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Using your graph created in 1a) answer the following questions and justify if these values are reasonable or faulty predictions. You must show your working for the following questions on your graph in 1a).I. What is the estimated amount of paracetamol in the blood of volunteers after 55 min

What is the estimated amount of paracetamol in the blood of volunteers after 1.9 hours

Predict how long it would take to absorb the full dosage of paracetamol available in the oral tablet consumed by the volunteers

A fisherman has an accident at work whilst using a filleting knife, which required medical treatment The doctor asks you to complete the relevant paper work for the worker’s compensation claim. The fisherman’s hand measures 20.4 cm from the distal wrist crease to index fingertip . In the box provided make a scientific drawing of the fisherman’s hand showing the wound and include the position of the stitches. You must include a scale bar for your drawing – to calculate this, use the actual hand measurement given above. If your image is not clear in the print out, open the electronic version of this assignment and work from the image on the screen of your computer.

Provide a scale bar for your scientific drawing. You must show your full working for the scale bar or this section will not be graded.

## Prediction of the time required to absorb the entire dose of paracetamol

1. a) Using the data provided in table 1, draw a graph representing the change in the amount of paracetamol in the blood sample over the period given.
 Time in minutes Amount of paracetamol in mg/l 0 0 20 114 40 201 73.8 380 90 472

The time was changed to all the values represented in minutes whereas the amount of paracetamol was converted to milligrams per liter.

1. b) Is the graph showing a linear or non-linear representation of the data collected?

The graph shows a linear relationship which implies that a corresponding increase in the duration of the time leads to an increase in the amount of the paracetamol. This is explained to the fact that more of the paracetamol is absorbed in the stomach and hence present in the blood stream thus, with time the amount is expected to increase and show the linear relationship.

1. c) Using your graph in (a) answer the following questions and provide the working for each of the questions.
2. i) What is the estimated amount of paracetamol in the blood stream after 55 minutes?

Using the equation of the graph y = 5.1742 x + 1.8017, the amount of the paracetamol can be obtained.

X = 55 minutes

Therefore, y = 5.1742 (55) + 1.8017

The amount of paracetamol becomes = 286.3827mg/l

1. ii) What is the estimated amount of paracetamol in the blood stream after 1.9 hours?

Using the equation of the graph y = 5.1742 x + 1.8017, the amount of the paracetamol can be obtained.

X = 114 minutes

Therefore, y = 5.1742 (114) + 1.8017

The amount of paracetamol becomes = 591.6605mg/l

iii) Predict how long it would take to completely absorb the whole dose of paracetamol ingested by the volunteers.

The 500mg was taken by 40ml of water thus, what about in 1 liter, how many milligrams would be needed.

500mg = 40ml

?          = 1000ml

1000/40 × 500mg

12500mg

Thus, y = 5.1742 x + 1.8017

12500 – 1.8017 = 5.1742x

12498.1983 = 5.1742x

X = 2415.5 minutes

Thus, approximately X = 40 hrs.

1. A fisherman has a n accident at work while using the filleting knife. The cut is deep, and the fisherman requires medical treatment. The doctor asks you to complete the fisherman`s paper work for his compensation claim. The fisherman`s hand measures 20.4 cm from the distal wrist index to index fingertip. Make a scientific drawing of the fisherman`s hand and include the position of the stitches. Use a scale bar for the drawing of the hand and show the calculations required for the scale drawing.

The scale bar of the diagram is 20.4 cm: 16.3cm hence, the ratio of the scale drawing becomes 1cm: 1.25cm

1. b) Using your scale bar estimate the actual length of the wound on the patient in millimeters.

The length of the wound from the scale drawing is 4.7cm hence, the estimated length of the wound is 4.7cm/1.25cm to give 3.76cm which is approximately 37.6mm actual length of the wound.

1. c) The actual length of the wound is 42mm. Compare it with your findings in c above and estimate the accuracy in the scale drawing and whether it can be used for the compensation claim of the patient without them seeing the doctor directly and get medical attention.

The actual length of the wound is 42mm and from the scale drawing the length is 37.6mm. The scale drawing is accurate since it within the margin of error of +5 mm and -5 mm. Hence, the scale drawing can be used by the fisherman for compensation claim even without seeing the doctor. The estimation of the drawing is correct since the drawing was drawn to scale using the initial length of the victim`s hand from the fingertip index to the wrist index.

1. Covalent Compounds and Electron dot structures of the molecules.
2. Provide the chemical formula of the following compounds
3. Hexaboron silicide

The molecular formula is given as:

B6Si

1. Tetraphosphorus nonsulfide

The molecular formula is given as:

P4S9

• Dinitrogen pentoxide

The molecular formula is given as:

N2O5

1. Provide the name and the electron dot structure of the two simple molecules provided. Include the bonding and non-bonding electrons in their structure.
2. Fluorine is the first molecule.

The electron dot structure of the molecule is:

1. Propane is the second molecule.

## Accuracy of the scale drawing of the wound

The electron dot structure of propane is:

1. Urea is a more complex molecule. Provide its electron dot structure including all the bonding and non-bonding electrons in the structure of the molecule.
2. In your own words, explain the urea metabolism in the human body. Include in your answer where, how and why it is produced and how it is removed from the body.

According to (Ophardt E. 2003), urea is a by-product of deamination. Deamination is a process that breaks down amino acids in the human body to remove the excess amino acids. This process results in the formation of ammonia. However, ammonia in the body regardless of its levels is toxic to the tissues and could affect metabolism. Therefore, the liver works to convert the ammonia that has been produced to form urea which is less toxic as compared to the ammonia. The urea is converted through a process known as the Krebs’s cycle that involves the use of catalyst called ornithine. Two molecules of ammonia are reacted with one molecule of carbon dioxide to produce one molecule of urea. The urea is thereafter transported by the blood to the kidneys where it is excreted as waste in urine.

Provide a reliable reference for the answer d) above.

The reference used for the above answer is provided below in Harvard format:

Ophardt, E. (2003). Urea Cycle. Virtual Chembook. Website

1. Enzymes and Chemical Reactions

Refer to the graph provided in the question document to answer the following questions. In your answers demonstrate your understanding of the enzyme structure and functions.

1. Explain why there is no product formed when the enzyme is incubated at the temperatures of 87 degrees Celsius. Explain your answer in terms of the enzyme structure and function of the enzymes.

At 87 degrees Celsius, the enzyme protein structure is denatured by the high temperatures. This happens because the intramolecular and intermolecular bonds of these proteins are broken, and this distorts the shape of the enzyme. This is due to the high kinetic energy imparted on the protein molecules. The catalytic activity of the enzyme consequently gets affected and thus the enzyme cannot catalyze the reaction and hence, no product is formed when the substrate is added.

1. Explain why there was no more product formed 30 seconds when the enzyme was incubated at 37 degrees Celsius. Use the knowledge of the chemical reaction and the direction of the chemical reaction to answer the question.

At 37 degrees Celsius, the enzyme activity is at its optimum temperature. The reacting molecules at this temperature have very high kinetic energy and the probability of well-oriented collision is also high. Therefore, the enzyme molecules collide with substrate molecules to form a huge amount of product. 30 seconds after the reaction has proceeded, there is no more product that is formed because all the active sites of the enzyme have been occupied by the substrate thus the reaction comes to an end and even when more substrate is added,

the reaction cannot proceed further since the active sites where the reaction takes place have been filled completely. The only way to trigger more product formation at this point of equilibrium would be to add more enzyme to the reaction. This would provide more active sites for the substrates to link to and hence produce more product.

1. Explain why there was less product formed when the enzyme was incubated at 27 degrees Celsius than when the enzyme was incubated at 37 degrees Celsius. Explain if the rate of the reaction has changed and why the rate of the reaction has changed.

According to (Royal Society of Chemists n.d.), temperature affects the enzyme activity. Lower temperatures induce lower kinetic energy on the molecules of the enzymes and hence the collision rate is low and thus, the product formed is less. At 27 degrees Celsius therefore, the enzyme molecules have a low kinetic energy and therefore, their probability of a well-oriented collision is low. Only few molecules get to collide with the substrate and thus less of the product is formed. As the temperature increases, the kinetic energy also increases.

The probability of well-oriented collision increases, and the molecules of the enzymes collide more with the substrate and hence, more of the product is formed. At 37 degrees, the molecules of the enzyme are at their optimal temperature with the greatest kinetic energy and thus, the probability of collision is increased and thus, more of the product is formed. However, beyond the temperature of 37 degrees Celsius the protein part of the enzyme gets denatured and the product produced decreases greatly.

References

Ophardt, E. (2003). Urea Cycle. Virtual Chembook. Website

Royal Society of Chemists. (n.d.). Enzymes: Function and Structure. Chemistry for Biologists.

Cite This Work

My Assignment Help. (2021). Relationship Between Time And Amount Of Paracetamol Absorbed In The Bloodstream And Effect Of Temperature On Enzyme Activity. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/lfs103-introductory-bioscience/amount.html.

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My Assignment Help (2021) Relationship Between Time And Amount Of Paracetamol Absorbed In The Bloodstream And Effect Of Temperature On Enzyme Activity [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/lfs103-introductory-bioscience/amount.html
[Accessed 25 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Relationship Between Time And Amount Of Paracetamol Absorbed In The Bloodstream And Effect Of Temperature On Enzyme Activity' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/lfs103-introductory-bioscience/amount.html> accessed 25 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Relationship Between Time And Amount Of Paracetamol Absorbed In The Bloodstream And Effect Of Temperature On Enzyme Activity [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 25 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/lfs103-introductory-bioscience/amount.html.

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