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Structure of the new FAT Group

After a recent re-structure three business units that operate in a large government organisation have been merged. The departments previously operated independently and now will report to you (your team) replacing the previous Group Manager. The three areas merged are:

  • Facilities Management (30 staff)
  • Acquisitions (45 staff),  and
  • Transport services (22 staff) have been merged.

The new group (FAT) is structured as part of the Corporate Services Area of the organisation. The FAT group collectively has an important role in supporting the entire Organisation to achieve its strategic goals and vision.

You have recently reviewed a consultant’s report that was commissioned due to significant conflict that exists between the department managers. The conflict is particularly negative between the Facilities and Acquisitions managers. The conflict has become so significant these managers no longer speak to each other and both have received counselling and have made complaints about each other to Senior Management and Human Resources. The transport services manager is also challenging and there is no love-loss among this management team.  

The general orientation of the leadership team is to have a tendency to emphasise task outcomes rather than people’s well-being. This can lead to stress and decisions based on status rather than expertise. There was evidence during the interviews that several Managers and Staff presented stress related symptoms and emotional reactions to the interview process. In general the team are described as:

  • Dogmatic, rigid and abrupt
  • Runs things by themselves instead of collaborating with others
  • De-emphasis of team emotion
  • Blaming others for mistakes
  • Cynical
  • Not allowing for mistakes

Also present in the leadership team was a style that described people who subordinate themselves to the organisation but in the process, end up creating stress for themselves and allowing the organisation to stagnate.  The cost to the organisation and its teams is often the ability to learn and adapt to change.  Specific behaviours that depict this orientation include:

  • Evasive and leaving decisions to others
  • Conforming; thinking rules are more important than ideas
  • Agreeing with everyone
  • Avoidance in dealing with difficult situations and conflict

Dave is described as a manager known to start things and not follow them through. This manager does not deal with major issues in a timely fashion and he seems to be highly reactive to external clients to maintain “face”. An implication of this is a tendency to accept work and then pile that on to already potentially overworked department Managers.

It appears that this manager had limited “leadership” credibility, except in a few isolated cases, both inside the team and around the Organisation. It appears this has occurred due to a perception of a lack of substantive engagement with staff in the Group and a general politically orientated management style that involves subjectivity and personalities ahead of objectivity and performance.  It was a common perception that this style has led to the Group Manager “playing favourites” and operates with “double standards”. It was suggesting that Dave may change his behaviours dependent on who he is working with. It was also a common perception that his decisions may lack objectivity.

Conflicts between Department Managers

Evidence suggests that Alana has a range of positive leadership behaviours/qualities including a consistent focus on high standards. In general, the staff of the area was positive in their orientation towards this manager and felt that she had made significant positive impacts in the section. They described her as “a very focused person”, “very encouraging”, and having an “open door approach”. They said she “provides feedback in a diplomatic way”, “actively supported people” and “challenges people to do their best”. On the other hand, there was evidence to indicate that this Manager can be overly “aggressive” that can lead to an overemphasis on the task at the expense of people issues within the team. It was apparent that this manager has been impacted significantly by the breakdown of communication in the FAT leadership group is displaying high levels of stress.  

This manager was described as a “micromanager” who was “not consultative enough” on several occasions. It was identified that she has an overly autocratic leadership style and at times could be highly aggressive with staff, colleagues and internal customers. While she has high standards of delivery, it appears that she attempts to control the work flow too closely.  It was felt that this manager does “too much firefighting” and there was evidence of a controlling style that may be frustrating for some members of her team. It was also suggested that many tasks given to staff are disjointed leading to a lack of understanding of the “big picture”. It is highly likely that this manager (or section) has too much responsibility or difficulties with delegation and staff motivation. It was suggested she is “extremely busy” and “being pulled in too many directions”. It was also regularly suggested that this manager is “challenging to deal with” and showed an “inflexible” style.

This manager has been promoted relatively quickly through the organisation and may not have been provided with appropriate training to support his continued promotion. He appears overtly stressed and there was evidence of ongoing emotional outbursts. He was described as “having good days and bad days”, and can “get pretty emotional”. It appears his passion for the role may be communicated inappropriately in some instances and that he experiences significant frustration with many areas of the position. This manager also is known as having an Aggressive Styles described as being in the high to very high range.

It appears as if this manager has few formal skills in managing people and received limited training in areas associated with leadership and performance management. He has received very little support or encouragement for him to do well from the previous group leader and this is likely to be extremely frustrating given that his area has been identified as having pockets of difficult staff behaviours which are non-responsive. It appears, like the other managers he has very limited power to performance manage under-performing staff.

Leadership styles of the Managers

It was often suggested that that “the FAT group are heavily constrained by bureaucracy”, “red tape” and “poor group leadership”. Further, there was a general criticism of the area that a “one-size fits all” approach was detrimental to many operating areas. A further theme noted that communication from the group was often convoluted and could be a lot better.

In terms of service delivery the interviewees were highly critical of some areas due to poor processes and high levels of inefficiency. This criticism was directed predominately at Acquisitions. Transport was also criticised but to a lesser degree. Facilities were generally described in very positive terms regarding their service delivery.

While there were relatively few commonalities between the areas of the FAT Group there was an overarching view that this organisation was a “good place to work”, with “good people”.  It was suggested that there was appropriate “flexibility” and a generally positive “work life balance”. The participants described the Organisation as a “family aware” environment. It was also regularly noted that “it’s a good environment” that is “mostly flexible in terms of working hours” and there is “appropriate job security”. In general, it was thought that “there are lots of opportunities” and “training available to help you improve at your job”. In general, the members of each area spoke highly of other staff members in the Group and it was thought that most people “are doing the best they can”. 

However, many participants suggested they “were under a significant amount of pressure from workload and poor resourcing” and that people were “under the pump”. Many staff indicated that they are “just keeping their heads above water” and they were often “in damage control”. Further, it appeared that many areas felt that they are under staffed and that “while the workload is growing, the manpower is shrinking” and “work just continues to build up”.  Finally, it was felt that “things are regularly dropped on staff at the last minute” with no explanation of what is happening. This has led to a situation where staff feels they are “always on the defensive” and creates a “highly stressful environment”.

The apparent “hyper-busy” nature of some areas appears to be having important implications. It was a view of the participants that many problems are amplified because clients of their areas do not do the appropriate diligence or “always want it done now”. The staff of many areas felt that their clients are “too demanding” and “do not take responsibility”. There was also a theme that this is caused to a degree because Management at the Group-Level and above was overly “pampered” and they use their position to drive outcomes outside of the normal processes. This refers to some staff in organisation using their position in their hierarchy and personal connections to receive special treatment. Related to this was the view that the “rules of the game” were consistently changing and staff was not informed.

Work environment and its implications on the staff

Other descriptions of the culture in the areas of FAT included “pretty negative”, “has been deteriorating”, “people often sulk”, and there is “no fun at work” from some participants. There are problems of motivation across all sections and a distinct lack of teamwork within and between departments. It was also suggested that many staff are “highly resistant to change”.  In general staff appeared very busy and there was evidence of some staff being “highly stressed”, “defensive” and “emotional”. Claims of significant inequity in workloads and concerns about job security in some areas where staff are kept on month-to-month acquisitions for inappropriately long periods of time were also flagged. Finally, there was evidence of high levels of micro-management and a general lack of trust from the staff regarding management intentions.

There was a theme of defensiveness and high levels of caution from some members of the area. Staff appeared to be concerned about being identified in the review and the ramifications of saying the wrong thing. This may be a function of a wider Organisational culture and may not necessarily be specific to the FAT area. Finally, there is generally a relatively weak customer service culture across the FAT group.

The following outlines views of external clients who use the services of the different areas of FAT.

Participants had few concerns regarding the service provided by Facilities. There were almost no criticisms of the area and the section received significant consistent praise from the interview participants. They were described as having “great service”, the “beacon of FAT”, “responsive”, “proactive”, and a “dream to deal with”.

There were a range of views when describing the services provided by the Transport area. There were many positive examples of outstanding customer service in the area of help with car servicing and handling. It was suggested that “Transport Services works really well” and that it has “generally picked up a lot”, and “they are lifting their game”. On the other hand, there were suggestions that there is a “negative” culture in the area and that parts of the area are very frustrating to deal with. There were specific criticisms, from different participants, directed at some staff members in the area who were described as “nasty”, “rude”, “arrogant” and “unresponsive”. Some participants described areas of Transport Services as “terrible” and “highly inefficient”, and they described their experience with Transport Services as being “unwelcome” and a sense of being “attacked” over issues when equipment was returned. There was a view that some key people in the area were highly “defensive” and “avoided responsibility” and this led to a “lot of finger pointing” rather than focusing on fixing the problem.

Acquisitions received a great deal of criticism from internal clients. In general, people described many of their processes as problematic. Interviewees described the group as “pedantic”, “highly risk adverse” and that it was often “exhausting dealing with Acquisitions”. One of the main concerns of the participants was associated with a lack of clarity around operating processes employed by Acquisitions. It was suggested that poor communication about the progress of requests was a significant issue. Claims that Acquisitions were not responsive and that their service is generally very poor were common. Specific comments included “left in the dark”, “the process is long and highly bureaucratic”, “the area is highly ineffective”, “there is a lot of confusion” and they are “too detailed with the documentation”. It was felt that Acquisitions are very poor at communicating with their clients and “they are trying to tell us what to do”. It is felt that clients have to “jump through hoops” and there is very little appreciation for the need (of other areas) to be responsive to the Organisation’s external customers.

Structure of the new FAT Group

The following paper discusses about the fact where three business units in a large government organization have been merged. This merging is due to the effect that the previous Group Manager had been replaced. The cause of this manager replacement has been assumed as the inefficiency of the same. The result has occurred that a new group has emerged because of this joint venture. A new team has been formed in order to reconstruct the entire division to serve as the Corporate Services Area of the government organization. The large implications of the decision have to be followed with this because the new management team has a big task to deal with ahead of the. In this paper, the topic of discussion will be to unfold the different models and theories that the new management team should follow in order to reach their strategic goals. The different working areas of the management team have to be redesigned so that the entire system can run smoothly. The team has to look upon the facts of human resources and other important factors. The rigidity of the previous management team has been reported and it has to be tackled to avoid complications in the near future. The leadership style has to be modified for the betterment and growth of the organization.  All the leaders have to be on the same page and give emphasis on employee welfare so that the new management team can attain the desired success.

Replacement of the Group Manager, at the first instance reflects the need for change in the plight of the large government organization. Delving deep into the issue, replacement of the manager projects a chaotic environment, which is destroying the efficiency and productivity of the organization. Merging of the different units in this case can be considered as an attempt to expose collaborative output for maintaining the unity and coordination (Clegg, Kornberger and Pitsis 2015). Absence of this step would have aggravated the complexities of the organization. The existing conflict between the Facilities and Acquisitions Manager contradicts the unity and coordination attempted through the conglomeration of the three units. Lack of communication between the managers deviates from the usual code of conduct that they are expected to show within the workplace. This deviation is against the propositions of the Behavioral Theory.

Being an official of such a high rank, the managers are expected to provide guidance, support, motivation and encouragement to the employees. Viewing their age and maturity, arguing does not go with their characteristic traits. Consistency of the situation, in spite of counseling, reflects an immature psychological development (Bolman and Deal 2017). In view of this context, immaturity adds an interrogative parameter to the designation of the managers. This interrogation nullifies Freud’s stages of human development.

Conflicts between Department Managers

Taking a cue from the stages of development for the humans, as proposed by Freud, quarreling takes the mentality of the managers back of the infantile stage. Counseling bears resemblance with Cognitive theory of learning, however, complaining against each other nullifies the mention of Cognitive theory of learning in this context. In view of this, the aspect of guiding the team members is nullified, as the managers themselves lack maturity. Challenging attitude of the transport manager is an addition to the conflicting ambience of the workplace. Challenging attitude is beneficial in terms of enhancing confidence and capability, however, in view of selfishness; this attitude is harmful for the employees (Austin 2013). Thinking only about the outcomes, rather than the efforts put in by the employees, reflects the prevalence of authoritative management style within the workplace of the organization. This kind of management resembles the character of the managers with Hitler, whose main characteristic trait was rigid.

Being rigid is good for the managers in terms of managing the human resources. However, application of rigidity without considering the welfare of the employees questions the role exposed by the managers. This interrogation adds to the instability of the organization. Viewing it from the other perspective, interrogative perspective of the context detaches the two variables from each other. Displaying symptoms of stress in the interview by the managers and staffs does not go side by side. Managers are expected to possess a straight forward and confident approach for making the interviewees comfortable (Martin and Siebert 2016).

Showing emotional reactions to the interviewees can be considered as a distortion of motivational and leadership theories, such as Herzberg’s theory of motivation, McClelland’s theory of motivation, Great man theory, Trait theory among others. Displaying this kind of immature behavior adds a negative connotation to the characteristic traits of managers of the organization. This negative tone nullifies the attachment of the adjective “great” to the performance of the managers. In view of the previous sentence, the true essence of the term “management” is contradicted.

The leadership team of the organization needs applause in terms of their remarkable attempts for restoration of normalcy. Organizing open-ended decision-making sessions is a typical example of this remarkable performance (Cameron and Green 2015). However, preference of rules over ideas limits the capability of the employees within the four walls of the workplace. Along with this, agreeing with everyone’s opinion contradicts the aspect of rational thinking. Most importantly, avoiding challenging and enduring tasks extends the comfort zone of the organizational leaders, which sets a bad example for the team members. In view of the second, third and fourth actions of the leadership team, the first action of organizing open-ended sessions are nullified. This is in reference to the categorization of the preferences, agreement and challenges within the open forums and discussions.  The previous sentence is a part for the whole. Lack of adequate open forums does not project the hope of achieving efficient and effective resolutions for the ongoing conflict between the managers (Waal 2013). Therefore, part for the whole concept is not appropriate in this context. This indicates a poor infrastructure, which stains the reputation of the whole organization.

Leadership styles of the Managers

Diana, Alana and Peter are tied in the same thread in terms of their aggression towards the high working standards. This motive contradicts the propositions of Basic Strategic Management Model. This is due to the lack of stability in the relationship between managers like Diana, Alana and Peter with the employees and the other team members. The absence of strategic management nullifies the application of departmental management model, project management model and joint venture model. Instability between the managers and the employees contradicts the phrase “joint venture” in the name of the model (Cummings and Worley 2014).

Mixed reaction of the people about the service of the organization reflects the relationship of the organizational personnel with the customers. The customers in favor of the organization were full of praises for the organization. They were of the view that the personnel are aware of the ways and means to satisfy the needs, demands and requirements of their customers. On the contrary, the customers against the services of the organization portrayed their anger and frustration. The responses of the staffs showed that they are being compelled to adjust within the claustrophobic ambience of the workplace (Austin 2013).

Overall, it can be said that the managers are gaming with the needs, demands and requirements of the employees and the customers. This is in reference to the mentality of acquiring the hot seat within the competitive ambience of the market, which bears correlation with the Game Theory. Delving deep into the aspect, the motive of gaming or experimenting needs the minimum level of maturity, which is missing in case of the managers. This necessitates the need for training, which correlates with the cognitive theory of learning. However, absence of the learning mentality nullifies the resemblance of Game Theory with Cognitive theory of learning. Consistency in this type of exposure adds an interrogative parameter to the future of the organization (Cummings and Worley 2014).

It is very important to develop the recommendations in which way the entire process should commence. Some recommendations have to be made so that the management team comprised of Dave, Alana, Diana and Peter should run the organization smoothly (Northouse 2015). Some of the problems had arisen within the management and the staff had been stressed out very much so that they could not give proper focus on their work. Some theories like the Theory of emotion, the emergency theory, the Scachter-Singer theory, role theory have to be looked upon how to define these problems and find a solution for it.

Work environment and its implications on the staff

According to this theory, the stressors or the stressful events are not preceded by the emotions. These emotions only become present after how the body responds to the stress (Folkman 2013).

Contradictory to the James-Lange theory, this theory says that emotional responses to stress can occur even when the bodily responses are not properly present. The lower brain structure called thalamus is responsible for the emotions that are occurred after the stressful vents (Folkman 2013).

According to Schachter and Singer, both the cognitive activity and emotional arousal are important for identifying the emotions properly (Folkman 2013).

Another flaw that has been found in their persuasion of the management team is that all of them used to run the things by their own authoritative power by not consulting with anyone else. This problem in the leadership can be described by the some of the leadership theories:-

According to this theory, the leaders in the organizations have their specific roles and they allocate those roles to the employees (Northouse 2015).

According to the group of psychologists that was led by Lewin (1939), said that the autocratic leaders make their decisions all by themselves and does not consult to anyone. According to the experts, this kind of leadership can turn chaotic and result into revolution within the organization (Bhatti et al. 2013).

The third problem that has been seen in this context is the avoiding of the conflicts in the management problems (Cahn and Abigail 2014). The leaders used to avoid the problems in order to get rid of the problems.

Here in this case study, the fourth problem that can be identified is the leaders or the managers have been blaming others if any mistake has been committed within the organization. This blame game is one of the most harmful things that affect the entire working of the organization (Lakshmi 2013).

The fifth problem to be identified in this issue is about Dave who is the Group Supervisor. He has been replaced form his position so that the natural positive working culture can be brought back. His problems were about ‘double standards’ and ‘playing favorites’. The second problem is a crucial one because it deprived the deserved employees from getting proper appreciation (Indvik and Johnson 2012).

This kind of ‘favoritism’ sheds a negative impact on the employees as they do not like to be deprived if they have done good work and deserve to be rewarded (Indvik and Johnson 2012). Dave has surely left an indelible mark on the minds of the employees that has reduced their interest.

Service delivery

The job satisfaction among the employees’ reached an impasse as the employees do not feel any urge to work under Dave and  give their best effort because they know despite their best efforts, someone else may be rewarded (Braun et al. 2013).

The sixth problem to be identified is the aggressiveness of the Supervisor of facilities Alana. She had been overly aggressive about the tasks to be completed by the employees and that caused so much stress among them that it had led to their performance breakdown (Burton, Hoobler and Scheuer 2012). Some significant traits can be identified in this context.

When a person gets bullied in his or her workplace, he or she is mentally destroyed. The seniors may bully them because he has not been able to complete a work in time. This may have been because of some reason but that reason is overlooked (Nielsen and Einarsen 2012). Dave and other senior members, in charge of the serious departments have been bullying their inferiors for the simple issues in the workplace.

When the employees face violence from their seniors they lose the faith on them and also lose the desire in that organization (Bowie, Fisher and Cooper 2012). The employees have been victims of violence when they have protested against the running of the autocratic management.

The seventh problem that had been noticed in this context was the problem with inflexibility and extreme busy time schedule of Diana, the Supervisor of Acquisitions. She had very little time to deal with the employees and she did not bother to motivate the employees (Lazaroiu 2015).

Some changes in the physical conditions of the workplaces have to be made like in lights, breaks and duty hours so that the employee productivity will increase a lot (McCambridge, Witton and Elbourne 2014). Employee productivity has been reduced so the management need to look into this matter seriously by stopping to indulge in simple issues.

 In this theory, the main theme is that the person will likely to behave in the manner how he has performed (Latham 2012). Dave and other senior managers have not increased the wages of the employees so the employees are very much outraged at this. They expect better wages from the management.

The workers always desire for stability in their workplace. If they are promised that they will get stability in turn they work hard, they will automatically be motivated to work more (Van Wanrooy et al. 2013). The incidents of employee cut off and bad behavior had been a common thing so the employees are not at all satisfied with the steps taken by the management.

Overall work culture

The eighth problem in the case study can be identified as the organizational culture problems as the workers had complained that they had been put under tremendous work pressure and their work-life balance was destroyed as they were under the mountain of workload under Diana, Alana and Dave. 

Thus, it can be stated that the different problems have different ways to deal with and the recommendations for dealing with these problems will be described here.

  1. a) The leaders have to be strict about work but they should be consulting about these works with the employees by maintaining the perfect working spirit. They can follow the democratic leadership style for that.
  2. b) The leaders should also not avoid the conflicting matters. Rather, they should be following the collaboration strategies that will help them to complete the works.
  3. c) Leaders or managers should never bully or use violence to make the work happen by the workers. This could prove fatal and the outcome might go against them. They should cooperate with the employees and help them to overcome the stress.
  4. d) Managers should arrange for refreshments in the workplace so that the workers can be stress free.
  5. e) As the case of Diana suggests, time flexibility in the workplace should be maintained always so that the employees can feel free to work and earn good results for the organization. According to conservation of resources, the employees should possess a good correspondence between them. This would help to manage the time shifts between them so that one can help another in time of need.
  6. f) According to the Expectancy theory, the organizations should promise its workers that if they could work harder in achieving the goals of the organization, they will get a pay rise. This would surely help to motivate the employees to work hard.
  7. g) According to the Hawthorne effect, the physical conditions of the workplace have to be improved by the organization so that the employees could like the ambience more. This will drive them to produce positive results in favor of the organization.
  8. h) The organization must look to provide the employees with much job satisfaction regarding the wages, facilities, benefits and other prospects.
  9. i) In the collaboration style, the managers have to collaborate with each other so that they can handle any kind of tough situations that arise in business places. The managers may have to take tough decisions according to their experience.
  10. j) According to the Job Demands-Control-Support model, the management should allocate kind of jobs to the persons to whom that kind of would fit the most. If the jobs are not well distributed to the befitting persons, it would ruin the complete working structure.
  11. k) According to the Lewin’s leadership theories, it is most appropriate to develop a democratic leadership style within the organization so that the employees will feel safe to work in the organization without having to fear of the various autocratic rules.
  12. l) The role theory has to be followed as well so that the employees can understand what roles they have to perform within the organization.
  13. m) the stress management has to be done properly according to the need of the hour. The employees be let feel stress because it will bring negative outcomes and they should always be encouraged and motivated.

Conclusion:

This paper can be concluded by saying that the case study has provided with enough opportunities to introspect into the matter of management change. The organizational had been affected in the FAT group because of the behaviors and activities of the managers of different departments. The activity of blaming each other cannot be supported as this puts a direct impact on the minds of the workers. The autocratic style of leadership therefore has a harmful effect on the workplace culture. The workers in the organization have to be given proper independence and stress free environment so that they can deliver their best efforts to the growth of the organization. Other problems like inflexibility of the leaders like Diana have to be tackled in a proper way because leaders have a huge responsibility to encourage and motivate the workers to perform better. There can be pressure of work but the workers should not feel that their freedom has been hampered in order to perform their works. The problems can be faced and tackled in these ways probably if the leaders and managers take up the responsibility of it.

References:

Austin, R.D., 2013. Measuring and managing performance in organizations. Addison-Wesley.

Bhatti, N., Maitlo, G.M., Shaikh, N., Hashmi, M.A. and Shaikh, F.M., 2012. The impact of autocratic and democratic leadership style on job satisfaction. International Business Research, 5(2), p.192.

Bolman, L.G. and Deal, T.E., 2017. Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons.

Bowie, V., Fisher, B.S. and Cooper, C. eds., 2012. Workplace violence. Routledge.

Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S. and Frey, D., 2013. Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), pp.270-283.

Burton, J.P., Hoobler, J.M. and Scheuer, M.L., 2012. Supervisor workplace stress and abusive supervision: The buffering effect of exercise. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(3), pp.271-279.

Cahn, D.D. and Abigail, R.A., 2014. Managing conflict through communication. Pearson.

Cameron, E. and Green, M., 2015. Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M. and Pitsis, T., 2015. Managing and organizations: An introduction to theory and practice. Sage.

Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014. Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

De Waal, A., 2013. Strategic Performance Management: A managerial and behavioral approach. Palgrave Macmillan.

Folkman, S., 2013. Stress: appraisal and coping. In Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine (pp. 1913-1915). Springer New York.

Hargrave, T.J. and Van de Ven, A.H., 2016. Integrating Dialectical and Paradox Perspectives on Managing Contradictions in Organizations. Organization Studies, p.0170840616640843.

Indvik, J. and Johnson, P.R., 2012, January. The elephant in the living room: Favoritism in the workplace. In Allied Academies International Conference. Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict. Proceedings (Vol. 17, No. 1, p. 13). Jordan Whitney Enterprises, Inc.

Lakshmi, A.V.N., 2013. Manager Role–Employee alienation at work place. International Journals of Marketing and Technology, 3(3), pp.8-19.

Latham, G.P., 2012. Work motivation: History, theory, research, and practice. Sage.

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Martin, G. and Siebert, S., 2016. Managing people and organizations in changing contexts. Routledge.

McCambridge, J., Witton, J. and Elbourne, D.R., 2014. Systematic review of the Hawthorne effect: new concepts are needed to study research participation effects. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 67(3), pp.267-277.

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Northouse, P.G., 2015. Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage publications.

Van Wanrooy, B., Bewley, H., Bryson, A., Forth, J., Freeth, S., Stokes, L. and Wood, S., 2013. Employment relations in the shadow of recession: Findings from the 2011 Workplace Employment Relations Study. Palgrave macmillan.

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