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## Trend-Sales

1. Ratio analysis helps provide an insight into the financial performance of the company. In the given case we are provided with some ratios of company for two financial years, from which we need to determine the credit worthiness of the company. From the ratio analysis of two years we can see that the company has earned lower profits in the current year, nut the liquidity position of the company is in a good state. The benchmark for current ratio is 2 and the company has the ratio of 2.1. This shows high liquidity and availability of funds for repayment of loan. The ratios paint a kind of favourable picture for the credit worthiness of the company, but taking the decision solely based on ratios will not be correct. it is important that we consider qualitative information regarding company also, in order to have a complete picture. It is important we also see other aspects of the business so that its real position can be understood.
2. The above ratios give us an idea of the liquidity and profitability of the company. there are few other ratios too which will help us analyse the company’s worth:
• Debt to equity ratio: this ratio helps us calculate the ratio of debt and equity involved in the capital structure. This gives us the idea on how much debt is already used by the company. Taking the general capital structure of the industry to which company belongs we can see if more debt would be suitable for the company or not. Based on the existing debt history of the company, the repayment history can be analysed for future performance of the company.
• Interest coverage ratio: the interest coverage ratio helps us analyse the earnings of the company. It helps us evaluate the company’s ability to earn eng profits to pay back the interest accrued. This ratio calculates the number of times is the earnings of the interest expense. Higher the ratio better it is. It is important to check the company’s profitability before sanctioning of any loan. The company should have a secure financial health so that it can secure the lenders of the repayment of loan and interest expense.(Atkinson, 2012)
• Debtor turnover ratio: this is a kind of efficiency ratio that will help us understand the cash flow of the company from its debtor. Higher turnover ratios indicate that the company will have its fund stuck with the debtors for higher period. Company needs to make policies in order to ensure regular flow of funds from debtors in order to ensure liquidity.
1. Though ratio analysis is a very essential tool which helps in taking financial decisions, it also has a few limitations:
• Ratio analysis is based on past performance, it s not necessary that the past performance will be continued by the company in the near future
• The figures of the financial statement fail to incorporate the inflation rates, which will affect the future financial status of the company.
• There may be changes taking place in the management of the company or in the shareholding which are likely to affect the operations, ratio analysis fails to incorporate effects of decision like these on the financial performance of the company.
• Interpretation of ratio analysis is not a easy task. It is important that the data form ratio analysis is interpreted properly in order to have correct results.
• Few of the ratios involve figures from the balance sheet. We should keep in mind that these figures are on the last date of the balance sheet. These figures keep changing and so does the financial viability of the company.
 Items 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 Net Sales 4,555.20 4,350.90 3,222.20 2,943.70 3,080.30 Profit After Tax 966.20 1,166.20 919.90 799.30 462.90 Increase in Revenue with respect to 2013 47.88 41.25 4.61 -4.43 - Increase in Profit with respect to 2013 108.73 151.93 98.73 72.67 -

In the sales for the said company we have witnessed growth. A little dip in sales for the year 2014. After which the sales have shown continuous growth. Sales have grown up to 48% from 2013 to year 2017. Some portion of growth in revenue for the company is related to inflation and most of it belongs to results in operational changes.  The sudden growth of sales from 5% to 41% shows that there are some major changes made in the company which have resulted in high growth. The company has then managed maintained this growth rate in 2017. Highest growth in revenue was witnessed in with growth of 48% in sales.

After the year 2013, a high growth in profit margin was witnessed. Even though revenue fell by 4%, the net profit margin increased by 73% approximately.  The increase in profit margin may be due to operating efficiency in the organisation. It seems that the company has implemented methods to make the most out of existing resources. This has resulted in increase in profit margin by up to 109% in year 2017. Though the revenue increase was 50%, the profit margin increased by 109%. This shows some serious development on the part of the company.

1. The following table shows the calculation for ratios:
 Formula Calculations Profitability Ratios 2017 2016 Operating Profit Margin EBIT / Net Sales 31/890 = 3.48 197/1485 = 13.27 Return on Assets EBIT / Average Total Assets 31/22078 = 0.14 197/19731 = 0.998 Net Profit Margin Net Profit / Average Total Assets 93/22078 = 0.42 141/19731 = 0.715 Return on Equity Net Profit / Average Owner’s Equity 93/1268 = 7.33 141/1224 = 11.52 Financial Stability Debt Ratio Liabilities / Total Assets 533/1818 = 0.29 18967/20260 = 0.936 Debt to Equity Liabilities / Equity 533/1285 = 0.41 18967/1293 = 14.67 Interest Cover EBIT / Interest Expense 31/6 = 5.17 197/27 = 7.296 (Times Interest Earned) Assets Utilization Assets Turnover Ratio Net Sales / Average Total Assets 890/22078 = 0.04 1485/19731 = 0.075

Profitability Ratios: the profitability of the company has declined from 13.27 to 3.48 from 2016 to 2017. The net profit margin for the group declined from 0.715 to 0.42. The contributors fro decline in revenue and profit was decline in business. The return in equity also declined from 11.52% to 7.33% in the current. Overall there was decline in business operations which led to low profitability.

Financial Stability: from the ratios above we can see that the balance sheet size of the group has decline drastically. The debt ratio of the company which was 0.936 times has now fallen to 0.29 times. The debt to equity ratio has declined from 14.67 to 0.41. The company has paid off its major debts which have led to decline in both debt and assets. The interest coverage ratio which used to be 7.30 times has now become 5.17 times. This is due to lower profits and lower interest expenses.

Asset utilisation: the company used to have a sale of 0.075 for every dollar spent on asset, now the company earns 0.04 for every dollar invested in asset.

1. Ming is of the view that of the cash flow from operating activities is not equal to the earnings of the company then the company might have serious financial issues, we agree with the view of Mr. Ming. Cash flow from operating activities represents the cash flow from major part of the business. If the company does not have sufficient cash flows from its operating activities and uses most of the funds of investing and financing activities then it represents a stressful financial status. The company should have sufficient cash flow from operations, since the major part of the business lies it its operating activities. If it fails to generate cash then steps to improve operating efficiency should be taken.
 Schedule of expected cash receipts from debtors Particulars January Feburary Cash received for sale for current month 16,800 15,400 Cash received for sale for last month - 25,200 Cash received from debtors for sale 16,800 40,600 Calculation of Sales Particulars January Feburary Sales 60,000 55,000 - Cash Sales 18,000 16,500 - Credit Sales 42,000 38,500
 Cash Budget Particulars January February Opening cash balance 85,000 1,06,800 Add: Receipts Cash received from debtors for sale 16,800 40,600 Cash Sales 18,000 16,500 Less: Payments Credit purchases - 35,000 Office salaries 10,000 12,500 Drawings 3,000 3,000 Closing Cash balance 1,06,800 1,13,400

The company has an instalment of \$80000 due at the end of February. From the calculations above we can see that the company has a cash position of \$113400 at the end of February. Also, the company requires maintaining a cash balance of \$15000 in order to keep its solvency in check. Even if the company pays off its instalment of \$80000, it would still have cash of \$33400 left to spare.

In case if the company had shortage of cash, then they should opt for short term overdraft facilities. Therefore, the company is expected to have sufficient cash balance at the end of February in order to meet the instalment expense.

 Sales Budget Particulars Oct Nov Dec Sale - units 22000 27000 32000 Sale - Amount 121000 148500 176000
 Purchases Budget Particulars Oct Nov Dec Sale 22,000 27,000 32,000 Add: Closing Stock 8,100 9,600 9,000 Less: Opening Stock 6,600 8,100 9,600 Purchases - Unit 23,500 28,500 31,400 Purchases - Amount 94000 114000 125600
 Cash Budget Particulars Oct Nov Dec Total Opening cash balance 17,000 42,200 1,11,150 1,70,350 Add: Receipts Cash received from debtors for sale 9,900 12,100 14,850 36,850 Cash Sales 1,08,900 1,33,650 1,58,400 4,00,950 Less: Payments Credit purchases 93,600 76,800 94,000 2,64,400 Closing Cash balance 42,200 1,11,150 1,90,400 3,43,750
1. Variance analysis is the quantitative technique which helps us analyse the difference in actual and budgeted performance of the company.(Datar, 2016) Variance analysis helps maintain control within an organisation. It helps the mangers keep the costs in check. It helps them attain efficiency in operations and check on fund flow. Though variance analysis is a very useful financial tool, it has some limitations. Variance analysis is based on budgeted information. In case these budgeted figures are based on unusual assumptions, then the whole analysis will be in vain. It is important that the data used in analysis is authentic.

Atkinson, A. A. (2012). Management accounting. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Paerson.

Datar, S. (2016). Horngren's Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis. Hoboken: Wiley.

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