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RFID and Security Protection Capabilities

Question 1

Identity cards (ID cards) have been used to help a human verifier to confirm the identity of a card holder. In recent years they have also included machine readable information, either printed onto the ID card, or in a small embedded electronic chip.

(a) Chip and tag types.

(i) What is the literal definition of an RFID and does it imply any security protection capabilities?

(ii) Explain the main difference between an ID card based on a secured memory chip and one based on an unsecured memory chip, and how this would affect the resistance to card cloning. [2]

(iii) The data held in a printed 2-D bar-code could be encrypted and/or have a Message Authentication Code (MAC). What would be the point of these measures when a bar-code is easily read and copied?

(b) Card body features.

(i) In an ID card the body of the card is designed to make counterfeiting difficult. The card body may be verified to different levels of precision depending on what equipment (if any) is available to the verifier. Describe the levels, and the equipment required to complete verification.

(ii) For each verification level, describe two anti-counterfeit measures.

(c) Card application considerations.

(i) You are responsible for implementing a new ID card system. Your first job is to select a trusted card supplier and associated product. Supplier A claims to have a tamper-proof chip based on the Java Operating System (OS), using an unbreakable secret algorithm. Supplier B claims to have a tamper-resistant device that has a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) on top of a proprietary OS, using an openly evaluated algorithm. Which supplier would you chose and why?

(ii) Due to budget constraints you cannot afford a chip with a cryptocoprocessor, yet you require an ID system based on a PKI approach. Your two technical consultants give you conflicting advice. Consultant A tells you that it is not possible to have a PKI solution without using crypto-coprocessor chips. Consultant B claims there is a static data solution, but that there may be a risk of ID card cloning. Explain the likely reasoning of the consultants. Which of them gave the most accurate advice?

Transport ticketing uses machine readable cards such as those with magnetic stripes, or embedded electronic chips. The chip cards will typically include a unique Identity (ID) a purse for holding credit and an area for keeping tickets.

Difference between Secured and Unsecured Memory Chips

(a) Smart ticket basics.

(i) Suggest one operational and one security benefit from using magnetic stripe cards instead of simple paper tickets.

(ii) A chip card ticket could be based on a secure memory card or a secure microprocessor card. Which do you think is the most likely considering cost and performance issues?

(iii) Explain why symmetric algorithms are more likely to be used than asymmetric algorithms in existing smart ticket to reader protocols.

(b) Infrastructure types.

(i) A typical transport ticketing system will have cards, readers and a back office. When using a symmetric algorithm for card to reader communication, the keys could exist in the readers or in the back office. Compare these two options, giving an advantage and disadvantage for each, and suggest which solution is most likely in practice.

(ii) What is card key diversification and why is it important? Suggest a simple way of creating diversified card keys from a master key. [2]

(iii) Explain if you think it likely that the transport system readers will store the diversified keys for all issued cards, or use some other mechanism.

(c) New developments.

(i) A modern contactless payment card can carry out a reasonably quick off-line authentication to a reader using PKI techniques. When used instead of a conventional transport card, how would this make system key management easier and would the reader device be more or less of an attack target, compared to the conventional approach? [2]

(ii) The contactless payment card does not contain an e-purse, but just authenticates to the system at the beginning and end of a journey. How would the fare then be calculated and paid, and is there any change in the certainty of receiving payment? [3]

(iii) If a ticket inspector has an NFC phone for checking customer tickets, how would the phone application be likely to check that a customer has validated a card at the start of the journey? Consider both the conventional card type and the contactless payment card.

The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) within GSM mobile phones is an essential security component and also has capabilities to support value added services.

(a) Platforms and storage.

(i) Originally the SIM implied both the smart card and the SIM application combined. The standards evolved to split the card platform from the applications used in both GSM and subsequent 3G systems (UMTS), although the SIM has remained as a commonly used general term for the smart cards used in mobile phones. Very briefly explain your understanding of the terms UICC, SIM application and USIM application.

(ii) The data that is managed within the SIM application is held in files. Explain the three different file types by means of examples.

(iii) How is the access to SIM application files controlled?

(b) SIM value added applications.

(i) What is SIM Toolkit and give an example of what it might be used for?

(ii) Why was SIM Toolkit once popular with network operations and why do you think it might be less popular now?

(iii) One of the newer standardised SIM card features is the Smart Card Web Server (SCWS). Explain what this is and give two reasons for why some network operators wanted it.

(c) New developments.

(i) Briefly explain what is meant by an Over The Air (OTA) update, who may perform it, and indicate a standard that covers its operation.

(ii) If an independent developer creates a new SIM application, what are the likely security and practical barriers to installing the application on customer SIMs?

(iii) Comment on the accuracy of the statement, ”If there is an Near Field Communication (NFC) Security Element (SE) within a SIM card, then it will definitely host any NFC smart card/RFID emulations and it will also secure any mobile application when it is acting as a reader of external smart cards and RFIDs”.

RFID and Security Protection Capabilities

Ans: RFID or Radio Frequency Identification generally refers to the automated technology for identification by making use of the radio frequency electromagnetic fields. The objects can be identified by making use of tags when the tags comes closer to a reader. There are three parts in a RFID and this includes one scanning antenna, a transceiver, and a transponder. RFID implies various types of protection capabilities as well. Some of this includes tracking of the goods inside a large store, tracking of animals in a farm and many more.

Ans: ID Cards on secured memory chips provides higher security including electrically erasable programmable read-only-memory unlike the unsecured ones. Card cloning gets resistance through comprehensive data protection and mutual authentication between host and device.

Ans: The main reason for using of 2-D barcode despite of being easily read and copied is because of it is having a strong focus on the consumers and are free to use. Along with this type of barcodes are flexible in size and have a high fault tolerance. This codes have high readability and supports different types of data. This type of barcodes remain legible even when they are printed at a small size or etched into a product.

Ans: The various levels are the hardware and software levels. In the former level, inputs are synthesized to generate a transistor constituting a chip. Software-level represent view of the card on which programmer has written the software.

The first equipment needed is the bit-true model where computed results are compared according to every bit that produces the hardware, The next tool is the cycle-accurate model where outcome or change in output signals are generated exactly with the similar speed of hardware.

Ans: For hardware-level with various high-level description languages bear structural similarity with hardware. Thus as a result it is slow and complex. In case of software-model, software developers at many cases are unaware of the details dealing with pipeline. Thus this execution of instruction result a change for stable architectural state to new one. Thus as an anti-counterfeit measure parallel execution whose execution includes various cycles are involved.

(c) Implementation of ID card system

(i) Ans: For this Supplier A must be chosen using Banker’s Algorithm. This is because it is a deadlock avoidance and resource allocation algorithm. It is helpful to check whether allocation of any resource might result in deadlock or not. It also analyzes whether it is safe to allocate resource to process and then it is allocated to that process. Finding a safe sequence ensures that the system would not move to a deadlock. The data structures used are need matrix, allocation matrix, max matrix and available vector.

Difference between Secured and Unsecured Memory Chips

(ii) Ans: PKI includes various set of roles, procedures and policies required to revoke, store, use, distribute, manage and create digital certificates and control public-key encryption. Static data on is proposed by the second consultant because here information never change after it gets recorded. It comprises of a fixed data set. Unlike dynamic data, here data gets changed after it gets recorded and needs to be updated continually.

The first one is more accurate advice since here user provides anyone with public key and sender utilizes that to encrypt data. Next the owner uses through private key for decrypting that data.

Ans: Magnetic strip cards are much more reliable and has been tested thoroughly over years. It has a much more longevity than simple paper tickets. Magnetic strips are also responsible for holding data. The data that are stored in the magnetic strip cards are not in the readable form which initially provides an added security to the user.

The first one is to be considered though it is cost expensive. However its performance is better and more rugged than secure microprocessor card. It consists of high-capacity memory and different portable devices.

Ans: The primary disadvantage of symmetric algorithm is that every involved parties need to exchange the key utilized to encrypt data prior they are decrypted. This perquisite to distribute securely and control huge number of keys indicates most cryptographic services using other kinds of encryption algorithms.

Ans: Symmetric encryption utilizes single key unit requiring to get shared among people who require getting message. Asymmetric algorithm on the other hand utilizes pair of private and public key for encrypting and decrypting messages while making communication. Symmetric encryption is a conventional technique whereas the asymmetric one is latest. Asymmetric complements inherent problem of the requirement for sharing key in symmetric model. It eliminates necessity to share keys through private and public keys. The symmetric one is more suitable here because of the above reasons. Further it takes more time than symmetric encryption.

Ans: Key diversification denotes to the process to derive keys from base key using unique inputs. Every card gets distinct values for every key and as one key gets broken the vulnerability is limited to that key instead of affecting the while system.

Ans: Key diversification is generally utilized to work with smart cards. It is helpful to secure interactions with population of cards.

 (c) New developments.

Anti-counterfeiting Measures

(c)(i) Ans: Modern contactless payment card make system key management simpler through various ways. First of all it is simple and quick to use along with reliable operation. It avoids long queues and accesses every major debit and credit cards

Ans: Fares can be calculated and then paid for customers through using near field communication of NFC or RFID technology. Here the allowable quantity for contactless transaction has been varying from country and bank. Yes, there is a certainty to receive payments. They are developed using similar secure system. Hence one can be fully confident while paying. There have been never any reports confirmed regarding money stolen from contactless card still in possession of cardholder.

(c)(iii) Ans: Both of the card types uses distinct interface mechanisms and are automatically distinguished through the very activity to read them. Contact based cards are accessed only through contact technology reader and non-contact card should use RFID or any capacitive or additional method on which the card is based. Thus the phone gets aware of what has been interfaced with.

(a)(i) Very briefly describe three main categories of attacks that may be used against security modules.

Ans: The three main categories of attacks which may be against the security modules are listed below:

  • Insider Attack (Koeberl et al., 2014)
    • Significant percentage of breaches
    • : Run-on fraud, disgruntled employees
  • Lunchtime Attack (Koeberl et al., 2014)
    • Take place during a small window of opportunity
    • : During a lunch or coffee break
  • Focused Attack (Koeberl et al., 2014)
    • Time, money, and resources not an issue

(a)(i) What does RFID stand for?

And: RFID generally stands for Radio Frequency Identification.

(a)(ii) Describe passive and active RFIDs and give an example of each.

Ans: Passive RFID tags are those tags which do not have any internal power source. This are generally powered by the electromagnetic energy that are transmitted by the RFID readers. This types of tags are generally used for the tracking of files, controlling access, race timing and many more (Ahson & Ilyas, 2017). They are having a shorter range.

Active RFID tags are those tags which are powered by the battery and are associated with continuous broadcasting of their signals. This are also known as “Beacons” and are associated with accurate tracking if the real time locations of any type of assets (Zhong et al., 2013). They are having a longer range than passive tags.

(a)(iii) Give a reasoned opinion of whether an RFID necessarily implies any security.

Ans: RFID is a shortwave communication technology that has the capability of identifying any items that are within the range of the RFID reader. Therefore it can be stated that tracking of items becomes very much easy with the use of RFID tags (Amendola et al., 2014). This initially leads to elimination of threats related to stealing or theft.

Card Verification Levels and Equipment Requirements

(a)(iv) Comment on the shapes and operational ranges of RFIDs.

Ans: RFID system generally consists of an antenna or coil, a transceiver which consists of a decoder and a transponder which is programmed with a unique information and this is the RFID tag. RFID operates at various frequencies (Chae et al., 2013). The low frequency range is around 30 KHz to 500 KHz. And the highest frequency range is 850 MHz to 950 MHz and 2.4 GHz to 2.5 GHz.

(b)(i) Ranges of Generic RFID tags

Ans: The four ranges of generic RFID devices are 30 KHz-5.8 GHz which is the low frequency, high frequency, ultrahigh frequency and lastly the microwave frequency. The frequency is chosen according to the application, the tags size, and the ranges of the reader which is required. The rate of data transfer or the throughput rates is faster when the frequency is high but the system becomes more expensive with higher frequency (Hanwate & Thakare, 2015). The RFD systems mainly operates in the low frequency having a long band ranging from 125 to 135 KHz. The passive RFID tags makes use of the low frequency which are having a short read range. The high frequency ranges from 3MHz to 30 MHz but most of the high frequency RFID tags operate at a range of 13.56 MHz. ultra-high frequency ranges from 300 MHz to 1000 MHz. the operating range of the passive tags are 865-868 MHz in Europe and 902-928 MHz in the United States. Whereas the operating range of active ultra-high frequency ranges from 315 MHz and 433 MHz. the operating range of typical microwave frequency is 2.45 GHz or 5.8 GHz.

(b)(ii) What differences are there, if any, between a sophisticated RFID and a contact-less smart card?

Ans: The contactless cards are much more advanced and secure than the RFID. The tracking range of RFID is much more than the Smart contact-less cards as contact-less cards have a range of about four to five inches so as to prevent the tracking and eavesdropping.

(b)(iii) What attacks may be possible against an RFID that are not possible against a smart card with contacts?

Ans: RFID tags can be read by making use of any compatible reader whereas in case of contact less cards this is not at all possible.

(a) (i) What does TPM stand for?

Ans: TMP stands for Trusted Platform Module. This is a specialized chip on an end point device that is responsible for storage of the RSA encryption keys which are specific to the host system for authentication of the hardware (Arthur & Challener, 2015). 

Smart Ticket Basics

(a)(ii) What role does it play in providing assurance of expected behavior of the platform?

Ans: The TPM chip consists of the RSA key pair known as the Endorsement key which is present inside the chip and cannot be accessed by any software. The storage of SRK or Storage Root Key takes place when ownership of the system is taken over by the user or administrator (McGill, 2013). Secondly there is Attestation Identity Key which is associated with the protection of device against any type of unauthorized firmware or software modification by altering any key sections of firmware or software before execution.

(a)(iii) Diagram, describing the TPM’s internal building blocks.

Fig: Internal Building Block of TPM

(a)(iv) Three types of cryptographic key found in a TPM.

Ans: The three types of cryptographic keys found in the TPM are Endorsement Key, Storage Root Key and Attestation Identity Key. Each TPM mainly consists of an RSA key pair which is known as the Endorsement Key. The pair is generally maintained inside the chip and is not accessible by the software. Whenever the user or administrator takes the ownership of the system then The SRK or Storage Rot Key is created. Based on the Endorsement Key and the password specified by the owner the key pair is generated by the TPM (Akram, Markantonakis & Mayes, 2014). Lastly the second key known as the Attestation Key is associated with the protection of the device against any type of unauthorized firmware software modification and this is done by hashing all the critical sections of the software and firmware before they are executed.

(b) (i) Opt-in for a TPM

Ans: Opt-in is one of the component which is generally associated with indicating the difference between smart cards and TPM. The TCM enabled platforms are controlled by the large remote organizations. This is associated with providing a mechanism which generally ensures the fact that it is the owner who is solely responsible for taking the ownership and configuring the TPM.  According to the TCG policy the TCM is to be delivered to the customer in the form desired by the customer (Ekberg, Kostiainen & Asokan, 2013).

(b)(ii) The process of taking ownership of a TPM.

Ans: Whenever a user is taking over the ownership of the TPM they are establishing a secret which is shared and is generally refers to as the owner authentication data and initially stores the data in the secure storage of the TPM (Ekberg, Kostiainen & Asokan, 2014). Once a user becomes an owner then they are capable of controlling the access to certain protected operations and this is done by requiring proof of the ownership which is generally demonstrated by entering the owner authentication data so as to authenticate the owner.

Infrastructure Types in Smart Ticketing

(b)(iii) Typical boot process for a platform with a TPM.

Ans: The trusted Boot Block consists of CRTM which is the first process of the boot. CRTM is one of the trusted components and the integrity of this cannot be measured by the external code (Osborn & Challener, 2013). Despite of this this might perform a self-check of its own integrity. The CRTM is responsible for measuring the rest of the BIOS before loading it. Followed by the Loaded of the BIOS the taking of control is successful and measurement of the integrity if the OS loader is done (Tomlinson, 2017). Then the control is passed to the loader which is followed by measuring of the integrity of the operating system by the loader. This continues unless and until all the applications are loaded and executed.

Fig: Boot Process

Question 1

(a)(i) The difference between the terms trusted and trustworthy.

Ans: Trustworthy generally refers to the quality of being reliable, dependable and honest. In other words it can be stated that it is the ability of being relied on as honesty or truthful. Whereas trusted refers to the position of trust- which means the credibility, dependability and favored by precious experiences or dealings or by making use of general reputations (Akram, Markantonakis, & Mayes, 2013).

(a)(ii) Justification for the fact that majority of smart phone platforms and smart cards are trusted and/or trustworthy.

Ans: Most of the smartphone platforms and the smart cards can be considered as trustworthy as well as trusted this is due to the fact that are responsible for holding large amount of data and the security features of this helps in protecting the data and the other facilities provided by this smart devices are also very much reliable (Smith, 2013).

(a)(iii) Trusted Execution Environment.

Ans: Trusted Execution Environment generally refers to the secure area of the main processor which usually guarantees the codes and the data which are loaded inside so as to be protected according to their confidentiality and integrity (Jang et al., 2015).

(b) (i) Physical, side-channel and fault attack

Ans: Fault attack refers to the technique which is based upon the fault injection so as to modify the behavior of the application (Gruss, Maurice & Mangard, 2016). For smart cards this type of attack might be diverse in nature but despite of this it is a successful one

Question 4

(a) (i) Definition of the IoT.

Platforms and Storage in SIMs

Ans: IoT or internet of. things generally refers to the network of physical devices like vehicles, home appliances embedded with electronics, software’s, sensors, actuators and connectivity which is responsible for connectivity of this devices and help them in exchanging of data (Gubbi et al.,  2013).

(a)(ii) IoT by the year of 2020

Ans: IoT enabled things might increase to an amount of 25 billion connected devices by the year of 2020. This is due to the fact that the use of internet growing at a very fast rate and almost every person of today’s world makes use of the internet (Lee & Lee, 2015)

(a) (iii) The security vulnerabilities of existing IoT devices.

Ans: Along with advantages there are several security vulnerabilities of IoT devices. This might include security breaches, insecure web interface, ineffective authentication or authorization process, insecure network services, Lack of transport encryption and many more (Kelly, Suryadevara & Mukhopadhyay, 2013).

(b)(i) Definition of completion, initialization, and personalization.

Ans: initialization and personalization are the decisive step from the perspective of an informatics. The entire generic data that is all the data which is same for all the cards are written in the memory during the initialization stage. Along with this all the data which are related to the individual cards or users are written in the personalization stage and due to this fact it is also known as individualization. Both this stages are performed in a secure area (Akram, Markantonakis & Mayes, 2013). There is an enormous amount of advantage that is there is no need of secure communication with the smart cards as it is considerably simple and is somewhat faster than transmission of the data by making use of the secure messaging.

Question 1

(a)(i) Definition of” biometric feature”

Ans: Biometrics is nothing but measurement of statistical analysis of data which focus on people unique physical behavior and characteristics (He & Wang, 2015). This kind of technology is mainly used for identification and control of access, individual. The basics of biometrics authentication is nothing but a person can be easily used by identified by his or her physical kinds of behavior.

(a)(ii) Describe the typical factors in three factor authentication

Ans:  Three factor authentication (3FA) is generally used for identifying conforming various parts from various kinds of three kinds of separate categories related to authentication ports (He & Wang, 2015). Authentication factors are generally classified into three kinds of categories namely like:

  • Knowledge factors is generally inclusive of things which focus on certain number of users like User names, password and personal identification numbers.
  • Possession factors like anything which a user must have in his possession to log in. This category is generally inclusive of OTP tokens, smartphones, employee ID and SIM cards.
  • Inherence factors is generally inclusive of certain number of biological traits.

SIM Value-added Applications

(a)(iii) Authentication factors that is kept secret

Ans: Authentication is nothing but a process which is used for analyzing someone or something which is declared on a daily basis (Bo et al., 2013). Authentication generally proceeds authorization and by combing of each of the term. Authorization is nothing but a process in which various kinds of credentials are provided and the files on the database can be easily accessed.

(b) Biometric verification system

Ans:  Biometric verification can be considered to be any kind of means by which a person can easily identify by evaluation of one or more kind of biometric traits. Unique identifiers are generally inclusive of fingerprints, hand geometry, retina and iris kind of pattern and voice waves and signatures (Shekhar et al., 2014). The oldest form of biometric verification is nothing but a fingerprint. Iris-pattern and retina pattern authentication methods are generally used for employing in banks by making use of automatic teller machines. Voice waveforms recognition methods has been used for large number of years with tape recordings. Face-recognition technology has been generally used in large crowds while hand geometry is considered to have easy access to provide easy kind of access (Chuang & Chen, 2014). No matter what kind of biometric methodology is used, the identification process will always remain the same. A record of person’s unique verification remains the same. When biometric methodology is used the identification verification process still remains the same.

Question 3

(a)(i) Passive and active RFIDs

Ans: Passive RFID: Passive RFID system makes use of no kind of internal power source and instead of that power is manly used by various electromagnetic energy which is transmitted from RFID reader (Haghighat, Zonouz & Abdel-Mottaleb, 2013). Passive RFID tags are generally makes use of certain number of application like access control, tracking of file, racing time, smart labels and many other things.

Active RFID: It is nothing but an active kind of RFID systems which makes use of battery powered or dependent RFID tags which can continuously broadcast their signal (Haghighat, Zonouz & Abdel-Mottaleb, 2013). Active RFID are generally used like beacons so that they can accurately track real time location of various kinds of assets or in high kind of environment like tolling. Active tags generally provide much longer read ranges in comparison to passive tags and they considered to be much more expensive also.

(a)(ii) Explain how a mobile phone, without Near Field Communication (NFC), overlaps with these definitions.

New Developments in SIMs

Ans: Near field Communication is nothing but a kind of short range wireless standard of connectivity which makes use of magnetic field induction. It makes use of magnetic induction for enabling communication between various kinds of devices when they are touched together (Haghighat, Zonouz & Abdel-Mottaleb, 2013).  With the help of NFC in a cellphone one can easily take pictures which is enabled in transmitting of images for display.  

(b)(i) For the open tag type, describe two cryptographic measures that can be used in a data handling application

Ans: RFID generally acts like an anti-counterfeiting technology at present rather than primitive. The whole security generally depends on RFID tag is compare to be harder to copy than a bar code which is provided (The et al., 2013). Sound technologies solution for counterfeiting problems need to be properly developed.

(b)(ii) For the secured memory tag type, suggest where the secret keys are stored and used, and offer opinion on whether they are, or are not, adequately protected.

Ans: For checking the validating of authentication of a replaceable kind of consumable or replace thing it has a system which is connected to a host. There should be should be some kind of information should be stored in both and clients (Abaza et al.,2013). CryptoRF chips generally provide some secure kinds of location where secret kind of data in the client side should be stored. The companion chip generally provides certain good quality of algorithm and entire kind of protocol which is needed to be completely used in hardware.

(b)(iii) Give a reasoned opinion on how well the open or secured memory tags prevent cloning.

Ans:  RFID tags generally do not have any kind of protection against cloning. Such kind of tags generally contain freely readable data. Anyone can easily read NDEF tags from one and duplicate data.

(c) RFID disadvatages

Ans: Some disadvantages of RFID are:

  • RFID system are considered to be more expensive than any other system like barcode system.
  • RFID technology is considered to be much harder to understand.
  • It generally considered to be much reliable
  • RFID tags are considered to be much larger in size.
  • It generally comes up with the idea of unauthorized reading of passports and credit cards.
  • More than one kind of tag can be easily responded at the same time.

Question 4

(a) (i) Suggest three different classes of implementation attack that a HSM should resist, and give an example of each.

Ans: Cryptography generally provides secure kind of communication in presence of malicious kinds of third parties which are known as adversaries (Bowyer, Hollingsworth, & Flynn, 2016). Encryption generally makes use of new kind of algorithms and a key of transformation which has an encrypted kind of output. A given kind of algorithm will always transform plaintext into cipher text only and only if same kind of key is used.

(a)(ii) Two different types of security action that the server may request of the HSM, and how they may help secure the server.

Ans: A hardware security module is nothing but a hardware kind of encryption device which is generally connected to a server at the level of device. A HSM is nothing but a kind of hardware device which is managed separately from various kinds of operating system. This kind of module makes use of task makes use of operating system.

(a)(iii) Encrypting the database and advantages and disadvantages there could be with database back-ups.

Ans: Database encryption is nothing but a process which can be used for converting of data within a database in plain kind of text format it makes use of cipher text by making use of suitable algorithm (Bowyer, Hollingsworth, & Flynn, 2016). Database decryption is nothing but the method of converting of cipher text into original kind of information by making use of certain number of keys which is generated by encryption algorithm.

(b) (i) Draw a simple diagram to illustrate how a legitimate user can access a data record from an encrypted database, via a permitted website request.

Fig 1: A simple diagram of encrypted database

(b)(ii) Referring to your diagram, justify your opinion on whether the encrypted database would help protect against SQL injection attack, and suggest other protective measures.

Ans:  There are large number of protective measures of encrypted database which can easily protect against SQL injection attack.

  • SQL server generally has in-built encryption of protection of various kinds of sensitive data.
  • SQL server automatically encrypts various kinds of password which is used for login and various kinds of application roles.
  • SQL server makes use of support of encrypting of data which can be sent to server and other kinds of associated clients.
  • SQL injection is nothing but a name which is used for general kinds of attacks for nefarious users for retrieving of data

(a) (i) For a traditional card purchase in a physical shop, draw a diagram of the five entities involved in the financial transaction and describe the general process flows.

Fig 1: Five entities involved in financial transaction

(Source: Created by Author)

In a traditional card purchase five entities involved in financial transaction are identification of contracts with customers, identification of performance in a contract, analyzing the price of transaction in a medium (Roland & Langer, 2013). Proper allocation of transaction of price to help in obligation of performance, proper recognition of revenue when a particular kind of entity has satisfied a performance related obligation.

(a)(ii) EMV cards are also capable of off-line data authentication. Describe Static Data Authentication (SDA) with the aid of a diagram.

Ans: Static data authentication (SDA) generally ensures authentication of ICC data. After proper kind of SDA is mainly ensures that proper kind of data from the ICC is considered to be real and has not been change by anyone (Galbally et al., 2015). SDA does not check the uniqueness of data of ICC. SDA is some cases is considered to be signature based schema working in an asymmetric cryptography way. Asymmetric cryptography generally makes use of pair of keys. In this technology if someone can encode something with first key then anyone can decode it pair of keys. The pair of keys are generally divided in two parts namely public and private keys.

Fig 1: System data Authentication

(a)(iii) Explain the security weakness of SDA and how it could be exploited.

Describe Dynamic Data Authentication (DDA) and how it overcomes the SDA weakness.

Ans: SDA approach is considered to be vulnerable against various kinds of attack in which static certificate can be copied and written as per the counterfeit card. In SDA only a symmetric kind of card is used and after verification of pin by the card. It is not right to provide all the details related to great risk, possibility of foreign of keys. SDA smart cards are considered to be less secure than the magnetic cards.

In comparison to SDA, DDA requires a chip card is required which can easily perform algorithm. This method in particular needs to generate dynamic kind of cryptogram for each and every kind of transaction. In this method, each kind of card has a secret kind of key for confirming authentication.

Question 3

 (a)(i) Describe what is meant by the initialization and personalization processes of a smart card.

Ans: One of the key challenges of smart card industry is to easily cope up with increasing size of various kinds of memory size. While in the few years there are few kinds of kilobytes of energy to handle. Based on the content of overloading the file structure is loaded afterwards and also partly amount of content is loaded and various kinds of application should be available.

(a)(ii) Describe three different attack classes that are relevant to smart cards and give an example of each.

Ans: The three level attack classes which is relevant to smart cards are:

OS-level attack: Smart card operating system can easily organize data in three level of hierarchy. At root level it can easily hold dedicated files and elementary files.

Host based Security: System and Networks generally makes use of host based security which is similar to smart cards which is used as simple carrier of information. Making use of smart card with a password mechanism generally prevents unauthorized reading kinds of offers but in many cases it can easily become accessible to hackers by making use of unencrypted transmission between card and available host (Bernstein et al., 2013).

Card based security: System with card or token based security can easily treat smart cards with various kinds of microprocessors like independent computing. During the time of card and host users generally identifies the authentication.

(a)(iii) Propose a countermeasure against each of the attack examples you have described.

Ans:  The countermeasures which can be used for preventing attacks are:

  • Making use of secret pin.
  • Bodily kind of failure.

(b) (i) Why is satellite broadcast decryption security more challenging than point-to-point security?

Ans: Point to point security are nothing secured configuration are nothing but configured pairs which can be used for communication between node points. While in Point to Multi-point communication required data is needed for point to many communications (Karaklaji?, Schmidt, & Verbauwhede, 2013).

(ii) Suggest strategies to reduce the practical usefulness of discovered decryption keys?

Ans:  Decryption key is nothing but the use of process of taking encoded or encrypted kind of text or other data. It is followed by converting the text which the system can easily read. There are some kind of difference between encryption and decryption. Encryption is nothing but a process which can be used for translating plain text into something which generally appears to be random and meaningless (Miao et al., 2015). For encryption of small amount of data symmetric kind of encryption is used.

(b)(iii) Assuming the CAM is not fast enough alone to decode the encrypted film broadcast, propose a simple architecture for the STB and describe how it exploits the CAM to decode the film.

Ans: STB stands consist of power port, Zener diode, Volt IC, RAM and CPU, Tunner IC and some other kinds of things. Conditional Module Access is nothing but a technology which allows paid TV providers to stop the access to the broadcasts. A Conditional Access Module (CAM) is nothing but a combination of encryption keys, smart cards and computer code with various electronics components.

Question 5

 (a)(i) Identify, justify and compare the security requirements for each of the listed uses.

Ans: A set of security controls are needed for security controls which the university campus needs to be implemented to protection of data of credit card. The security requirement for the above mention processes is  

  • Installation and maintenance of firewall.
  • Not making use of vendor suppliers for system passwords and other kinds of parameters.
  • Encryption transmission of cardholder for data across open and public networks.
  • Making use of regular use of secure systems and application.
  • Assign a unique ID to each kind of person with proper kind of computer access.
  • Restriction to physical access to several of computer data.
  • Tracking and monitoring of access to network resources and data of cardholder.
  • Testing of security systems and processes.
  • Maintenance of security policy which can address the information security.

(a)(ii) Propose a design for a smart card that would be suitable for all listed uses, then describe the processes involved in preparing, issuing, using and terminating the cards. [10]

Fig 2: Sample Smart Card for students

The smart card should be prepared and issued by university. All the forthcoming stages like preparing, issues and termination of card should be handled by university. A department should be there to easily handle the above processes of smart card.

(a) (iii) Pick one of the listed uses and describe in detail how the card is practically used to add security.

Ans: A smart card is nothing but a payment which is embedded with RFID technology and function. The smart card can easily add benefit to students by student tracking:

  • Provides real time information about students and various vehicles
  • Provides GPS safety and security to various kinds of vehicles
  • Provides automated SMS notification to parents.
  • Generate various kinds of report related to Management Information system.
  • Various data of students, Parents, Vehicle can be easily stored.
  • Students can easily make use of smart cards for various kinds of purchase.  
  • Parents can easily have information related to statement of purchase.
  • Can easily provide school fees payment information easily.
  • Student can easily get books and other kinds of utilities from various kinds of information


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