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1. Critically evaluate organisational theory, design, and structure from local and international perspectives

2. Analyse and model individual and group behaviours in organisational contexts, demonstrating an understanding of current theories in organisational dynamics from local and international perspectives

3. Analyse organisational dynamics with regard to corporate culture, decision making, communication, conflict management and organisational change

4. Demonstrate an understanding of the association between contemporary organisational theories, change practices, change management and respect for the dignity of each individual and for human diversity

5. Evaluate and explain the ethical and social justice implications of organisational dynamic processes on individual and group behaviour, and the implications for the environment and society.

Two Factor theory and LeDoux’s Model of High-Order Conscious Emotion

As discussed by Alcover et al. (2017), organizational behaviour or OB is considered to be a study of ways that are implemented by people or organizations in order to study their behaviour. The principles that are applied in this case are helpful in improving the efficiency of organizations and the employees as well. The study based on organizational behaviour also includes the areas based on research that are dedicated to increasing the levels of job satisfaction, improvement of job performance, encouraging the levels of leadership and many more. Organizational behaviour based studies have its roots in late 1920s and my researchers have developed different theories that are related to the ways by which behaviour of people can be understood (Apter 2015).

The essay will be based on the study of two major organizational behaviour based theories that will be able to provide a detailed picture of the ways by which the theories were developed by the two authors and the limitations that have been faced in the process. The two theories that have been considered for this analysis are, Schacter and Singer's (1962) Two Factor theory and LeDoux’s Model of High-Order Conscious Emotion. The theories will be able to provide a detailed analysis based on the ways by which the emotions and thoughts of the employees have an impact on their work process and the reactions that are provided as well.

According to Coppin and Sander (2016), the two factor theory of emotion mainly suggests that emotions are related to two major factors that include, physical arousal and cognitive label. The two factor theory was developed by two researchers, Stanley Schachter and Jerome E. Singer. Two factor of emotion is based on the proper combination of two major states that are cognition and state of arousal that is related to the ways by which a person can the best of a particular situation. The theory argues that when people are aroused that starting searching for cues related to the reasons for their feelings (Corneille and Stahl 2018).

As discussed by Dror (2017), the main aim of the development of two factor theory is based on the ways by which the emotions related to a particular behaviour of people can be tested. The three major propositions that were developed for completion of this experiment include, if someone experiences a state based on arousal that lacks any explanation, they try to describe the emotions in terms of cognitions. If someone experiences state of arousal that is related to appropriate explanation they try to describe the emotions based on alternative cognitions. If someone is placed in a situation that is related to his or her past emotions, they tend to react in an emotional manner and experience emotions that are related to physiological arousal (Fausto 2017).

Schacter and Singer's (1962) Two Factor theory

According to Kurtessis et al. (2017), the experiment was conducted by the authors based on 184 male students of a college who were taking classes based on the subject of introductory psychology at the Minnesota University. The participants were then taken into a private room and they were also told that the major aim related to the experiment was based on analysis of the effects that vitamin injections can have on the visual skills of people. The injection was named Suproxin. Around 184 of the total 195 participants had agreed to take part in the experiment. The participants were then given an injection of adrenalin or placebo. The effects that were based on the application of adrenalin are based on the increase of heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate and the flow of blood to the muscles (Matta et al. 2015). The major impacts of this injection were related to various factors like, tremors, palpitations and fast breathing as well. The impact of the injection had started after three minutes of the application. The various experimental conditions that are developed by the application of the injection include, adrenalin ignorant, adrenalin informed, adrenalin misinformed and control group. The two major conditions that have been developed with the help of application of the injection include, anger condition and euphoria condition (Pepper and Gore 2015).

The euphoria situation was based on the stooge that had been developed in the waiting room that related to a series of silly tasks which were designed in order to amuse and entertain the participants. The anger situation on the other hand is based on tasks and comments that had annoyed the participants in a huge manner. The different conditions were formed in this case include, Euphoria – informed, ignorant, misinformed, placebo and Anger – informed, ignorant, placebo (Pereira Jr 2018). The researchers had made some observational measures of the emotional response with the help of a one-wat mirror and the self-report measures were taken from participants. The participants who are a part of the euphoria condition were misinformed and quite happy than other participants. The second group on the other hand is the ignorant group who were informed and were unhappy in nature as well. The ignorant group who were under the anger condition were highly angry. The second group on the other hand belonged to the placebo (Coppin and Sander 2016).

The major limitations that are related to the two factor theory of emotions are based on the lack of proper explanation based on different activities that are performed on the participants of the groups. The authors have argued that the two factor theory of emotion has been related to the physiological arousal is quite similar to different cognitions that are available (Pepper and Gore 2015).

LeDoux Model of High-Order Conscious Emotion

Conclusions

The conclusion is based on the ways by which the emotions of people are affected by the situation that is created within the organization and the external environment as well. The three major propositions that had been developed by the author had been supported by the results that have been obtained from the experiment of two factor based theory.

As opined by Clausi et al. (2017), the research of LeDoux who was an American neuroscientist was related to the different survival circuits that include, the impacts on the emotions like anxiety and fear. the interest levels of LeDoux on the emotions of people had increased in the mid-1970s. The techniques were mainly related to the study of human brain in a proper manner. The theory based on LeDoux Model of High-Order Conscious Emotion is based on the cognitive nature that is quite new. The emotional consciousness has been linked in an effective manner with the help of proper survival of an organism in the environment. The differences that exist between the emotions and threat response were considered to be the most important factors that have been able to affect the research that has been made by an author (LeDoux and Brown 2017).

The main aim of the author is based on the ways by which the emotions of people can be analysed with the help of the study of the brain circuits. The author had aimed at studying the functioning of brains and its link with the emotions that are felt as well (Clausi et al. 2017).

As opined by Lapate et al. (2016), the link that exists between the memory, emotion and brain had been analysed by Joseph LeDoux from the year 1990. The author had credited the implementation of amygdala in spotlight. The Emotional Brain Institute had been established by LeDoux. The interplay that exists between the emotional states based on consciousness with the subcortical and cortical regions of the brain is considered to be the major method that has been applied in order to analyse the brain. According to LeDoux and Brown (2017), The author had argued that the conscious experiences had risen from a single system that is developed within the brain in an effective manner. The belief of cognitive scientists is based on the programming of the human emotions in an effective manner. The conventional views that are related to innate programming of the subcortical circuits of the brain have been challenged by the recent researches that have been made by the author. The emotions of human are related to the cortical circuits (Rosa 2018).

The review was made based on different existing scholarships related to the emotion and cognition as well. The authors named Brown and LeDoux had concluded that architecture for the emotions is highly based on process rather than the structure. The emotional experiences mainly originate in different subcortical regions and on the other hand, non-emotional experiences are based on the cortical regions as well (Sánchez-Escribano 2018). The cortical and sub-cortical experiences are based on a single system within the human brain. The emotional feelings have major impacts on the different aspects of the lives of people. The levels of integration based on theories of emotion and theories of consciousness have been increased in the new experiment that was conducted (Rosa 2018).

The results of experiment are based on the views that are related to the levels of different states of consciousness that are a part of the human brain. The hypothesis is mainly based on well-known theory related to consciousness that are considered to be “higher order theory”. The authors have concluded that the higher order states have been embedded within the cortical circuits of the brain (Lapate et al. 2016). The existing models have been extended in the process in order to encompass conscious levels of emotional experiences that are able to bubble up from the non-conscious brain circuits of the subcortical region. The two authors had broken new grounds and had been able to develop more information that is based on the different regions of the brain and their impacts on the emotions of people (Clausi et al. 2017).

The limitations that are related to the ways by which this theory is based on the development of proper reasons that are related to the proper analysis of the emotions that are a part of the human brain. The interaction levels between the emotions that are developed by human brain have an impact on the ways by which different regions of the brain are able to operate in an effective manner (Lapate et al. 2016). The various emotions of the human brain have not been considered effectively within the theory. The levels of complexity that exist in the development of the theory are also major factors that are able to affect the ways by which the functioning of human brains can be analysed effectively (Rosa 2018).

Conclusions

The conclusion is based on the ways by which the authors are able to develop the ways by which the human brain can be analysed effectively. The human brain and different levels of emotions are considered to be important factors that have an impact on the ways by which organizations are able to understand the employees. The most important parts of the theory are based on the ways by which the emotions of people can be understood with the help of proper support that is provided by different parts of the brain. The theory has provided details based on the different parts of the brain and their impact on the emotional levels.

Conclusion

The two major theories of organizational behaviour that have been analysed in the essay are based on the ways by which the emotions of employees are able to affect the situation in which they provide their services and their work process as well. The responses that are provided by the employees in different situations can also be analysed in detail with the help of proper implementation of the theories. The first theory is based on the analysis of responses that have been provided by people in different situations. On the other hand, the second theory is based on the ways by which the emotions of people or employees are affected by the different regions that are a part of the human brain.

References

Alcover, C.M., Rico, R., Turnley, W.H. and Bolino, M.C., 2017. Understanding the changing nature of psychological contracts in 21st century organizations: A multiple-foci exchange relationships approach and proposed framework. Organizational Psychology Review, 7(1), pp.4-35.

Apter, M.J., 2015. Reversal theory and the structure of emotional experience. Stress and emotion: anger, anxiety, and curiosity, 14, pp.17-30.

Clausi, S., Iacobacci, C., Lupo, M., Olivito, G., Molinari, M. and Leggio, M., 2017. The role of the cerebellum in unconscious and conscious processing of emotions: a review. Applied Sciences, 7(5), p.521.

Coppin, G. and Sander, D., 2016. Theoretical approaches to emotion and its measurement. In Emotion measurement (pp. 3-30). Woodhead Publishing.

Corneille, O. and Stahl, C., 2018. Associative attitude learning: A closer look at evidence and how it relates to attitude models. Personality and Social Psychology Review, p.1088868318763261.

Dror, O.E., 2017. Deconstructing the “two factors”: The historical origins of the Schachter–Singer theory of emotions. Emotion Review, 9(1), pp.7-16.

Fausto, C., 2017. The integration of emotional expression and experience: a pragmatist review of recent evidence from brain stimulation. Emotion Review, p.1754073917723461.

Kurtessis, J.N., Eisenberger, R., Ford, M.T., Buffardi, L.C., Stewart, K.A. and Adis, C.S., 2017. Perceived organizational support: A meta-analytic evaluation of organizational support theory. Journal of management, 43(6), pp.1854-1884.

Lapate, R.C., Rokers, B., Tromp, D.P.M., Orfali, N.S., Oler, J.A., Doran, S.T., Adluru, N., Alexander, A.L. and Davidson, R.J., 2016. Awareness of emotional stimuli determines the behavioral consequences of amygdala activation and amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. Scientific reports, 6, p.25826.

LeDoux, J.E. and Brown, R., 2017. A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(10), pp.E2016-E2025.

Matta, F.K., Scott, B.A., Koopman, J. and Conlon, D.E., 2015. Does seeing “eye to eye” affect work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior? A role theory perspective on LMX agreement. Academy of Management Journal, 58(6), pp.1686-1708.

Pepper, A. and Gore, J., 2015. Behavioral agency theory: New foundations for theorizing about executive compensation. Journal of management, 41(4), pp.1045-1068.

Pereira Jr, A., 2018. The projective theory of consciousness: from neuroscience to philosophical psychology. Trans/Form/Ação, 41(SPE), pp.199-232.

Reisenzein, R., 2017. Varieties of cognition-arousal theory. Emotion Review, 9(1), pp.17-26.

Rosa, L.A., 2018. The high-order and conscious emotion: Assessing the foundations, contributions, and implications of LeDoux’s model of conscious and cognitive emotion. Activitas Nervosa Superior, pp.1-10.

Sánchez-Escribano, M.G., 2018. Principles for computational emotion. In Engineering Computational Emotion-A Reference Model for Emotion in Artificial Systems (pp. 59-120). Springer, Cham.

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