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State-of-the-art/Literature Review

Discuss about the Joystick Controlled Steering Mechanism Vehicle.

In this particular paper, a robotic vehicle with a steering mechanism is being proposed. The vehicles are used of smart steering system which permits to steer with effortlessness. The steering mechanism builds smart use of motors to attain the movement of vehicle into further backward and rotating left or right. The steering system utilizes of joystick to control the movement of vehicle by means of RF transmission (Saha et al. 2015). The main focus of this project is to lessen effort of driving for the handicapped person.

The project study is based on analyzing a steering mechanism for the disabled people those are facing problems while driving cars. Literature part reviews the work that has already carried out by other researchers. The research is based on identified questions and objectives to meet with study requirements. Theoretical approaches are also analyzed used for collect information for this study. Experimental set up is done and their results and outcome are analyzed to meet project aims. Proper planning is done to deliver work in 8 weeks.  

Zheng, Hu and Yang (2016) described that there are people those are not do their day-to-day activities due to disability, therefore they are used of wheelchair that is automated and required less time. It is done by providing joystick to them which is displaced by the user towards the direction they want to go. When the steering motion of wheel is being replaced by joystick, then it becomes easily and effortless to drive (Bowman et al. 2015). The steering wheel is being replaced by assembly of the joystick, electric motor as well as gear box. It provides signal to control unit that is forwarded to the motor. The torque of the motor is being magnified by gear box and its output is being interconnected with the steering column. Rosenberg (2017) stated that when the user wants to move from one place to another, then he pointed to the location where they desire to move and the wheel chair positions towards the location automatically. Riefe and Schulz (2017) argued that the joystick manages rate of change of the steering angle in its place of straightforwardly change the angle of steering. By making a displacement of the joystick at a constant rate, the steering angle is increased continuously. The joystick brings to origin that is at center place, and then there is a change into steering angle.

Research Question, Aim/Objectives and Sub-goals

Naboulsi (2017) cited that in order to get highest steering deviation, the joystick is hold away from the center for longer time. The key significant advantage of this system is to attain sensitivity for controlling over larger range of dislocation of the joystick. The conventional steering system is performed as power system for the handicapped people (Choromanski, Grabarek & Koz?owski 2015). Two types of joystick are used for this particular project work. Directional interface is needed to map of particular directions of the movement of vehicle on the controller. Subrt, Zhu and Kolstad (2014) stated that into analog joystick, there is no variable output. It states that when the user pressed the button, then maximum output is get. Gil et al. (2013) argued that into resistance joystick, the lever is being fixed at single point based on ball and socket joint that provides lever its two degree of the freedom. This joystick is based on resistance phenomenon. When there is variation of resistance, then a variable output is get. Kim and Kim (2016) stated that among the two types of joystick, resistance joystick is considered as most compatible into this steering system, therefore resistance joystick is selected.

Miyamoto et al. (2014) demonstrated that steering system is used of joystick for controlling the movement of vehicle with use of RF transmission. The receiver circuit of the steering system includes of RF receiver which is connected to the microcontroller circuit in order to read the RF commands. Microcontroller is used to process the commands and operate the motor for achieving desired movement of the vehicle. Moazzam et al. (2016) stated that the servo arrangement is being constructed for achieving steering control while the dc motors are being used to achieve of the movement of the motion. Therefore, steering mechanism vehicle is operated with use of RF joystick remote that is operated wirelessly (Sanders 2017). While use of the joystick, the developer ensures that the wheels of the device are pointed towards desired direction of the motion. Schmalfub et al. (2016) argued that it converts rotary motion of steering to angular turn of wheel.

Research questions

Following are the research questions:

  1. Does the steering system using joystick reduce effort for the disabled persons?
  2. Does resistance joystick is compatible for steering system?
Research aims and sub-goals

The aim of this research study is to provide the handicapped persons with steering system that is useful for them to drive their wheelchair. The proposed system also provides comfort to the driver as it reduces steering effort. By elimination of the steering wheel as well as column, the hazards are being overcome for the handicapped people from making any type of accidents. In order to complete the project study, following are the aims of the research:

  • Determine the type of joystick used for the robotic vehicle with a steering mechanism
  • Determine the rate of change of the steering angle which is controlled by the joystick
  • Evaluation on reduction of effort for the handicapped people while they are driving wheel chair
Research objectives

Theoretical Content/Methodology

Following are the research objectives of this particular study:

  • To reduce of the effort of steering
  • To convert the steering system into power steering system
  • To drive the car effectively by the handicapped persons

Electric power steering mechanism

The selected project topic is analyzed by use of secondary data which is collected from the peer review journal article, magazines and others. At first, the researcher studied and analyzed working of the steering mechanism of the automobile steering system (Dols 2016). They studied different types of papers which are published in mechanical engineering field. Based on the selected research design such as descriptive design, it is easy to analyze minimum effort which is required for steering system of the automobile (Faria, Reis & Lau 2014). Using this research design, it aims to gain details of the events that are occurred with providing of detailed description of selected topic. This design process defines detailed information on selected topic. The researcher selected proper research materials for the unit components and studied different type of properties of it (Kim & Kim 2016). The proposed system performed trial in addition to analyze it. A conventional steering system is being analyzed with development of the steering system for benefit of handicapped person as it controls the direction of vehicle with turning the wheels of the steering (Zheng, Hu & Yang 2016). The proposed system is working based on principle of electric power steering system. It consists of torque and ultrasonic sensor and actuator.

Bean strength and wrar strength

After analyzing of various research papers, the researcher performed some of the calculation to perform the study. The researcher calculates the values of spur gear as well as pinion pair for a gear ratio of 3. Bean strength is calculated as: σb = (sut) / 3 and wrar strength is calculated as: dp = m* Zp. Into the steering system, joystick, motor as well as microcontroller is considered as the critical components for the system (Choroma?ski, Grabarek & Koz?owski 2015). Those identified components have major control and version required for proposed system to function it properly. The joystick is the input of the microcontroller and it is considered as main control for the system. In this particular study, microcontroller is determining signal by means of joystick as compared to a level which is termed as look up table value (Subrt, Zhu & Kolstad 2014). It provides with proper voltage level towards the motor. The motor is being attached towards the motor which support bracket. It is attached with the steering column of vehicle via use of machined motor adapter that is bolted to steering shaft.


Research Question


1. Does the steering system using joystick reduce effort for the disabled persons?

H1: The steering system reduces the effort of the disabled persons when the steering is replaced by joystick.

2. Does resistance joystick is compatible for steering system?

H2: Resistance joystick is highly compatible for the steering system.

Driving simulator experiment

A driving simulator experiments is being conducted in order to investigate the design features of the joystick system which is used to control the vehicle parts such as accelerator, brake with steering (Strenge, Sieburg & Schmidt 2016). The design of joystick is developed and tested by two factors: degree of interference among lateral and longitudinal control followed by feedback from the driver. The handicapped people are participated into the experiment those are paralyzed in the legs and most of them have degraded function in arms as well as hands. A driving simulator is used to investigate the properties of driver (Faria, Reis & Lau 2014). It consists of virtual reality display which offers with projected image of the path of road, torque feedback steering vehicle with essential sensors and vehicle model running into real time.

Steer angle and driver torque measurements

“Electrical power steering” hardware gives with steer angle as well as driver torque measurements. It is sent towards the vehicle model with use of controller area network bus. The proposed model returns the torque demand signal to “Electrical power steering” in order to suggest of the steering feel (Schmalfub et al. 2016).


Simulator is made of use of MATLAB as well as toolbox such as Simulink and virtual reality. The model of the vehicle is being implemented with use of Simulink. Basically, this experiment is conducted with a purpose to study effects due to increased experiences with the joysticks (Choroma?ski, Grabarek & Koz?owski 2015). The drivers are used of right hand in order to control accelerator as well as brake.   

Joystick drive system enables the handicapped people for driving the car by hand with seating on an electrical wheelchair. The operation of joystick is towards back and front direction with acceleration of the car while the car is on left as well as right direction turns the steering wheel (Riefe & Schulz 2017). The handicapped person is not required to change the seat from wheelchair to car seat. When the system is fault, maintenance of the system is required by moving gas as well as brake pedals by means of mechanical linkage that is connected to the lever of joystick. Steering wheel is being turned by electric motor that is controlled by microcontroller system (Saha et al. 2015). It is analyzed that steering angle is used to track reference angle provided by the joystick. In order to understand the joystick drive system with wheelchair seating, steering drive mechanism is being designed that consists of DC motor, potentiometer for detection of angle and gears for purpose of transmission. Most of the cars are equipped with power steering system that will reduce steering operational power of the human drivers (Miyamoto et al. 2014). Therefore, the proposed system is utilized of power steering system to appreciate the joystick car drive system with least capacity of the motor. A type of prototype mechanism is being mounted on cockpit of the car of real van and it is tested dependability of the projected joystick controlled wheelchair system.

The milestone and deliverables to execute the project study is as follows:


Expected Deliverable

Milestone 1: Completion of project preparation

  1. Set up of the equipments

Milestone 2: Completion of research methodology

  1. Calibration of the equipments
  2. Experimental execution
  3. Analysis of the data
  4. Statistical analysis

Milestone 3: Completion of project documentation

  1. Final report
  2. Final project preparation


Figure 1: Gantt chart

(Source: Created by author)


It is concluded that the handicapped person have less strength in the hand so as to drive the car. Conventional steering system has provided power to the person so that they can drive the car. It is also analyzed that using the joystick in the steering will eliminate the effort which is required among the man to drive. The proposed system is installed into the car as a secondary system. Dependency of the handicapped person on other is also reduced by means of utilizing the proposed joystick system. The purpose of this study is to provide control to the vehicle throughout joystick for the physically handicapped. It is required to response to operation of joystick that is accounted for steering, acceleration as well as braking patterns that is considered as natural for the human brain. The first consideration that is provided for accommodation through the control system is interface of human with steering operations of vehicle.


Bowman, J., Waller, T., Chin, T. & Polzin, J., Deere & Company, 2015. Method and apparatus for ride control activation. U.S. Patent 9,055,719.

Choroma?ski, W., Grabarek, I. & Koz?owski, M., 2015. Simulation and experimental study of selected parameters of the multifunction steering wheel in the view of users’ abilities and accuracy of vehicle maneuvers. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, pp.3085-3091.

Crombez, D.S., Ford Global Technologies, Llc, 2015. Vehicle control system and method. U.S. Patent 8,942,889.

Dols, J.F., 2016. Towards a safer fitness to drive and driving ability assessment procedure with joystick. In 17th International Conference Road Safety On Five Continents (RS5C 2016), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 17-19 May 2016. Statens väg-och transportforskningsinstitut.

Faria, B.M., Reis, L.P. & Lau, N., 2014. A survey on intelligent wheelchair prototypes and simulators. In New Perspectives in Information Systems and Technologies, Volume 1 (pp. 545-557). Springer, Cham.

Gil, J.J., Díaz, I., Ciáurriz, P. & Echeverría, M., 2013. New driving control system with haptic feedback: Design and preliminary validation tests. Transportation research part C: emerging technologies, 33, pp.22-36.

Kim, Y. & Kim, Y., 2016. Driving Performance of Adaptive Driving Controls using Drive-by-Wire Technology for People with Disabilities. Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, 35(1).

Miyamoto, H., Nabekura, K., Okajima, H. & Matsunaga, N., 2014, August. Steering control of piggyback type wheelchair using avoidance intension detected by weight shift. In Advanced Mechatronic Systems (ICAMechS), 2014 International Conference on (pp. 330-335). IEEE.

Moazzam, H., Farooq, U., Rafiq, F., Asad, M.U. & Abbas, G., 2016, August. Design and construction of mobility assistive hybrid automobile for impaired persons. In Innovative Computing Technology (INTECH), 2016 Sixth International Conference on(pp. 150-154). IEEE.

Naboulsi, M.A., Act-Ip, 2017. Safety control system for apps in vehicles. U.S. Patent 9,713,994.

Rosenberg, L.B., Immersion Corporation, 2017. Haptic remote control for toys. U.S. Patent 9,625,905.

Saha, C., Goswami, D., Saha, S., Konar, A., Lekova, A. & Nagar, A.K., 2015, August. A novel gesture driven fuzzy interface system for car racing game. In Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE), 2015 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 1-8). IEEE.

Sanders, D.A., 2017. Using self-reliance factors to decide how to share control between human powered wheelchair drivers and ultrasonic sensors. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 25(8), pp.1221-1229.

Schmalfub, L., Rupp, R., Tuga, M.R., Kogut, A., Hewitt, M., Meincke, J., Klinker, F., Duttenhoefer, W., Eck, U., Mikut, R. & Reischl, M., 2016. Steer by ear: Myoelectric auricular control of powered wheelchairs for individuals with spinal cord injury. Restorative neurology and neuroscience, 34(1), pp.79-95.

Strenge, B., Sieburg, S. & Schmidt, L., 2016. Experimental comparison of sidestick steering configurations for an innovative electric two-wheel vehicle. In Advances in Ergonomic Design of Systems, Products and Processes (pp. 313-326). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Subrt, M.C., Zhu, Y. & Kolstad, O.C., Caterpillar Inc., 2014. Articulation control system having steering path tracking. U.S. Patent 8,807,261.

Zheng, H., Hu, J. & Yang, S., 2016. Variable steering ratio design for vehicle steer-by-wire system with joystick (No. 2016-01-0455). SAE Technical Paper.

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