Write a project report on ‘Vibration diagnostic of a shaft crack in a rotating machine’ with simulation in Ansys software Parameters which are need to be taken into the consideration.

- Create three types of cracks on to the shaft using Ansys software: (a) Fatigue crack (b) Welded shaft crack and (c) Wire cut crack. (Note: take numerous screen shots while doing modeling.)

- Different types of graphs need to be generated. (Such as (1) Load vs displacement (2) stiffness vs rotational angle. Etc. and more other possible graphs)

- Read all the provided reports and research papers and try to cover all the possible aspects given.

- Take all the screen shots during each operation. ( During modeling and crack creation and simulation process.)

## Fatigue Phenomenon and Crack Development

At the point, when an individual is exposed to the cyclic loadings repeatedly (because of the fluctuating stress’s action) there are chances of fatigue. Then, the utilized terminology in EN 1993-1-9 form cracks its development at a specific locations of the structure that, is called the fatigue phenomenon (Nussbaumer A., 1999). The different sorts of structures like the planes, bridges, boats, frames, overhead cranes, cranes, parts of the machines, turbines, canal lock doors, reactors vessels, platforms of offshore, pylons, masts, chimneys and the transmission towers. The cracks can appear in the structures that are subjected to cyclic loadings which are repeated and could experience gradual harm that represents it with the propagation of cracks. Fatigue is nothing but a representation of resistance loss with time and a repeated load’s physical impact on the material differs from that if the static load (Nussbaumer A., n.d.) Material is always failure in the form of a brittle crack despite of whether it is a brittle or ductile material. The stress below the main parameters’ static elastic strength influences the fatigue life. A member’s fatigue life or the structural details are exposed to the cyclic loadings in a repeated manner is characterized as the quantity of stress cycles that could remain prior to any failure takes place. Mostly fatigue failure occur. The member or the geometry of the structural detail depending upon its fabrication or the utilized material, the four major constraints could highly effect the fatigue strength (or the resistance, both utilized in the EN 1993-1-9). Thus, the stress range is the difference in stress, or it is commonly known as the geometry of the structural detail, the features of the material, and the environment fatigue. If there is any failure under the fluctuating stress which fluctuates or has cyclic stresses, then there are chances of failure to occur with lower loads, when compared to the stress under the static load. Even in the normally ductile materials, the metallic structures (bridges, aircraft, machine components, etc.) 90% of all failures of Fatigue failure is somewhat brittle i.e., catastrophic. Then, the initiation of Fatigue Process Crack or the premature progress of the damage Stage I crack growth or the early crack deepening on the shear planes Stage II crack growth or the development of the precise crack on the planes that are normal to greatest tensile stress suddenly happen. The surface quality and stress concentration of sites (micro cracks, indents, interior corners, scratches, steps for dislocation of slip and so on.) is the initiation of Fatigue Crack and propagation (II) Crack initiation. The propagation I is Alternate stresses-> slip bands -> surface rumpling Crack. With the crystal planes and the highly resolved shear stress contains the slow propagation. The flat fracture surface II: the fast propagation is generally vertical to the stress that is applied and it involves a few grains. Due to a process that is repeatedly been blunting and have been sharpening at a crack tip Crack grows. The rough fracture surface Brittle vs. Ductile Fracture (F., 1997).

- Even before the fracture in the ductile materials, there is high deformation of plastic along with energy absorption (“toughness”) (Seeram Ramakrishna, 2010).
- Before fracture, the brittle materials contain some deformation of plastic along with less absorption of energy. Tran’s granular fracture. (R., 1999)
- Different orientation of cleavage planes in grains could easily cracks pass across the grains fracture surface plane texture due to the intergranular fracture: The crack propagation is next to the boundaries of grains (the grain boundaries are deteriorated or they are embrittled by the segregation of impurity (Donald R. Askeland, 2016).

## Factors Affecting Fatigue Strength

Severely embrittle steels at Low temperatures. Example is liberty ships, which were developed while there was World War II, as the initial all-welded ships. Catastrophic fracture have substantial amount of failed ships. Due to brittle fracture, it is a brittle fracture where the fatigue cracks the nucleated down at the square’s corners by being hatched and lets it continuously propagated. Number of factors which impacts the Application of fatigue life; force; Atmosphere; stress types, Material, confidence Magnitude of surface’ stress Quality Solutions, Polish surface. Then, bring forth the compressive stresses (pay for the tensile stresses that are applied) into the layers of the surface. The shot peening fires a little shot into the high-tech surface which has particle implantation and the laser peening. The Case Hardening Steel - makes C-or N-rich external layer with the nuclear dispersion that comes from the harder external layer surface and presents the compressive stresses, by optimizing the geometry avoid the inside corners, indents and so on. Environment; Application; Loads: The material; the types of Stresses; certainty Magnitude of stress Quality of the surface Solutions Polish surface Introduce compressive stresses (make up for the connected ductile stresses) into the surface layer that is viable by fatigue. Shot Peening discharge little shot into the surface of a High-tech - particle implantation, laser peening. C-or N-rich external layer by the nuclear dispersion from the surface of the harder external layer presents the compressive stresses which optimizes the geometry and avoids the interior corners, and the indents are made using the Case Hardening. The strength of the fatigue, then the quantitative connection that exists among the stress range and the stress cycles’ counts for the failure of fatigue, as they are utilized for the fatigue evaluation of a specific class of auxiliary detail Derail classification. The numerical assignment that is granted for a specific detail, to provide guidance of stress vacillation, by considering the end goal for representing which of the fatigue quality bend is really right for the appraisal of fatigue (A complete classification number demonstrates the fatigue strength’s reference with, ΔσC in N/mm². Because of the conditions of stress the constant amplitude fatigue restrains the constraining direct or the shear stress ranging from lower, where no fatigue harm can happen in tests under a steady amplitude. No fatigue damage occur when there are conditions of variable amplitude, as each stress range must be lower than its actual limit. Under a history of steady amplitude stress’ activity, the cut-of-limit restrains under the scopes of stress of the outline range which don't add to the evaluated combined harm of endurance. The failure is conveyed in terms of cycles. The position weariness quality the life where the failure is communicated in the form of cycles, under the history of activities that are related to consistent amplitude stress, where a some of the histories of load might be basic and recurring, whereas in different cases, it might be totally irregular. They can also have Constant or variable amplitudes. Fatigue behaviour/properties for fatigue design for simple cases’ constant amplitude loading is utilized for material obtaining. A few real life load histories could be modelled occasionally with the constant amplitude as well. curve has been developed by German August Wohler for his systematic fatigue tests done in the 1870’s.S-N Curve plots the diagram of amplitude of the nominal stress as the cycles’ count to the failure for the un-notched (smooth) specimens Wohler’s Curve, S-N Curve.

- Recent advances in analytical techniques for estimating fatigue crack initiation lives of structures and components have made fatigue analysis a valuable tool for design engineers. A methods for gathering the long duration (in terms of months) information, utilizing the microcomputer devices, and then data interpretation in a helpful way for the architect, is described. Then, the role of fatigue and service history analysis in the overall product design analysis is reviewed and the requirement of a data collection system defined. (Socie D., 1979).

- From a literature review which was directed for evaluating the impacts of the defects of weld upon the welded structures’ failures. This exertion was concentrated on the failure of capacity tank with the emphasis on those that are formed just for the cryogenic liquid control, so as to evaluate the importance of the past failure of capacity tank, in respect to nine percent storage tanks of nickel steel, which are utilised now. The thought of previous failures could be utilized as experience and gain knowledge from it to protect the vessel’s integrity. Besides the other failures that are documented, there exists the report of three failures of cryogenic storage tanks. Among which, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tank is one, then the rest were intended for storing the liquid ethylene. In spite of the fact that subtle elements of configuration contrasted marginally, the general plan referred to the idea of, “Tank inside a tank”. From the literature review, in every single failure, a break of the external tank uprightness came about when there was interaction with the cryogenic liquid and the external tank’s wall. Thus, it recognized the point that the external steel divider was fragile at the service temperatures. Additionally, in the above discussed failures, this literature review has uncovered a unique format of failures in the pressure vessels which are the results of defective welds (typically the filet welds) related with the attachment of nozzle with the branch networks. Therefore, these are some of the doubtless zones of distress in the storage tanks that are cryogenic and the ones that are outlined completely throughout the survey (Barnes C.R. M., 1984).
- In the beginning, the gearbox’s fault analysis was quite imperative to maintain the strategic distance from the failures of catastrophic. The Condition indicators (CI) are then utilized for measuring the vibration level that is produced by the gears that are defected. An exhaustive correlation of different CIs, i.e., RMS, factor of peak , kurtosis, FM0, FM4, M6A, NB4, NA4, vitality ratio, vitality operator and a couple of newly proposed CIs (PS-I and PS-II), are all executed for no break, introductory split and propelled split for various profiles that are fluctuating the speed of the input. Thus, this relative examination demonstrates that there exists indicator responsiveness towards the detection of crack. The consideration made here refers to, the constrained speed variances and the quickly fluctuating speed. The outcomes recommend that the recently proposed CIs are more vigorous, steady and compelling towards the identification of crack under the profiles of speed that keep fluctuating. Modified time synchronous averaging (MTSA) is likewise proposed for expanding the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) (Sharma V., 2016).
- According to Mahlerand J. Aktaa, the future plan of the fusion reactors are the ferritic-martensitic steel Eurofer97, which are the primary contender for the application of in-vessel auxiliary, for having the capacity of withstanding the cruel conditions such as, light and the cyclic loading under the temperatures that are elevated. In the event of high temperatures, the fatigue as well as the creep harm ends up critically and thus it must be considered. In the previously supported Creep-Fatigue Assessment (CFA) apparatus, which was created for the Finite Element software ANSYS APDL, as a post-processor inside the casing of Engineering Data and Design Integration (EDDI), in the fusion of EURO. This instrument was initially in view of the elastic Creep-Fatigue principles of ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section III Division 1 Subsection NH Appendix T. These days, the instrument can naturally recognize the basic districts related to the Creep-Fatigue harm in the ANSYS APDL and in the Workbench with the help of the nearby stress, greatest range of elastic strain and the temperature from the elastic thermo-mechanical Finite Element examination. The stress linearization’s utilization in the elastic investigation permits the count of the adjusted proportional strain run along with the inelastic impacts for determining the suitable count of the cycles, creep and fatigue damage division. For the Creep-Fatigue Assessment (CFA), the post-processing configuration fatigue bends, creep stress versus time to burst the bends, monotonic and isochronous stress versus strain bends have been utilized as a part of combination with the Creep-Fatigue harm interaction graph for portraying the Creep-Fatigue conduct of Eurofer97. As it is notable that the Eurofer97 indicates the cyclic softening, an adjusted Creep-Fatigue administer has been executed in the CFA device for enhancing the creep damage’s underestimation. Hence, further it changed the lead utilization for figuring out the creep harm, where the stress versus strain and configuration creep bends of the cyclic mollified material, for certain portions of the lifetime and an enhanced Creep-Fatigue harm interaction chart of Eurofer97. In the situations where, the elastic investigation of ASME BPVC is excessively preservationist, inelastic examination can be utilized to ascertain add up to strain straightforwardly instead of the expectation utilized as a part of the elastic examination. Hence, such an inelastic method for the Creep-Fatigue Assessment is less entangled when contrasted with the elastic course on the grounds that lone a couple of ventures according to the ASME BPVC, which are considered as vital. By the by more endeavors for the Finite Element recreation along with the required inelastic material conduct. Thus, the summary states that, the CFA apparatus could be utilized for a quick Creep-Fatigue assessment. It basically permits the quick distinguishing proof of Creep-Fatigue harm for a basic part that is created by Eurofer97 (Mahler M., 2018).
- According to Ojasvi Singhand Vikas Satpal Sharma, the authors have come to a conclusion that, the tensile testing as well as the fatigue testing is completed with a thorough analysis in the Ansys workbench at similar load and similar condition. Thus, such sort of testing are finished on a couple of plates that are welded with the implementation of filler material among the plate’s three corners, which will be welded on the substance, of the material’s other face. This research shows that the plate material are changed every now and then for deciding various outcomes, for the specific materials. At the point when these plates are broke down under same condition then least mishaps were checked for different materials such as, Copper alloy, Aluminum, structural steel and the Stainless steel. All these examination are finished with the implementation of 1000N power on one of the plates’ face (Singh O., 2017).

## Vibration Diagnostic of Shaft Crack

Units

We take the unit system Metric (m, kg, N, s, V, A) Degrees rad/s Celsius, angle in degree, rotational velocity in Rad/s and Celsius for temperature.

The geometry about the model objective name is referred as, Geometry. The state is completely defined, where the source is C:users7destopfatiguepart1.Step, Type is step file, and Length unit is Metres, then the element control is controlled through a Program, the display style is the Body colour, the Length x is 0.1 m, Length y is 0.1 m, Length z is 0.5 m, Volume is 3.927e-003 m^{3,} mas is 30.827 kg, Scale factor value is 1, bodies is 1, Actives bodies is 1, Nodes is 1, Element is 480, then Mesh metric is nothing, the Solid bodies are yes, the Surface bodies are yes, The Parameter is yes, where the Parameter key is DS, the Attributes is no, the Named selection is no, the Material properties are no, the Use Associativity is yes, then the Coordinate System is no, Reader Mode Saves Updated File no, Use Instances is yes, Compare Part On Update is no, attach file via temp file is yes, Temporary Directory is C:UsersAppDataLocalTemp, Analysis Type is 3-D, Mixed Import Resolution is none, Decomposed Disjoint Geometry is yes, Enclosure and Symmetry Processing is yes,

About the Parts: Object Name is Part 1, state is Meshed, and Visibility is yes, Transparency is 1, Suppressed is no, Stuffiness Behaviour is Flexible, Coordinate System is Default Coordinate System, Reference Temperature taken By Environment, Assignment is Structural Steel, Nonlinear Effects is yes, Thermal Strain Effects is Yes, Length X is 0.1 m, Length Y is 0.1 m , Length Z is 0.5 m, Volume is 3.927e-003 m^{2 }, Mass is 30.827 kg, Centroid X is 1.0909e-018 m, Centroid Y is 4.0727e-018 m, Centroid Z is 0.25 m is Moment of Inertia Ip1 is 0.65375 kg m^{2 }, Moment of Inertia Ip2 is 0.65375 kg m^{2 }, Moment of Inertia Ip3 is 3.7662e-002 kg m^{2 }, Nodes is 2467, Elements is 480, Mesh Metric is nothing,

The Coordinate system: Object Name is Global Coordinate System, State is Defined completely, the type is Cartesian, the Coordinate System ID is 0, the Origin X is 0 m, the Origin Y is 0.m, the Origin Z is 0.m, then the X Axis Data [1.0.0.], the Y Axis Data is [0.1.0.], and the Z Axis Data is [0.0.1.],

The Object Name is called as Mesh, the State is resolved, and the Display Style is Body Colour, the Physics Preference is Defaults, the Relevance is 0, the Use Advance Size Function is off, the Relevance Centre is Coarse, the Element Size Default, Initial size Seed is Active Assembly, and Smoothing is Medium, the Transition is Fast, Span Angle Centre Coarse, the minimum Edge Length is 0.157080 m, the Use Automatic Inflation is None, Inflation Option is Smooth Transition, Transition Ratio is 0.272, Maximum Layers is 5, Growth Rate is 1.2, Inflation Algorithm is Pre, View Advanced Options is No, Triangle Surface Masher is Program Controlled, Topology Checking is No, Number Of CPUs for Parallel Part Meshing is Program Controlled, Shape Checking is Standard Mechanical, Element Midsize Nodes is Program Controlled, Straight Sides Elements is No, Number of Retries is Default(4), Extra Retries For Assembly is Yes, Rigid Body Behaviour is Dimensionally Reduced, Mesh Morphing is Disabled, Pinch Tolerance is Please Define, Generate Pinch On Refresh is No, Automatic Mesh Based DE featuring is on, DE featuring Tolerance is Default, Nodes is 2467, Elements is 480, Mesh Metric is Nothing.

## Simulation in Ansys Software

Model (A4) > Analysis: Object Name is a Static Structural (A5), State is solved, Physics Type is Structural, Analysis Type is Static Structural, Solver Target is Mechanical APDL, Environment Temperature is 22° C, Generate Input Only is No.

Analysis setting of Static Structural (A5) - Model (A4)

In this case the settings of the software are -

Name of the object - Analysis setting

State - Fully defined

Number of steps - 1

Current step number - 1

Step end time - 1 sec.

Auto time stepping program - Controlled

Solve type - Program Controlled

Weak Spring - Program controlled

Solver Pivot checking - program controlled

Large deflection - off

Inertia relief - off

Generate restart point - program controlled

Retention of file after solve - No

Newton Rap son - program controlled

Force convergence - program controlled

Moment convergence - program controlled

Rotation convergence - program controlled

Displacement convergence - program controlled

Stabilization - off

Stress - yes

Strain - yes

Line search - program controlled

Nodal Force - No

Stabilization - All time point

Contact Miscellaneous - No

General miscellaneous - No

Nonlinear solutions - No

Solver Unit - Active system

Solver unit system - Mks

Directoryforsolverfileis:- C:Users7AppDataLocalTempWB_R7_4676_2unsaved_project_filesdp0SYSMECH,

Save MAPDL db - yes

Future analysis - None

Settings of static structural (A5) loads for Model (A4)

In this case software settings are as follows :-

Object name - Fixed Support

Scoping Method - Geometry selection

State - Fully defined

Suppress - NO

Geometry - 1 face with fixed support/ movement

Defined - Using Vector

Magnitude - 100 N.m ramped

Behaviour - Deformable

Direction - defined

Pinball region - all

In thi case settings for software are as given below:-

Object Name - Solution (A6)

Maximum refinement loop - 1

State - solved

Refinement depth - 2

Status - done

Calculation of beam selection result - No

Now calculation is done for object name solution information of Model (A4) for static structural (A5):-

Object name - Solution information

Solution output - Solver output

State - solved

update interval - 2.5 sec.

Newton rap son residual - 0

Active visibility - Yes

All connection -FE to all nodes

Display point - all

Display type - line

Line thickness - single

Line colour - Connection type

Visible on result - no

Now settings for result of the Model (A4) for static structural (A5) in which object name is equivalent stress :-

## Parameters Considered in Analysis

Object name - equivalent stress

Scoping method - Geometry selection

Type of geometry - Equivalent stress and total deformation

State - solved

Display time - last

Suppressed - No

Calculate time history - yes

Option for display - Average ( minimum is 87947 pa)

Load step - 1

Substep - 1

Iteration number - 1

We find the solution that Maximum stress is - 9.166e+005 and minimum stress is 87947 pa

In the result it was found that maximum deformation is - 3.314e-006 and value for minimum deformation is 0 .

Settings for fatigue tools solution (A6) of model (A4) for static structural (A5):-

object Name - Fatigue tool

State - solved

Fatigue strength factor (kf) - 1

Fatigue strength type - fully revised

Scale factor - 1

Display time - end time

Type of Analysis - Stress life

Component of Stress - equivalent

Mean stress theory - None

Unit - Cycle ( 1 cycle = 1 cycle)

For fatigue tools solution(A6) is given Model (A4) for static structural (A5)

Results of fatigue tool of solution (A6) for model (A4), static structural (A5):-

Value of design life - 1.e +009 cycle

Minimum life - 1.e+008 cycle

Factor of safety - greater than 15

Material - Structural steel

Density of steel - 7850 kg m^{-3}

Coefficient of thermal expansion - 1.2e-005c^{-1}

Value of specific heat - 434 JKg^{-1}c^{-1}

Thermal conductivity - 60.5 Wm^{-1}c^{-1}

Resistivity - 1.7e-007 ohm m

Compressive ultimate strength - 0

Compressive yield strength - 2.5e+008

Tensile ultimate strength - 4.6e+008

Tensile yield strength - 2.5e+008

Relative permeability - 10000

Reference temperature - 22° c

Table for alternating stress and mean stress of structural steel : -

Alternating stress (pa) |
Number of Cycle |
Mean stress (pa) |

3.99e+009 |
10 |
0 |

2.827+009 |
20 |
0 |

1.896+009 |
50 |
0 |

1.413e+009 |
100 |
0 |

1.069e+009 |
200 |
0 |

4.41e+009 |
2000 |
0 |

2.62e+009 |
10000 |
0 |

2.14e+009 |
20000 |
0 |

1.38e+009 |
1e+005 |
0 |

1.14e+009 |
2e+005 |
0 |

8.62e+009 |
1e+006 |
0 |

Table for Strain life parameter of a structural steel: -

Coefficient of Strength (pa) |
Exponent of strength |
Coefficient of Ductility |
Exponent of Ductility |
Cyclic strength coefficient pa |
Cyclic strain hardening exponent |

9.2e+008 |
-0.106 |
0.213 |
-0.47 |
1e+009 |
0.2 |

Unit system

Unit system - m, s, V, N, kg, A

Degree - rad/s, celsius

Angle - Degree

Rotational velocity - Rad/s

temperature - celsius

Object name - Geometry

State - fully defined

Source - C:users7desktopfatiguepart1.Step

Source type - step file

Length unit - metres

Display style - Body color

Element control - program controlled

Length X = 0.2 m , Length Y = 0.1 m and Length Z = 0.7 m

Mass - 33.936 kg

Volume - 4.3231e-003 m3

Bodies - 1

Active bodies - 1

Solid bodies - yes

Scale factor - 1

Nodes - 936

Element - 460

Mesh metric - None

Surface bodies - Yes

Parameter - Yes

## Conclusion

Parameter key - DS

Attributes - No

Named selection- No

Material properties - No

Use of Associativity - Yes

Coordinate System - No

Reader Mode Saves Updated File no

Use Instances - Yes

Compare Part - On

Update - No

attach file via temp file - Yes

Temporary Directory is C:UsersAppDataLocalTemp

Type of analysis - 3-D

Mixed Import Resolution - None

Decomposed Disjoint Geometry - Yes

Enclosure and Symmetry Processing - Yes

Description about the parts : -

Name of the object - part 1

State - Meshed

Visibility - Yes

Transparency - 1

Suppressed - No

Stiffness behaviour - Flexible

Coordinate System - Default Coordinate System

Reference Temperature - Taken by Environment

Assignment - Structural Steel

Thermal strain effects - Yes

Nonlinear Effects - Yes

Mass - 33.936 kg

Volume - 4.3231ee-003 m3

Length X = 0.1 m, Length Y = 0.1 m , Length Z = 0.7 m

Centroid X = 1.103e-012 m, Centroid Y = -9.727e-014 m, Centroid Z = 0.28216 m

Moment of Inertia Ip1 = 1.0078 kg m2

Moment of Inertia Ip2 = 1.0079 kg m2

Coordinate system:

Object Name - Global Coordinate System

State - Fully Defined,

Type - Cartesian

Coordinate System ID - 0

Origin X = 0 m, Origin Y = 0m, Origin Z = 0m,

X Axis Data = [1.0.0.], Y Axis Data = [0.1.0.], Z Axis Data = [0.0.1.],

Centroid Y = 4.0727e-018 m, Centroid Z =0.25 m

Moment of Inertia Ip1 = 0.65375 kg m2

Moment of Inertia Ip2 = 0.65375 kg m2

Moment of Inertia Ip3 = 3.7662e-002 kg m2

Nodes - 2467

Elements - 480

Mesh Metric - None,

Object Name - Mesh

State - solved

Style of display - Body Colour

Relevance - 0

Physics Preference - Defaults

Relevance centre - Coarse

Advanced size function - off

Element size - default

Smoothening - medium

Span angle centre - coarse

Transition - fast

Transition ratio - 0.272

Inflation option - Smooth transition

Minimum edge length - 1.5708e-002 m

Automatic inflation - none

Growth Rate - 1.2

Inflation algorithm - pre

Maximum layer - 5

View advanced option - No

Topology checking - No

Straight side element - No

Number of CPUs for Parallel Part Meshing - Program Controlled

Shape checking - standard mechanical

Triangle surface mesher - Program Controlled

Element mid size node - program controlled

Number of retries - 4 (default)

Extra retries for assembly - yes

Automatic Mesh Based DE featuring - On

DE featuring tolerance - default

Nodes - 936

Elements - 460

Mesh matrix - None

Pinch Tolerance - please define

## References

Rigid body behaviour - Dimensionally reduced

Mesh morphing - disabled

Generate pint - On

Refresh - No

Analysis for Model (A4): -

Object Name - Static Structural (A5)

State - solved

Type of analysis - Static structural

Type of physics - Structural

Solver Target - Mechanical APDL

Environment Temperature - 22° C

Generate Input Only - No.

Analysis setting of Static Structural (A5) - Model (A4)

In this case the settings of the software are -

Name of the object - Analysis setting

State - Fully defined

Number of steps - 1

Current step number - 1

Step end time - 1 sec.

Auto time stepping program - Controlled

Solve type - Program Controlled

Weak Spring - Program controlled

Solver Pivot checking - program controlled

Large deflection - off

Inertia relief - off

Generate restart point - program controlled

Retention of file after solve - No

Newton Rap son - program controlled

Force convergence - program controlled

Moment convergence - program controlled

Rotation convergence - program controlled

Displacement convergence - program controlled

Stabilization - off

Stress - yes

Strain - yes

Line search - program controlled

Nodal Force - No

Stabilization - All time point

Contact Miscellaneous - No

General miscellaneous - No

Nonlinear solutions - No

Solver Unit - Active system

Solver unit system - Mks

Directoryforsolverfileis:- C:Users7AppDataLocalTempWB_R7_4676_2unsaved_project_filesdp0SYSMECH,

Save MAPDL db - yes

Future analysis - None

Settings of static structural (A5) loads for Model (A4)

In this case software settings are as follows :-

Object name - Fixed Support

Scoping Method - Geometry selection

State - Fully defined

Suppress - NO

Geometry - 1 face with fixed support/ movement

Defined - Using Vector

Magnitude - 100 N.m ramped

Behaviour - Deformable

Direction - defined

Pinball region - all

In thi case settings for software are as given below:-

Object Name - Solution (A6)

Maximum refinement loop - 1

State - solved

Refinement depth - 2

Status - done

Calculation of beam selection result - No

Now calculation is done for object name solution information of Model (A4) for static structural (A5):-

Object name - Solution information

Solution output - Solver output

State - solved

update interval - 2.5 sec.

Newton rap son residual - 0

Active visibility - Yes

All connection -FE to all nodes

Display point - all

Display type - line

Line thickness - single

Line colour - Connection type

Visible on result - no

Now settings for result of the Model (A4) for static structural (A5) in which object name is equivalent stress :-

Object name - equivalent stress

Scoping method - Geometry selection

Type of geometry - Equivalent stress and total deformation

State - solved

Display time - last

Suppressed - No

Calculate time history - yes

Option for display - Average ( minimum is 87947 pa)

Load step - 1

Substep - 1

Iteration number - 1

Settings for fatigue tools solution (A6) of model (A4) for static structural (A5):-

object Name - Fatigue tool

State - solved

Fatigue strength factor (kf) - 1

Fatigue strength type - fully revised

Scale factor - 1

Display time - end time

Type of Analysis - Stress life

Component of Stress - equivalent

Mean stress theory - None

Unit - cycle (1 cycle = 1 cycle)

Material - Structural steel

Density of steel - 7850 kg m^{-3}

Coefficient of thermal expansion - 1.2e-005c^{-1}

Value of specific heat - 434 JKg^{-1}c^{-1}

Thermal conductivity - 60.5 Wm^{-1}c^{-1}

Resistivity - 1.7e-007 ohm m

Compressive ultimate strength - 0

Compressive yield strength - 2.5e+008

Tensile ultimate strength - 4.6e+008

Tensile yield strength - 2.5e+008

Relative permeability - 10000

Reference temperature - 22° c

Table for values of structural steel of alternating stress and mean stress (pa)

Alternating stress (pa) |
Number of Cycle |
Mean stress (pa) |

3.99e+009 |
10 |
0 |

2.827+009 |
20 |
0 |

1.896+009 |
50 |
0 |

1.413e+009 |
100 |
0 |

1.069e+009 |
200 |
0 |

4.41e+009 |
2000 |
0 |

2.62e+009 |
10000 |
0 |

2.14e+009 |
20000 |
0 |

1.38e+009 |
1e+005 |
0 |

1.14e+009 |
2e+005 |
0 |

8.62e+009 |
1e+006 |
0 |

Table 25

Strain life parameter for structural steel

Coefficient of strength (pa) |
Exponent of strength |
Coefficient for Ductility |
Exponent of Ductility |
Cyclic strength coefficient (pa) |
Cyclic strain hardening exponent |

9.2e+008 |
-0.106 |
0.213 |
-0.47 |
1e+009 |
0.2 |

Unit system

Unit system - m, N, s, V, kg, A

Degrees - rad/s , celsius

Angle - Degree

Rotational velocity - rad/sec.

Temperature - celsius

For Model object name is Geometry.

Object name - Geometry

State - fully defined

Source - C:users7desktopfatiguepart1.Step

Source type - step file

Length unit - metres

Display style - Body color

Element control - program controlled

Length X = 0.2 m , Length Y = 0.1 m and Length Z = 0.7 m

Mass - 33.929 kg

Volume - 4.3231e-003 m3

Bodies - 1

Active bodies - 2

Solid bodies - yes

Surface Bodies - yes

Scale factor - 1

Nodes - 1627

Element - 611

Mesh metric - None

Attributes - No

Named selection - No

Parameter - yes

Parameter key - DS

Properties of material - No

Use of Associativity - Yes

Use of coordinate system - No

Temporary Directory - C:UsersAppDataLocalTemp

Type of analysis - 3-D

Mixed import resolution - None

Update - No

Attache file via temp file - Yes

Compare part - On

Use of instances - Yes

Reader mode can save update file - No

Decomposed Disjoint Geometry - Yes,

Enclosure and Symmetry Processing - Yes

Description about the parts : -

Name of the object - part 1

State - Meshed

Visibility - Yes

Transparency - 1

Suppressed - No

Stuffiness Behaviour - Flexible

Coordinate System = Default Coordinate System

Reference Temperature taken By Environment

Assignment - Structural Steel

Nonlinear Effects- Yes

Thermal Strain Effects - Yes

Length X = 0.1 m, Length Y = 0.1 m Length Z = 0.57973 m,

Mass - 1.5357 kg

Volume - 4.0565e-003 m3

Centroid X = -4.6418e-005 m, Centroid Y = 9.0242e-009 m, Centroid Z = 0.25921 m Moment of Inertia Ip1 = 0.73407 kg , m2 ,

Moment of Inertia Ip2 = 0.7341 kg m2,

Moment of Inertia Ip3 = 3.823e-002 kg m2,

Nodes - 990

Elements - 499

Mesh Metric - None

Coordinate system:

Object Name - Global Coordinate System,

State - Fully Defined,

Type - Cartesian,

Coordinate System ID - 0

Origin of X = 0 m, Origin of Y = 0 m, Origin of Z = 0 m

X Axis Data = [1.0.0.], Y Axis Data = [0.1.0.], Z Axis Data = [0.0.1.]

Object Name - Mesh

State - solved

Style of display - Body Colour

Relevance - 0

Physics Preference - Defaults

Relevance centre - Coarse

Advanced size function - off

Element size - default

Smoothening - medium

Span angle centre - coarse

Transition - fast

Transition ratio - 0.272

Inflation option - Smooth transition

Minimum edge length - 1.5708e-002 m

Automatic inflation - none

Growth Rate - 1.2

Inflation algorithm - pre

Maximum layer - 5

View advanced option - No

Topology checking - No

Straight side element - No

Number of CPUs for Parallel Part Meshing - Program Controlled

Shape checking - standard mechanical

Triangle surface mesher - Program Controlled

Element mid size node - program controlled

Number of retries - 4 (default)

Extra retries for assembly - yes

Automatic Mesh Based DE featuring - On

DE featuring tolerance - default

Nodes - 1627

Elements - 611

Mesh matrix - None

Pinch Tolerance - please define

Rigid body behaviour - Dimensionally reduced

Mesh morphing - disabled

Generate pint - On

Refresh - No

Analysis for Model (A4): -

Object Name - Static Structural (A5)

State - solved

Type of analysis - Static structural

Type of physics - Structural

Solver Target - Mechanical APDL

Environment Temperature - 22° C

Generate Input Only - No.

Analysis setting of Static Structural (A5) - Model (A4)

In this case the settings of the software are -

Name of the object - Analysis setting

State - Fully defined

Number of steps - 1

Current step number - 1

Step end time - 1 sec.

Auto time stepping program - Controlled

Solve type - Program Controlled

Weak Spring - Program controlled

Solver Pivot checking - program controlled

Large deflection - off

Inertia relief - off

Generate restart point - program controlled

Retention of file after solve - No

Newton Rap son - program controlled

Force convergence - program controlled

Moment convergence - program controlled

Rotation convergence - program controlled

Displacement convergence - program controlled

Stabilization - off

Stress - yes

Strain - yes

Line search - program controlled

Nodal Force - No

Stabilization - All time point

Contact Miscellaneous - No

General miscellaneous - No

Nonlinear solutions - No

Solver Unit - Active system

Solver unit system - Mks

Directoryforsolverfileis:- C:Users7AppDataLocalTempWB_R7_4676_2unsaved_project_filesdp0SYSMECH,

Save MAPDL db - yes

Future analysis - None

Settings of static structural (A5) loads for Model (A4)

In this case software settings are as follows :-

Object name - Fixed Support

Scoping Method - Geometry selection

State - Fully defined

Suppress - NO

Geometry - 1 face with fixed support/ movement

Defined - Using Vector

Magnitude - 100 N.m ramped

Behaviour - Deformable

Direction - defined

Pinball region - all

Object name :- Solution A6

State - solved

Maximum refinement loops - 1

Refinement depth - 2

Status - done

Calculating beam selection result - No

For object name solution information settings are done of model (A4) for static structural (A5) :-

Object name - Solution information

State - solved

Solution output - solver output

update interval - 2.5 sec.

Newton rap son residual - 0

Display point - all FE connection of nodes

Line colour - Connection type

Visible on result - No

Display type - lines

Thickness of lines - single

Active visibility - yes

Result for solution (A6) of model (A4) for static structural (A5) is :-

Name of object - Equivalent stress

Type of State - solved

Scoping method - Geometry selection

Geometry type - Equivalent stress and total deformation

Display time - last

Calculate history for time - yes

Suppressed - No

Option for display - Average

Minimum stress - 87947 pa

Load step - 1

sub step - 1

Number of iteration - 1

Figure given below is for equivalent stress

References

Barnes C.R. M., K. F. W., 1984. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics. Structural failures precipitated by weld discontinuities, pp. 73-93.

Donald R. Askeland, W. J. W., 2016. Science and Engineering of Materials, SI Edition. Channel Centre Street : Cengage Learning.

F., E., 1997. Fatigue Damage, Crack Growth and Life Prediction. Alberta: Fernand Ellyin.

J., S., 2009. Fatigue of Structures and Materials. Delft: Springer.

Mahler M., A. J., 2018. Nuclear Materials and Energy. Eurofer97 Creep-Fatigue assessment tool for ANSYS APDL and workbench, pp. 85-91.

Nussbaumer A., B. L. D. L., 1999. Fatigue Design of Steel and Composite Structures: Eurocode 3: Design of. New York: Wiley.

Nussbaumer A., B. L. D. L., n.d. Fatigue Design of Steel and Composite Structures: Eurocode 3: Design of .. New York: John Weley & Sons.

R., C., 1999. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes and Materials. Broken Sound Parkway: CRC Press.

Seeram Ramakrishna, M. R. T. .. S. K. W. O. S., 2010. Biomaterials: A Nano Approach. Sound Parkway : CRS Press.

Sharma V., P. A., 2016. Measurement. Gear crack detection using modified TSA and proposed fault indicators for fluctuating speed conditions, pp. 560-575.

Singh O., V. S. S., 2017. Materialstoday. Analysis and Comparison of Total Deformation of Welded Plates in Tensile and Fatigue Tests using ANSYS, pp. 8409-8417.

Socie D., S. G. H., 1979. International Journal of Fatigue. A field recording system with applications to fatique analysis, pp. 103-111.

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