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Discrimination at National and Local Levels

Question:

Discuss about the Maori People and a Health Issue that is affecting them.

Discrimination is one of the most common vices in countries that are faced with two diverse groups. This can result from the two groups being either indigenous vs non-indigenous, or being racially different. However, as discrimination is something that is condemned all over the world, steps have been taken to promote or rather eliminate it in various important institutions. In New Zealand for instance, Maori people have for a long time been facing discrimination at the face of Non-Maori. Of great importance in this paper however, is how discrimination is affecting provision of health services among the Maori and the Non-Maori. Thus, it will be important to look for data that backs this claim, in addition to giving recommendation as to how this health issue can be solved. Lastly, the paper will look at how the Maori can work together with the government in planning as far as discrimination in provision of health services is concerned. Thus, this paper is a discussion of a health issue, which is discrimination on Maori in relation to health services, the role of the government and possible ways that the problem can be solved.

There is discrimination both nationally and locally. Statistics indicate that the government has done little to address the issue of inequality in relation to provision of health services both locally and nationally. However, locally, the extent of discrimination appears to be slightly higher as few people are willing to advocate for the vice (Anaya, 2015). For instance, health care accessibility is not to the best of standard as that at national level. In addition to that, there are few top leaders in health sectors at local level that demonstrate equality as there is at national level (Anaya, 2015). Lastly, at national level, there are anti-discrimination bodies that are set to advocate for equality in all aspects unlike few to none that exists locally. Thus, discrimination is comparable both at national and local level, it appears to be slightly higher at local level

Some diverse examinations and data give a total audit of Maori health status. However, there are various indicators that prove that there is inequality as a result of discrimination in the provision of health services among the Maori people unlike other people. According to government data, cause-specific mortality, including going from respiratory infirmities, compelling ailments, cardiovascular contaminations, diabetes, illness, and unplanned injuries, which appears to be higher among Maoris than non-Maoris (Slater et al., 2013).  Mortality rates have since declined for a couple of diseases, yet contrasts among Maoris and non-Maoris remain in relation to health. For example, age-regulated cardiovascular disease statistics appears in every way, to be higher in Maori than non-Maori (Chen, and Yang, 2014). Different particular illuminations have been proposed for the uneven characters in prosperity among Maoris and non-Maoris (Thornicroft et al., 2014). In like manner, yet inherited factors may add to contrasts in health status among Maoris and non-Maoris by certain specific conditions, they do not accept a significant part of people and general health terms. Non-genetic illuminations for comparison with health among Maoris and non-Maoris can be accumulated into genuine extents focussing on discrimination. This elucidation is not irrelevant, yet rather it is significant to consider them freely while recalling that they are indivisibly associated.

Inequality in Health Status Between Maori and Non-Maori


Discrimination is an issue that is affecting the Maori people in the provision of health services (Baker et al., 2012). Government report document that there is discrimination that is still in place towards Maori despite various policies and laws that have been put in place to advocate against the vice. Additionally, studies reveal that medical schools have a lower number of Maori students graduating as compared to non-Maori. Reports on the provision of healthcare services on the Maori suggest that most Maori admits that they prefer to be treated with Maori medics and not a non-Maori for fear of being discriminated. There is a growing concern among the legislatures on the resources that are set aside to try and bridge this inequality and social injustice that is affecting most Maori population (Baker et al., 2012). Among the children born with deformities, miscarriages, and asthma which is related to smoking during pregnancy, Maori group registers the highest number as compared to non-Maori, which has been a trend for many years. Thus, it is clear, as evidence suggest that there is growing concerns about the need to address the disparity that many reports, both national and medical indicate the health status of the Maori as compared to the non-Maori.

The governance of iwi provides some of the roles that one can apply in ad mistering health care services. It consists of various components in relation to governance. Firstly, is the governance Board Tront with a chief executive officer (Anaya, 2015). The chief executive officer has several roles; however, down the hierarchy of governance is the health and social unit manager who is tasked with overseeing mental health, shared care. CAYAD, home support services and budget services. These are some of the roles and governance structure in relation to health. The Maori people on the other hand have a role to obey government directives, cooperate with the government and offer consulted efforts in the provision of health services (Anaya, 2015). It is this role that appears to be in sabotage as the issue of discrimination in the provision of health services could no longer be in existence among the Maori.

Its role includes attempting to guarantee M?ori have at any rate an indistinguishable level of health from non-M?ori and protecting M?ori social ideas and values (Viner et al., 2012). The Government put in place measures and Maori-controlled health advancement programs, including the arrangement of Maori health overseers to work inside Maori people group, to add to this continuous measure (Harris et al., 2012). In addition to that, the government put more emphasis and avail resources to Maori-led Initiatives which aims at improving their health (Curtis et al., 2012). Moreover, it also tries to reorganize the manner in which they are disadvantaged in health.

Role of Governance in Maori Health

In doing this, both the government and the Maori have a duty to cooperate in putting in place quality data that can be used to effectively monitor Maori health. In addition to that, the two, that is, the government and Maori have to work in all sectors in offering effective health care that is accessible to all groups including the disabled (Bécares, Cormack, & Harris, 2013). Lastly, it is the responsibility of the government to enhance improvement in participation either through workforce development, capacity building or decision making.

The government is also tasked with funding Maori health, which is another way of ensuring maximum health and a reduction of inequalities that is common among Maori and non-Maori (Rashbrooke, 2013).

The government through the Ministry of health assumes a position of leadership about Maori health inequality, for instance, by supporting agencies that are key to promoting health and also by giving support to Maori health providers. The government also has a strategy put in place that offers direction to the Maori health, which includes multiple initiatives and they also incorporate evaluation and monitoring mechanisms that work independently ( Bécares, Cormack, & Harris, 2013). The strategies together with the evaluation mechanism are aimed at ensuring that there is a way of identifying evidence-based models that are effective and useful to be used as approaches in enhancing Maori health. The models that the government is tasked to put up will serve as standards in monitoring frameworks for the provision of health services.


In healthcare planning, the government cannot act in isolation. It has to involve the people with rules that are going affect the plans that it intends to put up. Also, in health care services for Maori people, it is essential that the government involve the local community in coming up with policies that are friendly and include some of their practices. The government has a role in inviting the Maori people or their leaders in determining the problem that is affecting the provision of health services in their locality (Pool, 2013). This can be done in many ways that do not alleviate and instead encourage the Maori people to participate in the program. For instance, the government and the Maori people need to work in cooperation in implementing immunization program. Additionally, it is the role of both the Maori and the government to work together in coming up with data about the health of the Maori people. It is from this data that the government will know how best to correct or improve on some of the things that are affecting the Maori people in the provision of health services (Hill et al., 2013).

Cooperation between Maori and Government

Another role that Maori and the government have about health is in highlighting some of the challenges that are facing the Maori people in the provision of health services. There has a role to listen to the Maori people or how best to serve them and the decision that the Maori believes can work well. It is the role of the government to punish those that are fuelling discrimination or rather the people that are treating the Maori in a lesser manner than non-Maori (Harris, Cormack, & Stanley, 2013). On the other hand, the Maori have a duty to report to the government and other agencies of the injustices that are being committed to them so that punitive measures can be put on those advancing such activities. Additionally, Maori have a duty to abide and listen to the government plan not only during the formation stage, but also during the implementation stage (Baker et al., 2012). Lastly, a multi strategy plan is usually the best plan that any person can adopt. The Maori people can also act as advisers during the formation, implementation and overseeing of the multi strategy plan.  

The Principle of Equality

According to the third article of the Treaty of Waitangi, it makes it legal for equality between the Maori people and other citizens of New Zealand (Thornicroft et al., 2014). It suggests that all people of New Zealand are equal before the law. According to this principle, it is therefore important for the government to treat the Maori people as such. Equality not only means treating people with respect, but it entails the government providing services to the Maori people in the same manner that it does to other groups living in New Zealand (Pearce, Barnett, and Moon, 2012). This principle can be used in relation to discrimination of health care among Maori group in New Zealand.

Application of the principle of the Crown protecting the Interest of Maori

The discrimination of Maori people can be solved by applying the principle that suggests that the crown has a duty to protect the interest of Maori group. This entails all aspects ranging from security to provision of health services (Anaya, 2015). Thus, the crown will oversee what are the challenges facing Maori people and find suitable solution for the same. In this case, discrimination is the problem that Maori face and the case study offers a glimpse of one aspect of discrimination that is health issue (Jenkin, Signal, and Thomson, 2011). It is worth noting that using this principle there are many ways that the government can take care of the issue in relation to addressing discrimination in the provision of health services.

Developing Standards in Monitoring Frameworks

Application of the principle that the crown has a duty to consult with Maori

In addition to the stated principle, the government has a duty to consult the Maori people and determine what the challenges that are facing them are. This is a principle provided for in the Treaty and can be used in solving discrimination of the Maori in the provision of health services (Came, 2014).

Rationale for the recommendation

There are various ways in which the recommendation offers a rationale to the health issue at hand. To start with equality to the Maori group, discrimination is a form of inequality. Thus, the principle of equality stipulates clearly that all people residing in New Zealand ought to be treated in the same way (Howden-Chapman et al., 2012). Applying this principle suggest that the government must ensure that the health services that all groups receive is the same in both the quality and accessibility. Additionally, all the resources that are set aside, for instance, funding and health professionals ought to be equitably distributed (Kelsey, 2015). By doing this, and thus applying the principle of equality, the Maori people will not be discriminated in the provision and accessing health services as it is the norm at present moment.

On the other hand, the Crown having the mandate to protect the Maori gives it the legal right to find solutions to the challenges affecting the Maori people. One of the challenges as discussed in this task is discrimination that is affecting provision of health services and health status of the Maori people (Jones et al., 2014). Therefore, by having the mandate to protect the affairs of the Maori people, the crown is tasked with ensuring that the Maori are not discriminated against accessing and receiving the best medical services (Blakely et al., 2015). Additionally, the principle finds it fit for the crown to implement either moderate or radical policy that ensures the policies relating to health of the Maori are implemented (Dyall et al., 2013). Thus, this the rationale for which this principle can help in solving the problem of discrimination of health services for the Maori by the government or the Crown.

Lastly, the crown has a duty to consult with Maori. There is no way an effective policy can be implemented or formed without the crown consulting the Maori to determine what are the challenges that are facing them (Dyall et al., 2013). They are the route core of the matter and are therefore more aware of how far discrimination is in relation to health services. It is therefore a principle that the crown can apply in finding the various ways that it can collaborate with the Maori in solving the problem discrimination in the provision of health services (Winnard et al., 2012). Consulting with Maori can determine the areas in health services they are well represented, and how they think they can overcome that problem.

Involvement of Community in Healthcare Planning


Maori provider organizations have especially recognized access issues as a key factor and have used an extent of procedures to address these issues, including expansive convenient organizations and exertion focuses (Thornicroft et al., 2014). There ought to be extended restorative administrations providers for Maori people. In any case, these providers continue confronting different inconveniences. For this to be possible, the organization needs to make sense of how to have basic data accessibility regarding Maori prosperity providers and Maori prosperity work-compel (Pearce, Barnett, and Moon, 2012). Furthermore, the short contract time distributions set up require expansive renegotiations consistently (Jenkin, Signal, and Thomson, 2011). Likewise, since Maori providers work essentially with families at unusual measures of need the extent that prosperity organizations, extended costs are unavoidable if prosperity gets is to be proficient, besides, funders must consider this condition (Came, 2014). Similar approach exercises have started late been grasped in Canada and Australia to improve the soundness of indigenous social orders; in any case, the legitimate conditions in these countries lean toward single multiyear sponsoring contracts for broad basic therapeutic administrations, and there is early affirmation that such systems are more gainful for providers and propel better outcomes among purchasers.

Conclusion

Thus, it is evident that Maori people face so many challenges, ranging from their lifestyle to accessing health services. Although most of the problem can be attributed to the discrimination that they face, some of them are hereditary and habits that cannot lead to putting blame on the government. Moreover, data reveals that it is true that there exist discrimination and thus, the role of the government need to put up measures to solve this problem. Among the measures that can be seen as revealing important in alleviating this problem include the government advocating for cultural safety. Additionally, health care providers can act as ambassadors for advocating and personnel who will educate Maori people on the best practices that do not expose them to diseases.  In addition to that, the role of the government in this issue cannot be ignored. There are various roles that the government has in regards to provision of health services and working with Maori people. Putting the right measures and the government working with Maori people in planning, discrimination on health services can be a thing of the past.

References

Anaya, S.J., 2015. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in the Situation of Maori People in New Zealand. Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L., 32, p.1.

The Treaty of Waitangi and Equality

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Bécares, L., Cormack, D., & Harris, R. (2013). Ethnic density and area deprivation: Neighbourhood effects on M?ori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Social Science & Medicine, 88, 76-82.

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Came, H. (2014). Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand. Social science & medicine, 106, 214-220.

Chen, D., & Yang, T. C. (2014). The pathways from perceived discrimination to self-rated health: an investigation of the roles of distrust, social capital, and health behaviors. Social science & medicine, 104, 64-73.

Curtis, E., Wikaire, E., Stokes, K., & Reid, P. (2012). Addressing indigenous health workforce inequities: A literature review exploring'best'practice for recruitment into tertiary health programmes. International journal for equity in health, 11(1), 13.

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Harris, R. B., Cormack, D. M., & Stanley, J. (2013). The relationship between socially-assigned ethnicity, health and experience of racial discrimination for M?ori: analysis of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. BMC public health, 13(1), 844.

Harris, R., Cormack, D., Tobias, M., Yeh, L. C., Talamaivao, N., Minster, J., & Timutimu, R. (2012). The pervasive effects of racism: experiences of racial discrimination in New Zealand over time and associations with multiple health domains. Social science & medicine, 74(3), 408-415.

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Jenkin, G. L., Signal, L., & Thomson, G. (2011). Framing obesity: the framing contest between industry and public health at the New Zealand inquiry into obesity. Obesity Reviews, 12(12), 1022-1030.

Jones, R., Bennett, H., Keating, G., & Blaiklock, A. (2014). Climate change and the right to health for M?ori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Health and Human Rights Journal, 16(1).

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