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Discuss about the Learning in a Digital Age. The study also stated that recommendations for priority vaccination in case of priority groups which were targeted were not low in priority in comparison to the strategies of vaccination prioritization.

Relevance of the Study

This paper aimed to investigate the influence of the effects of the vaccine program against that of pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in the US setting from between the year 2009 to 2010.

The study successfully revealed that there was an influence of the national health effects in the vaccine administration timings and also it affected the efficacy of the vaccine. The study also stated that recommendations for priority vaccination in case of priority groups which were targeted were not low in priority in comparison to the strategies of vaccination prioritization.

The relevancy of the study lies in the fact that the results provided helped to focus on the importance of the use of surveillance data that helps to facilitate vaccine recommendation assessment for the effects. Therefore, this study was relevant in determining the positive effect of vaccination within the priority groups. Additionally there were limitations like interventions of antiviral drugs and others were not taken into account for study of the effects and these were assumed to be constant.

The aim of the study was to identify the level of public knowledge which concerns the measures that is important for the spread of pandemic influenza.

The results of the study shows that there is an emphasis on the social impact of the wave of pandemic along with the communication efficiency in addition to the compliance of the measures required to control the authorities of public health as well as the  relationships among these parameters. The results of the study also mentioned that the respondents who perceived pandemic (H1N1) 2009 as serious or who had attained higher educational levels expressed intention to comply with the measures of social distancing, hence determining its relevancy in maintaining health. This study is useful in the literacy program implemented for the risk assessment, however the generation of reassurance could help in achieving broader health goals.

This study aims to warn the public regarding the arrival of flu season which will be inconvenient in nature due to the ineffective vaccines.

The study results reported that there has been identification of three or four strains of the influenza virus which will play a role in infecting the population of the northern hemisphere. However it is also reported that the genetic makeup of the virus can change instantly which makes it difficult to manage the infections and create proper vaccines.

The reliability of the study was in the fact that, it provided information on the H3N2 strain which is supposed to be circulating in the US and is one of the worse strains of influenza, thus making people aware of the need of flu shots. Hence, it was a relevant experiment or research done by the researchers and increased the usefulness of it.

This study presents the mechanism by which an antiviral drug works, which help by shortening the length of the illness period thus causing a reduction in the severity of the disease and avoiding complications.

The paper reports the mechanism of the Neuraminidase Inhibitors, which plays a role by inhibiting the infected cells from releasing new viruses by providing a hindrance to the virus from getting attached to the infecting cells. The paper also reports the mechanism of Adamantanes, which are M2 inhibitors mainly used in the preventions of influenza type A. It helps to block the M2 protein present on type A influenza viruses.

Level of Public Knowledge on Measures to Control Pandemic Influenza

The relavance of NAIs is also discussed in the study considering that the drugs like oseltamivir and zanamivir plays a role in reducing the symptoms of the illness and also communication of the disease to others. Therefore, researching about these viruses made the paper relevant and effective for future reliable for future research prospects.

The study here aims to show that the infection of H1N1 influenza increases in a significant amount.  

The researchers found out in the study that virus is mostly prevalent in the western countries. However in India, it is mostly prevalent in the monsoon. It was reported that whether H1N1 virus group proliferates more when the weather is humid and is cooler.

The spread of the flu virus is assessed to occur in a process which is similar to the seasonal flu virus. There is also communication of the virus from one person to another through the respiratory route. It has been reported in the study that these virus particles get deposited on the respiratory tract hence infecting the individuals who get exposed to it. As the complete paper helped to identify the time, season and effectiveness of the virus in a populated country like India, the reliability and usefulness of the paper increased and made it relevant for further research prospects in India about the virus.

The aim of this article is to provide measures to the population regarding border control. The articles is also involved in providing advice to the travellers before they head overseas. This mentions that there is a requirement of the vaccination for influenza before two weeks of travelling so that a desired degree of protection is received.

The article also mentions certain Australian government measures that helps to monitor the prevalent situation in a close manner. It has been reported that there is a limited amount of supply of Tamiflu or antiviral medicine oseltamivir. However there is a mention of the fact this medicine is used only in the case of the staff during any outbreak of the pandemic influenza. Therefore, with presence of relevancy and reliability in the process, it has been mentioned that holding of these supplies are treated as prudent measures in order to ensure that Australian officials overseas were able to provide significant services to the Australians and hence, increased the usefulness of the process.

This article provides information on the people who are most of the time affected by swine flu, and a portion of this population required hospitalization and are likely to die.

The article reports that the people who are at high risk possess a factor in common which makes them more susceptible to the flu complications which involves pneumonia as well as bloodstream infection and hence makes it relevant depending on the recnet emergence of this disease among target population. The article also mentions the high risk group which involves the children below the age of 6, pregnant women, people of age 50 or more along with the people having medical conditions such as lung or heart disease or diabetes o having a weakened immune system, making it relevant and reliable for the upcoming future research prospects.  

Infection of H1N1 Influenza Virus

This article published by the World Health Organization aims to discuss the prevalence of H1N1 in the post pandemic period.

This article presented its views related to the assessments conducted by the committee on a global situation which is involved in the experience of influenza. It had also been reported that the health authorities of the countries like New Zealand and India have been involved in providing quick detection and treatment along with recommendation of vaccination, which provides a successful model in regards to how a country might respond immediately in the post pandemic period.

There is also mention of the small proportion of the people who are healthy infected during the period of pandemic which involves young and healthy people, developed a severe form of primary viral pneumonia that is not typically seen during seasonal epidemics and is especially difficult and demanding to treat, therefore increasing the reliability and usefulness of the research conducted by the WHO.

This article aims to discuss what pandemic (H1N1) virus is. The article is involved in identification of the cause of the infections which generally refers to the influenza virus.

There is a genetic analysis provided of the virus that is seen to be originating from the influenza virus that is of animal origin. However this is not related to the H1N1 virus. The article also reports about the antigenic analysis of the antibodies which works against the H1N1 virus and which do not play any protective role against the pandemic H1N1 virus. 

There is also a mention of the high risks of the severe illness that is caused by this virus, which is caused through the air contamination and other routes like exposure to droplet infection caused through the activities of coughing and sneezing. The article also presents the precautions that can be taken in cases of the pandemic infection that includes seeking of medical care in cases of symptoms like shortness of breath or difficulty breathing followed by high fever. tese factors increased the reliability and relevancy of the research or data present on the website of WHO.

The article involves the discussions related to the WHO recommendations for the post-pandemic period. The article states that the world is currently in the post-pandemic period. It also mentions that the national authorities of health is quite significant in terms of vigilance on the occurrence of the pandemic.  

The article also mentions the WHO recommendations to health authorities during the post-pandemic period. This also discusses the monitoring of respiratory disease activity involving the monitoring for unusual events including clusters of severe respiratory illness or death. There is also investigation of the unusual cases like clusters or outbreaks in order to facilitate the process of rapid identification of important changes related to the epidemiology or the severity of influenza, hence the research about the viral disease and its occurrence was relevant and reliable for proper future use.

This article discusses regarding the seasonal influenza and the influenza A (H1N1), which can be classified as being of types A, B and C. this differentiation is done based on the presence if the core proteins. The article also discusses the transmission of the influenza which is seen to occur thorough the process of respiratory transmission and which is disseminated by unprotected coughs and sneezes. There is also a chance of short distance transmission which is air borne. This mainly occurs in places which are crowded and in enclosed spaces. The article also discusses about the nature of the diseases, the burden of the disease, the risks or the travellers that is associated with this diseases, and finally the precautions that are required to be taken. hence, making the informations relevant, reliable and useful for the future research projects.

Mechanism of Antiviral Drugs

This article presented by the centers for disease control and prevention provides updates on the H1N1 virus that is responsible for causing the pandemic which is now a flu virus that is quite common and plays a role in the continuation of the seasonal circulation of virus on a worldwide basis.

 The article also presents a situation update on the U.S. Public Health Emergency for 2009 H1N1 Influenza which is known to expire on the day June 23, 2010. There was also a mention of the international Health Regulations (IHR) Emergency Committee which had declared at the end of 2009 there will be a H1N1 pandemic that would occur globally.

The article also emphasises on vaccination that is involved in the recommendation of flu vaccine being one of the most important steps which is required for the protection against flu, hence it was relevant and reliable for future research prospect as well as application in the medication process. It declared that the US vaccine will be significant for provision of protection against the H3N2 virus. This is also a type of the influenza B virus that had resulted in the occurrence of the significant amount of illness along with hospitalization and deaths.

In this article there is a declaration of the pandemic nature of the H1N1 flu. The article puts forward that on the date June 11, 2009, there was declaration of the global pandemic of novel influenza A (H1N1) that had raised an underway for the raising of the pandemic alert of a worldwide nature.

The article also reports about the emergence of the disease that is the emergence of the virus, which first appeared as a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. It was first seen to originate in the area of Mexico and US in March and April, 2009, that was of swine origin. A testing at the CDC in US showed that the first novel H1N1 was confirmed there. However by June 19, 2009, almost 50 states in the United States along with the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands had already reported novel H1N1 infection. Therefore, the research and the informations present in the document was relevant and useful for future research prospect.

This article presents a vaccine information statement that involves the discussions related to the fact why getting vaccinated is important. This presents that influenza is of contagious nature that spreads all-round the year especially between the months of October and May. The article also presents the symptoms associated with the flu like fever, sore throat, muscle aches and others like cough, head ache and others.

The article presents the discussion regarding the inactivated and the recombinant flu vaccines. This involves the mention of the fact that some of the flu shots contain thimerosal that is a mercury based preservative, which increases its usefulness. The article also states that some of the people who suffer from life threatening allergies, or had Guillain-Barré Syndrome or if someone is not feeling well should not administer vaccines making it reliable and relevant. The article also involves mention of the risk of the vaccine reaction, and discussion of the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

Measures Regarding Border Control

This article presents the discussion related to the H1N1 influenza virus including the symptoms of the H1N1 influenza including that of fever, sore throat, cough, muscle aches, headache, chills, fatigue, runny or stuffy nose, vomiting and diarrhea.

The article states the causes of the H1N1 influenza in addition to the methods of diagnosis of H1N1 influenza. The article also discusses whether this H1N1 influenza can be prevented or not.

The article also discusses the H1N1 influenza treatment however there might be certain complications present with the pregnant women, the children and young adults between 6 months and 24 years of age, the adults having 65 years of age or are older, the people who are suffering from a severe illness or are in the hospital and finally the people who have a weak immune systems or chronic health problems, such as asthma or heart disease. therefore, its relevancy for future research prospects, reliability for present medication use and usefulness can be trusted.

This article is involved in presenting the mechanism by which the flu vaccine works. This also presents the annual flu changes. There are various types of flu virus like the type A flu virus, the type B flu virus and the type C flu virus.

  The article also mentions about the deactivated viruses and there are various flu vaccine ingredients. This document was published by the NHS and hence, there is no such question about the relevancy and usefulness of the research or data available in the website or the document and hence, this document and its relevancy increased.

The video presents that swine flu is a respiratory disease, which is caused by a relatively new strain of influenza virus known as h1 and one it is a contagious viral infection which is transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of infected droplets such as from people sneezing or coughing the H1N1 virus has multiple parts inside the virus is genetic material that carries a blueprint for building copies of the virus the virus has an envelope with spikes of proteins referred to as H and N proteins which give rise to the naming convention for the virus.

 The swine flu typically infects cells in the respiratory system first such as the nose throat or lungs the H spike on the virus attaches to receptors on the surface of the healthy cell membrane. This allows the virus to penetrate the cell as it does so the body forms a membrane around the virus molecule. The virus then travels towards the cell’s command center the nucleus and opens up to release its genetic content inside the cells cytoplasm the viral genetic content enters the nucleus where it uses the cell's own machinery to print copies of itself. Some of these copies travel out of the nucleus back into the cytoplasm there they attach to ribosomes. Therefore, it completely describes the process using which the virus infects the human body making it relevant and reliable for future research prospect.

Borse, Rebekah., et al. (2013). Effects of Vaccine Program against Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, United States, 2009–2010. CDC EID Journal, vol. 19, no. 3. DOI: 10.3201/eid1903.120394. Available online at:

Calisher, Charles H. (2009). Swine Flu. Croat Med Jour, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 412–415. doi:10.3325/cmj.2009.50.412. Retrieved online at:

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2010). 2009 H1N1 Flu. Web. Retrieved online at:

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2010). Novel H1N1 Flu: Background on the Situation. Web. Retrieved online at:

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2015). Vaccine Information Statement:Inactivated Influenza Vaccine. Web. Retrieved online at:

Eastwood, K., Durrheim, D., Butler, M., Jones, A. Responses to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. Retrieved at:

FamilyDoctor. (2017). H1N1 Influenza. Web. Retrieved online at:

Foley, K (Quartz). (2017). A virus mutation has made this year’s flu vaccine less effective. Web. Retrieved from:

Gallagher, E ( (2017). How Does an Antiviral Drug Work? Web. Retrieved from: 

Isalkar, Umesh. (2010). H1N1 finds favourable conditions during rains. Times of India. Web. Retrieved online at:

NHS (National Health Services). (2018). Vaccinations. Web. Retrieved from: 

ScientificAnimations (Youtube). (2015). SwineFlu Influenza H1N1 Mechanism of Action MOA Animation. Web. Retrieved from:

Smartraveller (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade). (2009). Health: Swine Influenza. Travel Bulletin, 02 May, 2009. Archived. Retrieved at:

Smith, M (MedicineNet). (2009). Swine Flu: Who’s Most at Risk. Web. Retrieved from: https://www/

WHO (World Health Organization). (2010). H1N1 in post-pandemic period: Director-General's opening statement at virtual press conference. Web. Retrieved online at:

WHO (World Health Organization). (2010). What is the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus?.  Web. Retrieved online at:

WHO (World Health Organization). (2010). WHO recommendations for the post-pandemic period.  Web. Retrieved online at:

WHO (World Health Organization). (2018). Seasonal Influenza and Influenza A(H1N1).  Web. Retrieved online at:

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