Explain the meaning of the term "social policy" and give relevant examples of ways in which social policies are applied in practice. analyse social policy theories and explain how they relate to the specific aspects of practice.
Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the economy of care.
Mixed Economy of Care
“Social Policy” is a term used for referring the policies used by the governments in welfare and social protection activities, in ways by which the society would experience a development in welfare and also to the theoretical research of the topic. In one sense, social policy is predominantly involved with social services and state of wellbeing. In the other wider sense, it is related to a variety of concerns that extends outside governmental activities – the ways by which wellbeing promotion happens, along with the economic and social situations that shape the development of welfare (Morel, Palier and Palme 2012). Additionally, it also considers the policy and administration within social services that covers areas like health, income and education. Along with that, requirements and concerns influencing service user, counting in old age, health, poverty, family policy and disability, and the delivery of welfare are taken care of (Becker, Bryman and Ferguson 2012).
Social policy as a means of bringing benefits and development to the society was used by governments and helped in the establishment of mighty civilizations on this earth. To bring in social change, there is a need for changing the society in a positive way. More often than not social policy is the perpetrator in bringing social change and plan for social work carefully. There is a need for social control in every society. It directs the processes of control including customary and formal social control. The need for this is to prevent societies from falling into oligarchic or anarchic situations. The rules and habits are by which the societies attempts to sustain order and social policy helps the cause (Wilkins 2013).
If a country, for instance, the UK is taken, the organization masterminded in the 2004–5 tax years to employ by and large £320 billion on what may routinely be portrayed as "social" or social policy expenditure. It is a gigantic whole of money: more than large number individuals can get a handle on or even imagine. What the UK devotes on social policy is not by any means a little change. Be that as it may, then, the UK is by no means, extraordinary. Frankly, as a degree of GDP the UK's social policy expenditure is ideally not precisely in an impressive measure of other made countries. In nations like France and Germany, such as, social policy expenditure is proportionate to ideally more than one fourth of GDP, while in Sweden it is as much as 33%. There are, of course, other genuine countries where social spending is proportionally much lower than in the UK (Alcock 2014).
Social Policy and Application
Social policy approaches have been backed by several academics and their theories. One such segment of is the modernization theory. Inside the concept of modernization, there is a claim that says that socioeconomic development is spreading all over the world and brings additional freedom, security, good governance, individual autonomy, free choice, gender equality, self-expression, well-being and emancipation. Other theories and concepts in the welfare of the state and social policy are the social democracy, neo-Liberalism, neo-Marxism, post-modernism, Marxism, Liberalism and so on (Birkland 2014).
Within the modernization theory, human progression is described as the improvement of self-administering human choice, progressed by socioeconomic modernization, a social push toward self-expression qualities, and democratization. The theory battles that social requests advance in truly obvious stages through which they end up being continuously confusing. Progression depends on a very basic level on the importation of development and moreover different other political and social changes acknowledged to work out as expected along these lines. Modernization theory holds that the technique of modernization incorporates extended availability and levels of formal coaching, and the change of wide correspondences, both of which are thought to develop prominence based political foundations (Fourie 2012).
Thomas Meyer, the presenter of the social democracy theory, argued unquestionably that democracies have shown up mainly in direct relationship with the ascent of free markets. As demonstrated by Meyer, market capitalism is a condition of the ascent and relentlessness of democracy. Of course, he sees an adjusting relationship, since free markets tend to undermine democracy. This thought is clearly contradicting, yet it can be illuminated. For example disappointments of the market contention, people without money, can't hold up under the cost of the preparation of their children. Their children have all rights under the attentive gaze of the law, however, as absolutely non-trained individuals, they can't totally share in people in general field. Regardless of the way that they have the (negative) right of adaptability of expression, they can't hone it, as they don't know how to scrutinize or form. Negative civil rights can't be true blue and convincing for all if not maintained by positive civil rights. They should be effective for all if positive civil rights are ensured. Meyer states that the social democratic focus qualities adaptability, value, and solidarity are extensively seen and in a clear way interpreted by the UN contracts (Giddens 2013).
Inside the neo-liberalism theory, neoliberals assume that organizations should accept a diminished part in handling the economy and in monitoring people's lives. In Neoliberal thought, the free market recognizes best, and individuals must be permitted however much adaptability as could sensibly be relied upon to approach their associations should be empowered greater chance to battle because of each other keeping the ultimate objective to make a profit (Ampuja 2012). Clearing of restrictions on associations and organizations required in world trade practice infers diminishing tax on Corporate Profits or decreasing the measure of "Custom" or formal norms by which associations need to endure – such as dropping prosperity and security controls. There are fewer confirmations for workers and nature, for the past which suggests doing things like dismissing slightest wages, unchanging contracts. This in like manner suggests allowing associations the chance to dynamically enroll 'versatile experts' on without a moment's hesitation contracts. Cutting taxes is maintained so that the state expect to a lesser degree a section in giving welfare – government incapacity, preparing and prosperity perhaps. In most neoliberal theory, the state has an irrelevant part to play – it needs to secure private property – given that advantage is the key method of reasoning, the system won't chip away at the remote possibility that anyone can take or vandalize whatever other individual's property – along these lines the state needs to keep up control of legality (Springer 2012).
Social Policy Theories
All these theories support the cause of social policy and social work, which in turn supports the mixed economy of care present in the UK. This economy supports the provision of care services by the providers. Instead of just the social services and NHS, some services are also provided by the independent and voluntary sectors. The independent fragment is business affiliations or individuals who offer services to profit, and the think portion gives services on a non-advantage start. The three fragments share the commitment to pass on neighborhood support and care services (Nolte and Pitchforth 2014). In like manner, the prosperity and social care structure have ended up being more extended with an extensive variety of providers entering the market. A mixed economy incorporates a level of private budgetary adaptability mixed with a level of government control. The organization controls how many business affiliations and individuals can look for after their particular self-interest. The governing body similarly gives some financing to think affiliations working in prosperity and social services. Prosperity masters and adjacent specialists in like manner make stipends to neighborhood affiliations. There has been an impact in a number of obstinate affiliations along these lines of the prosperity and gathering care changes. The most deliberate relationship in the healthcare zone has unselfish status (Rodrigues and Nies 2013).
There are a couple of central focuses to a mixed economy of care. These are the more important choice for service customers, more noticeable versatility in the extent of services on offer, more responsiveness to necessities, more cost-sufficiency, and a prevalent nature of services. The organization's essential objectives when introducing mixed economy of care were goodness, choice and ampleness. On the opposite side, the disservices are that it makes a two-level plan of champs and washouts, is not as insightful as first thought, land unevenness and more association and organization (Johnson 2014).
The mixed economy of welfare is a divisive system for giving services on an equal start to all locals and is quite recently supportable given the restorative reasons for living far reaching incorporation in the headway of private therapeutic social protection sharpens. In a mixed economy of present day welfare, we dynamically experience the disappointment of no under 66% of our overall population (class partition) to purchase basic and imperative helpful welfare services, while meanwhile witness a growing reluctance by the therapeutic calling to give an identical, unsurprising and broad remedial service to individuals as a rule, that is not prohibitive on one's cash related ability to pay for that service or treatment. In this exceptional situation, social policy relates to rules for the changing, upkeep or creation of living conditions that are useful for human welfare.
Alcock, P., 2014. Social policy in Britain. Palgrave Macmillan.
Ampuja, M., 2012. Globalization Theory, media-centrism and neoliberalism: a critique of recent intellectual trends. Critical Sociology, 38(2), pp.281-301.
Becker, S., Bryman, A. and Ferguson, H., 2012. Understanding research for social policy and social work: themes, methods and approaches. Policy Press.
Birkland, T.A., 2014. An introduction to the policy process: Theories, concepts and models of public policy making. Routledge.
Fourie, E., 2012. A future for the theory of multiple modernities: Insights from the new modernization theory. Social Science Information, 51(1), pp.52-69.
Giddens, A., 2013. The third way: The renewal of social democracy. John Wiley & Sons.
Johnson, N., 2014. Mixed Economies Welfare. Routledge.
Morel, N., Palier, B. and Palme, J., 2012. Towards a social investment welfare state?: ideas, policies and challenges. Policy Press.
Nolte, E. and Pitchforth, E., 2014. What is the evidence on the economic impacts of integrated care?.
Rodrigues, R. and Nies, H., 2013. Making Sense of Differences—the Mixed Economy of Funding and Delivering Long-Term Care. In Long-Term Care in Europe (pp. 191-212). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Springer, S., 2012. Neoliberalism as discourse: between Foucauldian political economy and Marxian poststructuralism. Critical Discourse Studies, 9(2), pp.133-147.
Wilkins, L.T., 2013. Social deviance: Social policy, action and research (Vol. 9). Routledge.
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