Discuss about the Journal Article Critique for Motivation on the Efficient Performance.
Education is an important element on every society. Today, the most common and viable yardstick of measuring the impact of education is through student’s performance in their academics. It is for this reason that Ndifon and Cornelius-Ukpepi (2014) conducted a research on titled “The Relationship between Primary School Teachers Extrinsic Motivation and Pupils Academic Performance in Cross River State, Nigeria.” In this study, the researchers seek to determine the relationship that exists between external teacher motivation factors and the overall academic performance of the pupils they teach. One may argue that the study was conducted as a result of the dwindling academic performance among pupils in Nigeria. For a long time, parents and the general public complained about poor performance by primary school children in both internal and external examinations .According Ndifon and Cornelius-Ukpepi (2014), the poor performance was due to the fact that teachers, especially those working in primary schools in the country had little motivation to encourage them to improve their efficiency and effectiveness in teaching (Ndifon & Cornelius-Ukpepi, 2014). This, in turn, affected children’s academic performance. It is noteworthy that other studies have been conducted on the same topic. In all these studies, the consensus remains that if teachers are not motivated to carry out their teaching responsibilities effectively, then they can work against the realization of the educational objectives (Gitonga, 2012). It is imperative to note that the text aims at showing that there is a significant correlation between the teachers’ motivation and the academic performance of the students they teach. Indeed, the authors through their findings were able to establish that there is a connection between the motivation of teachers and pupil’s performance in academics. This critical review is organized in sections analyzing various aspects of the text among them the problem statement, purpose of the study, its hypothesis, methodologies and findings. It will also compare the article to other researchers’ work on the same subject.
Noteworthy is the fact that the study is complementary and concurs with the results of other studies conducted on the topic of teacher motivation and student’s academic performance. For instance, the results and conclusions of this study relate to those of Akpaitam (1997) which examined the role of motivation on the effective performance of teachers and students on the secondary level. In Akpaitam (1997) we see that that there is a positive correlation between the two variables. Likewise, Essien (2004) demonstrates that teacher instructional competence plays a major role on the academic results of the students they teach. In the same way, Ofoegbu (2001) shows that motivational factors in the school environment for teachers results in the accomplishment of classroom effectiveness. So far, all studies indicate that there is a positive relationship between the two, and there is no study that indicates otherwise. As such, no studies have been conducted as yet to contradict this study and show that there is no relationship between the level of motivation among educators and the academic performance of the children they teach.
Significance of the Study
It is imperative to point out the fact that the researchers demonstrate a deep understanding of the subject matter. From the beginning of the article, the authors discuss the importance of the subject matter and try to establish a connection between the variables. They communicate the aims and objectives of their study at an early stage in their article. Precisely, the executive summary and introduction ensures that the audience sufficiently understands and comprehends the topic. Consequently, this guarantees that the reader us well informed on the topic and can create a connection between the two main variables; that is teacher motivation and pupils’ academic performance in schools around the country.
Additionally, it is worth noting that the paper is well organized into sections and follows the standard report format for research articles. As such, the paper is divided into sections such as the problem statement, purpose of the study, method and design, research hypotheses, discussion of findings, and conclusion. Notably, this sequential organization of the sections is similar to the organization of the works of other researchers. As such, the use of this order ensured a smooth flow of ideas and concepts regarding the subject matter. Particularly, it guaranteed that the reader could easily connect the information from one section to the other with the introduction part explaining what the paper was about. Likewise the problem statement expanded on the reason behind why the study is important in that particular region. On the other hand, the purpose statement allowed the audience to establish the reason why the study was initiated and what it sought to find out. In this case, the reader was informed of the fact that the study intended to investigate primary school teacher’s extrinsic motivation and pupils’ academic performance in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Likewise the discussion of the findings helps the reader understand and interpret the results of the study more comfortably without making wrongful assumptions on the subject matter.
What is more, the topic of the study and its subject matter is very relevant, interesting and useful to various stakeholders in the education sector. So far, multiple inquiries have been made on the topic with the view of understanding the relationship between teachers’ incentives and the academic performance of their pupils. Predominantly, the ministry of education, parents and the society in general are concerned about poor academic results from students throughout the world. Thus, the study helps all these stakeholders to understand the main cause of the poor performance and how it can be improved through initiating incentives for teachers in the form of better salaries, timely payments of salaries, improved working conditions, and tax reductions among others. In the same way, a study by Gitonga (2012) reveals that there is a positive relationship between the remuneration of teachers and the school performance of learners. Additionally, Gitonga (2012) shows that there is a relationship between the working conditions of teachers and their efficiency in teaching. Specifically, favorable working conditions for teachers allow them to provide their learners a complimentary learning atmosphere that enhances student performance in examinations. Thus, the study is important and relevant due to the fact that the information can be used by the ministry of education, the heads of schools and parents to create good and favorable working conditions for educators in order to achieve improved results from learners. It is worth pointing out that the results of this study is not only relevant and useful in Nigeria, but can be applied in various schools and learning institutions all over the world to increase performance.
Another major strength of the study is the fact that the text is detailed with information and uses a simple and unsophisticated language. For this reason, the audience can easily understand the content of the paper since the information is relayed in a manner that is not complicated. Besides, the methodology used by Ndifon & Cornelius-Ukpepi, (2014) to collect data was very extensive. Firstly, the study incorporates a literature review of the findings of other researchers on the same topic as secondary data. Most importantly, the researchers used primary research methods to collect raw data through sampling to obtain first hand information on the subject matter. Notably, the study utilized a proportionate stratified random sampling procedure to select schools for the study. On the other hand, a simple random sampling technique was used to select pupils and teachers to take part in the survey. They used questionnaires to collect information from teachers and objective test items to measure pupil’s performance. As a result, the authenticity of the data collected can be validated as reliable and authentic.
In addition, the evidence presented by the authors to support their findings is strong, extensive and conclusive. Particularly, Ndifon & Cornelius-Ukpepi (2014) derive their evidence from primary data, thereby offering a convincing evidence to support their results. In turn, this renders the study as informative and relevant. It is worth pointing out that the evidence presented in the paper is very persuasive as the authors utilize various analysis tools to come up with the results. For instance, they use the Pearson Moment Correlation Analysis to establish that there is a significant positive relationship between teachers’ professional advancement possibilities and pupils’ performance in English language, Mathematics and Primary Science (Ndifon & Cornelius-Ukpepi, 2014). Notably, this evidence corresponds to those of Livingstone (2011) who shows that monetary rewards to teachers has an effect on student’s academic performance at advanced levels. Thus, in this regard, one may argue that the evidence presented in the research is very reliable and extensive.
Most importantly, the conclusions of the paper are qualified and final, thereby indicating a clear and irrefutable stand on the findings of the paper. By and large, the conclusion of the paper reinforces the author’s views and answers to the questions asked at the beginning of the study. Indeed, it confirms that the pupils’ academic performance in subjects such as Science, Mathematics and English Language is positively related to the motivation of their teachers in terms of salary benefits, availability of professional advancement opportunities, and availability of learning materials. Also, from the study, the audience learns that timely payment of teachers’ salaries boosts their morale. For this reason, the authors suggest that governments should avail learning materials, increase teachers’ remuneration and provide a conducive learning environment to boost educators’ teaching morale and enhance academic performance in schools.
All in all, all factors taken into consideration the paper is well researched and presented. Mainly, this is due to the fact that the information relayed in the article is relevant, interesting and useful to various stakeholders in the education sector. As such, the findings of the study can be used to implement policies and strategies that aim at enhancing teachers’ motivation in order to boost academic performance among school children all over the world. The detailed nature of the explanations is also an added advantage to the study. Furthermore, the language used by Ndifon & Cornelius-Ukpepi (2014) is simple and can easily be understood by the reader. Also, the sampling methodology used in the study guaranteed the collection of high quality data for the study. The conclusions are also definite, irrefutable and indicate the importance of maintaining teachers’ motivation in teaching in order to help improve academic performance among primary school pupils in the country as well as the rest of the world. Also, it is worth noting that all existing studies on the subject matter support the conclusion that teacher motivation results in improved academic performance among their pupils.
Akpaitam , O. A. (1997). The role of motivation on the efficient performance of teachers and students in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State (Masters). University of Calabar, Nigeria.
Essien, E. E. (2004). Selected determinants of teachers’ instructional competence and academic performance in social studies in Cross River State (Masters). University of Calabar, Nigeria.
Gitonga, D. (2011). Influence of teachers' motivation on students' performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in public secondary schools in Imenti South district Kenya (Masters). Univeristy of Nairobi..
Livigstone, M. (2011). The perceived teachers’ motivation and its effect on students’ academic performance at A’level in selected secondary schools in Masaka District (Masters). Makerere University, Uganda.
Ndifon, R., & Cornelius-Ukpepi, B. U. (2014). The Relationship Between Primary School Teachers Extrinsic Motivation And Pupils Academic Performance In Cross River State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 45-53.
Ofoegbu, F. I. (2001). Motivational factors and theachievement of classroom effectiveness in Edo State secondary schools. In N. A. Nwagwu, E. T. Ehiametalor. M. A. Ogunu& M. Nmadiani (Eds.), Current issues in educational management in Nigeria (pp. 365- 376). Benin City: Ambik Press.
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