This assignment requires two separate reports presented one after another. First part is the life cycle assessment and the second is on the energy efficiency analysis.
For your chosen service (e.g. white board markers), identify two alternatives of getting the service (e.g. brand A, brand B). Choose the most environmentally friendly option by conducting life cycle assessment in GaBi. Alternatively, you can perform the LCA manually with known environmental impacts of components.
According to Malishenko (2017, p. 28), the majority of people use whiteboards in their day to day communication, creation, and innovation. For instance, edding has various pros such as it contains an excellent tip quality that is relatively outstanding. The marker design is relatively simple, and they are available in multiple tip sizes and types. However, it has its downside such as it may be smelly for certain individuals, and also the red and black colors tend to fade over time. Alternatively, sharpie is another form for getting the whiteboard marker. Besides, it has various pros such as it is cheap and has excellent color, which has a great ink flow. However, it is only available in Europe, and some people feel it is smelly. LCA is an assessment conducted on a given product‘s environmental impacts through its lifespan. These assessments can get done by evaluating various ecological impacts, which get associated with the identified inputs. Additionally, LCA may interpret the results of a given product, which would help in making decisions regarding the environmental impacts of the products and human health. The ISO standards used to perform LCA provide efficient ways of managing the problems. For example, ISO 14040, provides the framework and principles, which have an overview regarding the practice and LCA limitations to a range of stakeholders. These stakeholders may include those who have limited knowledge of LCA. Bird (2006) further argues that ISO 14044 provides the guidelines and requirements, which get designed for conducting inventory analysis on the life cycle. The purpose of this article is to determine how edding and sharpie markers impact on the environment using LCA.
Edding and sharpie get identified as the whiteboard markers, and a comprehensive analysis is conducted using the Gabi software, which a leading LCA model. Furthermore, the tabular form is used to present the data obtained from the two markers.
The markers are formulated with one or more beneficial characteristics, which result in ink selection components and the multiple proportions. The markers include pigments, which have large particles. PCT (2004) note:
Without intending to be bound by any particular theory, it is believed that the large particle size of pigment tends to block dyes, when used, from staining a white board. Without intending to be bound by any particular theory, it is also believed that as the particle size increase, the ability of the particle to be removed from textiles by laundering (p.2).
White Board Markers
Therefore, the pigments that have large particles in some ink embodiments provide an improved washability compared to previous markers. Moreover, large sized pigments are preferably used in whiteboard markers in a ranging amount such as 0.1 wt. Percent to 80 wt. Percent. In spite of that, the dry erase ink may include an agent released to maintain the pigment particles from getting stuck on the whiteboard, which enables the ink to get converted into powder form. Such release agents may include silicone fluids and organofunctional silanes.
The components that are identified in the table below weighed carefully, added to an appropriate size container. The yellow and green markers are represented by figures (i) and (ii) respectively.
It is essential that the flow of ink be easy and not clog at the marker tip. As such, the ink should contain its color at maximum strength, especially at its lowest velocity. For the marker to work effortlessly, the marker must contain a solvent, which comprises of a release agent and color pigments. As such, the marker is adapted to the board in that when an individual is writing the solvent and pigment get added on the board. Therefore, the solvent can dissolve the permanent marks underneath, which allows every single pigment of the marker ink and solvent to get wiped out. Thus, permanent markers may not be permanent. Moreover, when writing on paper, the ink tends to soak into the paper, which may get through the paper marking what may be beneath. On the other hand, smooth surfaces may make the marks left by a marker pen irresistible to getting wiped away (Howell, 2015).
- Edding Marker
The following chart below defines the life cycle of an edding marker which comprises, polyethylene, aluminum and polyamide (O'NEILL, 2002, p.4). The marker’s product system is shown in the figure below which starts from the extraction of the raw material process through to material and the production sections, assembly, the usage phase and the recycling options. According to O’NEILL (2002), “ Typical environmental impacts arising in this example include natural resource and energy use, emissions of greenhouse gases and volatile organic compounds, including monomers, and waste generations” (p.3).
- Sharpie Marker
Lee (2015) argues that the marker is divided into essential four parts. Each part contains various primary materials, which are essential for production. As such the four parts include the felt tip, marker reservoir, body, and ink. As such, the felt gets produced from synthetic fiber and wool, while the mixture of these two materials can result in the felt being resilient. Moreover, by adding a mixture of weak sulfuric acid, a combination of sulfuric acid and sodium chloride is created making the felt tip thicker. Additionally, the body may include the plug and cap, which requires a plastic resin for the production of the permanent marker. Therefore, the synthetic resin main source is the hydrocarbon, which is heated up when the hydrogen is compounded together with carbon. This leads to the formation of a hydrocarbon, then the cracking process can begin.
Weight Components in the Yellow and Green Marker
When hydrocarbon gets heated up, it begins to break down into multiple separate molecules, resulting in ethylene, and propylene. These molecules build compounds, which form chains that lead to different polymers; the plastic resin may result in having multiple characteristics due to the polymers. Therefore, numerous raw materials get used in the manufacturing process.
- Sharpie Marker.
There are various impacts caused by sharpie marker in the environment. For instance, improper disposal of used sharpie pens may lead to air pollution because some people feel that it has a sting smell. The production of carbon (iv) oxide during its output may lead to air and water pollution. As such, air and water pollution may result in climate change due to toxic gases getting exposed and dissolved in the economy. For instance, when carbon (iv) oxide gets dissolved in water, it may lead to acidic rain, which may be detrimental to the environment. In spite of that, the use of recycled matter in the production of sharpie markers may lead to urban congestion due to improper disposal of waste products (Chen, n.d). However, there are various benefits of sharpie markers such that they promote afforestation because the raw materials used in making them get recycled. Additionally, sharpie markers encourage maintenance in the infrastructure cost because the raw materials used are waste products, which are cheap.
- Edding Markers
Edding (n.d) asserts that edding markers have had a positive impact on the environment because it uses waste raw materials for its production. As such, waste management has enabled environmental protection. For instance, 83 percent of the plastic is made of a permanent material which has allowed the use of waste products. Furthermore, the recycled materials are safe and friendly to the environment such that the treatment process is effective in producing new edding markers. Additionally, responsible innovation has enabled effective development of quality edding products, which got done through tests that are carried out through the production process to ensure quality gets achieved. For instance, Edding Company is working on making a replacement on the primary materials, which get used in the manufacture of bottle refills. Also, the company is making strides to ensure that the ink is produced at high quality, which enhances the color brilliance of the ink.
- Edding Markers.
Edding (2007, p. 2) argues that there are measures put in place regarding fire-fighting. For instance, hazards may arise from combusting products would result to release of gases that may have a detrimental effect on the environment. These gases include carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. However, there are safety measures that have been taken to ensure that fire-fighting equipment is accessible. For example, the use of breathing apparatus that are self-contained and wearing of protective clothing has helped in reducing the effects of these gases to human health. In spite of that, exceptional handling and storage of the waste products can be enhanced by ensuring that there is proper ventilation in the working place, which limits the transmission of infectious respiratory diseases. It is important to note that the working process should get designed such that it may hinder the release of substances that are hazardous. Therefore, during storage, the containers need to be opened with care and kept upright to prevent any potential leakages, which may occur. Overall, edding should increase their ink quality to prevent it from fading over time, and it is essential that they get provided at lower prices.
- Sharpie Markers
Functional Unit of White Board Maker
According to NewellRubbermaid (2012, p.1), there are no hazardous gases that get emitted under normal conditions. However, it should get noted that sharpie markers should not be used on the skin and also if it has contact with the eyes it may irritate. Hence, it is advisable that if an individual experience they should seek medical advice. In spite of that, if the irritation is on the skin, washing the surface that is irritating with water and soap may help in reducing the irritation. Furthermore, if there is any spillage, it is advisable that the surface should get wiped with an absorbent material. Overall, sharpie should improve on their sales technique because it is only available in Europe, which makes it unavailable for other people who would like to use the markers.
Sharpie markers are better recommendation compared to edding markers because they have better ink quality and flow compared to edding markers.
Sharpie and edding markers can get identified as the alternative of the whiteboard marker. In spite of that, the relationship of the markers to the LCA is well explained in the report. Furthermore, the composition of the white board markers is defined in the various tabular forms presented for markers yellow and green. Additionally, sharpie markers are better than edding markers in that they have a better ink quality flow compared to edding markers. Moreover, the pens have numerous impacts on the environment, where most of them are beneficial because they help in waste management.
Bird, K. (2006) ISO Standards for Life Cycle Assessment to Promote Sustainable Development. International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved from: https://www.iso.org/news/2006/07/Ref1019.html (Accessed on 20 October 2018)
Chen, A. (n.d) Sharpie: Well Designed Strategies and Well Strategized Designs. Chen Strategies. Retrieved from: https://www.annieychen.com/strategy/sharpie-sustainable-redesign/ (Accessed on 20 October 2018)
Edding (2007) EC safety Data Sheet. Edding Permanent Marker Refill In, ver. 1.1.0/GB. Retrieved from: https://www.ecom.cz/open_sheet/sheet_name=D30430 (Accessed on 20 October 2018)
Edding (n.d) Corporate Responsibility. Edding International GmbH. Retrieved from: https://www.edding.com/company/corporate-responsibility/products/ (Accessed on 20 October 2018)
Howell, D. (2015) What are the Chemical Differences Between Whiteboard Markers and Permanent Markers. Quora. Retrieved from: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-chemical-differences-between-whiteboard-markers-and-permanen (Accessed on 20 October 2018)
Lee, L. (2015) Design Life-Cycle: Is it Beneficial or Harmful. Assess. Design. Retrieved from: https://www.designlife-cycle.com/sharpie/ (Accessed on 20 October 2018)
Malishenko, Y. (2017) All You Need to Know About Whiteboard Markers. Graphicfacilitation. Retrieved from: https://medium.com/graphicfacilitation/all-you-need-to-know-about-whit (Accessed on 20 October 2018)
NewellRubbermaid (2012) Material safety Data Sheet. Office Products Group. Retrieved from: https://content.oppictures.com/Master_Images/Master_PDF_Files/SAN30001_MSDS.PDF (Accessed on 20 October 2018)
O'NEILL, T.J. (2002) Life cycle assessment and environment impact of plastic product. Rapra Technology, Vo. 42: pp 1-10
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) (2004) Dry Erase Ink. The Patent Cooperation Treaty. Retrieved from: https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/28/bf/98/8152d5bed1b8f9/WO2004072194A1.pdf (Accessed on 20 October 2018)