albert Bandura as the self-regulatory function of an individual’s mind to complete a particular task. The self-regulatory function instructs the individual when to try for the task and the time to stop trying. If one believes that the task is not possible to do, then the individual is interested to attempt the task and can give up the task very soon.

Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Intentions

Mainly four sources of self-efficacy are available. A teacher uses many different strategies so that they can build self-efficacy (Williams et al., 2017). The different sources of self-efficacy are:

Mastery Experiences - Master experience mainly happens when individuals experience self-efficacy boost. The working of an individual increases when there is successful completion of the task and failure also decreases the self-efficacy of an individual.

Vicarious experience - To have a peer success on a task enhances the beliefs and strengthens the confidence among the individuals.

Verbal persuasion - Credible communication is the best way to increase the self-efficacy of an individual. Teachers boost the self-efficacy and give feedback to guide their students and then motivate them to give their best.

Emotional state - Only a positive mood can enhance the belief of an individual to increase the self-efficacy and the anxiety can be undermined. There is a particular level of stimulation emotionally which gives an individual the energy and strong perseverance to complete the task. Stressful situations and lower anxiety can be mitigated by have a talk with them.

Farrell et al. (2018) showed that there are many sources of self-efficacy. The processes that are involved in increasing the self-efficacy are:

  • Cognitive Processes- It is considered that the effects that arise from self-efficacy depended on cognitive process usually has many different forms. Most of the human behaviors that are purposive are being regulated by embodying the goals that are valued. There are also goal setting which are personal. The personal goal settings are mostly influenced by the self-appraisal capabilities. With the increase of perceived self-efficacy, the goal challenges that an individual sets also increases. With the perceived self-efficacy the commitment of an individual also becomes firmer.
  • Motivational Processes- There is a self-regulation motivation of which is known as self-beliefs. The motivational factor of self-belief is considered as one of the key role in self-efficacy (Bullough, Renko & Myatt, 2014). Most of the human motivation is generated cognitively. Individuals motivate themselves and then guide their own actions anticipatorily.
  • Affective Processes- People try to copy the capabilities of others which lead to difficult situations and threatening and also decrease their motivation level. The perceived self-efficacy helps to control the stress in an individual. Those people who believe that they are able to excise control over the threats mainly do not conjure patterns that are disturbing. If the sense of self-efficacy regulates the avoidance behavior and arise of anxiety.
  • Selection Processes- The personal efficacy of a person helps to shape the life of a course that can influence the activity types and also the environment that people choose. People generally avid such activities and the situations they usually believes their exceeding coping capabilities. Challenges are undertaken by an individual and select the situations which judge themselves in capable of handling. People are made to cultivate the different level of competencies, social networks, and interests which determines the life courses.

Komarraju, Swanson & Nadler (2014) illustrated that there is a strong self-efficacy in between the nurse educators and their students. There are many evidence that the educators of nurse play a very important role in the enhancement of self-efficacy of their students for nursing practice in future. There must be commitment and courage for all the registered nurses for educating them. There must be accurate analyzing of all the situations in their practice.

According to (Wang, Hall & Rahimi, 2015), there is a health promotive role in the area of self-efficacy. There is a conception of the human illness and health which has gone some main changes in the recent years. There are many traditional approaches that are depended on the biomedical model. This has a strong emphasis on the infectious agents, repairing of physical impairments, and ameliorative medications. There are many new conceptions that are adopted for a wider bio-psycho social model. The self-efficacy of health is not considered as the absence of physical disease and impairment (Sachdev et al., 2014). There are much emphasize on the self-efficacy of bio-psycho social model which increases the enhancement of health and the prevention of diseases. There are certain habits of life style which can enhance and also impair the health. This life style habits can help the people to have some extra behavioral control on the quality of their health.

Self-Efficacy in Nursing Education

Albert Bandura stated that to develop the self-efficacy in an individual, there should be a mastery on the subject (Malik, Butt & Choi, 2015). Additional success can be achieved from success and failure can rise doubt on the outcome of the future attempts. When an individual successfully delivers a task, it is more likely that he will attempt the task repeatedly.


The word self-efficacy is most commonly known as the confidence which is considered as the most psychological model that is adopted to positive psychology. Self-efficacy is considered as a self-belief optimistic in the level of competence or the changes that are needed to accomplish the task successfully and also produce favorable outcome accordingly. There are some important roles that are played by self-efficacy which helps to determine the chances for the successful completion of the task. There are also some psychologists who rate the self-efficacy above the talent of the individual in the way of success. The psychologists suggest that the person has to pay some special attention to the self-efficacy particularly when there is an opportunity to set goals. The goals those are set helps to make sure the efficacy beliefs that come in the line of their aims and also work with the goals accordingly. The detailed study of self-efficacy is defined in this report from different literature reviews. From this report, the self-efficacy can be well understood that is mainly needed to in completion of successful projects.


Bullough, A., Renko, M., & Myatt, T. (2014). Danger zone entrepreneurs: The importance of resilience and self?efficacy for entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(3), 473-499.

Farrell, B., Richardson, L., Raman-Wilms, L., de Launay, D., Alsabbagh, M. W., & Conklin, J. (2018). Self-efficacy for deprescribing: A survey for health care professionals using evidence-based deprescribing guidelines. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 14(1), 18-25.

Komarraju, M., Swanson, J., & Nadler, D. (2014). Increased career self-efficacy predicts college students’ motivation, and course and major satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment, 22(3), 420-432.

Malik, M. A. R., Butt, A. N., & Choi, J. N. (2015). Rewards and employee creative performance: Moderating effects of creative self?efficacy, reward importance, and locus of control. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(1), 59-74.

McCarroll, M. L., Armbruster, S., Frasure, H. E., Gothard, M. D., Gil, K. M., Kavanagh, M. B., ... & Von Gruenigen, V. E. (2014). Self-efficacy, quality of life, and weight loss in overweight/obese endometrial cancer survivors (SUCCEED): a randomized controlled trial. Gynecologic oncology, 132(2), 397-402.

Piperopoulos, P., & Dimov, D. (2015). Burst bubbles or build steam? Entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial self?efficacy, and entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(4), 970-985.

Ritter, P. L., & Lorig, K. (2014). The English and Spanish self-efficacy to manage chronic disease scale measures were validated using multiple studies. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 67(11), 1265-1273.

Sachdev, D. D., Stojanovski, K., Liu, A. Y., Buchbinder, S. P., & Macalino, G. E. (2014). Intentions to prescribe preexposure prophylaxis are associated with self-efficacy and normative beliefs. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58(12), 1786-1787.

Schwarzer, R. (Ed.). (2014). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Taylor & Francis.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2017). Motivated for teaching? Associations with school goal structure, teacher self-efficacy, job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Teaching and Teacher Education, 67, 152-160.

Wang, H., Hall, N. C., & Rahimi, S. (2015). Self-efficacy and causal attributions in teachers: Effects on burnout, job satisfaction, illness, and quitting intentions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 47, 120-130.

Williams, O., Quinn, E. L. H., Ramirez, M., Sawyer, V., Eimicke, J. P., & Teresi, J. A. (2017). development of a Menu Board Literacy and Self-efficacy Scale for Children. Journal of nutrition education and behavior, 49(10), 867-871.

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