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In order to encourage productive performance from employees, care needs to be taken with the design of jobs, working conditions, setting of goals, motivation and rewards.  Explain how and why all these factors impact upon productive performance and evaluate how a manager may be able to impact upon the processes across the organisation. 

Job design as a motivator

The main aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the various factors that help to increase and improve the performance of the workers. It explains working conditions, job design, reward, goals, and motivation help to achieve desired goals and objectives. It describes that how these factors have a direct impact on the organization as well as employee performance. These factors also help to reduce and eliminate the risks and challenges of the market. The firm can attain an optimum level of outputs by implementing these factors in the organization. These factors are considered significant sources to make a good image in the minds of competitors and market. These factors are important part of the human resource management to run the business activities and operations successfully. Moreover, the companies can easily beat the competitors by initiating these factors within the organization.

Job design, job specification, working conditions, rewards, motivation and setting of goals help to accomplish the long-term vision and mission. These are the considerable factors that help to increase and enhance the profitability of the organization.

Let’s talk about the job design, it is the primary and important function of human resource management and it is related to the specification of methods, contents, techniques, and relationship of employment to satisfy technological and organizational needs, requirements and wants as well as individual and social requirements of the job. It is one of the biggest motivators for the organization to implement new activities and operations. Job design also provides essential information about the incumbent and also describes the way of conducting task and duties. It also helps to design and maintain the effective organizational structure. The organizational structure is measured and identified by the job design process. The job design also specifies norms, values, and culture of the organization to accomplish organizational objectives and goals. It also makes the work more challenging and interesting, which motivates and encourages the workers for the highest level of productivity and performance as well. Job design helps to maintain a harmonious relationship between employer and employee. It improves quality of work life and increases productivity through efficient and effective work performance (Wood, Van Veldhoven, Croon, and de Menezes, 2012).

Goal setting is an important concept in work as well as personal lives. It helps to accomplish the long-term mission and vision of the firm. Clear and set goals provide ability to focus on the organizational priorities. It also reflects people desires and intentions in the organization.  By having concrete and clear goals help to make effective and dynamic decisions in an organization. It also provides good opportunities to attain success and targets in the firm. The organization cannot meet its long-term vision without setting and concrete of goals. SMART principles are used by the company to increase and enhance revenue and profitability of the firm. Setting goals also promote and enhance planning process of the firm. These set and clear goals motivate employees to use their existing knowledge and experience to attain goals and to acquire the knowledge. Clear and set goals also help to increase and maximize employee worth and value. It also helps to improve and enhance collaboration and cooperation among the employees. Every organization should have written and set goals and objectives that are part of their business plan. In this way, setting goals provide enormous benefits to the organization as well as employees (Bouskila-Yam and Kluger, 2011). 

The importance of goal-setting


Good and favorable working conditions are created by organizations where workers communicate and cooperate openly and positively, where managers and top management expect the best from the labor force and where appreciation and self-respect are given to the employees. The dynamic and favorable working conditions and culture increase and enhance the capability and effectiveness of the organization. Employees and employers have shared roles and responsibilities to develop and build respectful workplaces. Culture and working conditions help to maximize returns and revenue of the firm. It also affects potential and performance of the workers positively (Mone and London, 2014). Along with this, the favorable working environment also enhances and builds trust among the workers in the workplace. It is the primary factor to create a faithful relation between managers and employees. In addition, positive job environment also helps to maintain an open communication in the organization. It also helps to provide job satisfaction and job security to the workers. It also increases and enhances motivation level of the employees. Moreover, it makes easy recruitment and selection process and helps to attract and retain the workforce in the organization. The firm should also reduce and eliminate the lighting and heating issues in the firm. Furthermore, the managers and top management should regularly check and evaluate the airing, ventilation, heating, and air conditioning system of the firm (Gruman and Saks, 2011).

Motivation is another significant factor which helps to increase and enhance the returns and profitability of the firm. The motivated workers can lead to improve productivity and allow the firm to attain a higher level of outcomes. Motivation can facilitate an employee reaching her/his personal objectives, goals and it can also facilitate the self-development and expansion of the employees. There are several ways through which the firm can increase and enhance the motivation of the workforce. It also helps to increase interpersonal competence and skills of the employees (Lunenburg, 2011). 


In addition, the organization needs to provide rewards and incentives to the employees. Rewards can be given by the firm for several purposes. Effective and dynamic reward systems help an organization be more competitive and retain the workforce. It also helps to reduce high employee turnover and absenteeism. The firm can create a strong and dynamic image in the competitive market. It also helps to protect interest and rights of the shareholders. The organization should provide extrinsic rewards, monetary rewards, and nontraditional rewards. It will help to make happy and cheerful to the employees (Shields, Brown, Kaine, Dolle-Samuel, North-Samardzic, McLean, Johns, O'Leary, Robinson and Plimmer, 2015).

Favorable working conditions

There are several theories of organizational behavior that can be applied in an organizational setting which have been discussed below.

Decision-making approach: The decision-making approach focuses on the significance of decision making. It monitors that how rational individuals should behave under uncertainty and risk. By using decision-making theory, the firm has been able to make effective and dynamic decisions and to handle the challenges and risks in the competitive market (Tzeng and Huang, 2011). 

System approach: This theory can also be applied in the organization to conduct the business activities and operations successfully and effectively. It is the interdisciplinary study of systems. A system can be open or closed, but most theories treat an organization as an open system. An open system interconnects with its environment by way of outputs, inputs, and throughputs (Nicolini, 2012).   


Scientific leadership theory: This theory is used by the firm to run the business activities powerfully. The leaders assign tasks and duties to workers in order to attain desired goals and targets. The firm sets standards and norms for the employees to do work effectively and efficiently (Miner, 2015). 

Various problems and issues are faced by the managers in the organization while conducting activities and operations globally. Change management is the major concern in an organization that affects the long-term growth and progress of the firm. Mostly, employees do not want the changes in the organization and they resist these changes. Therefore, various barriers are faced by the firm. Along with this, cross-cultural issues are also handled by the organization. The employees are not able to know and understand the culture of other countries. Thus, the firm needs to provide cross-cultural training to the workers (Elnaga and Imran, 2013). In addition, the employees are not able to maintain a good and effective relationship with customers as well as suppliers. Moreover, top management and managers discriminate people on the basis of caste and religion. The firm uses several managerial interventions such as seek pattern, convene, direct and change work process. These managerial interventions help to maintain a favorable working environment in the firm and it also helps to reduce mental stress of the workers (Northouse, 2015).

The working conditions, job design, rewards, motivation and setting goals have a direct impact on the processes across the organization. If the firm provides favorable working conditions, motivation and rewards to the workers then managers can maintain an effective and dynamic relationship with employees. The managers can easily carry trading activities and operation effectively. Apart from this, the managers can reduce and eliminate change management issues and hurdles within the organization. It also helps to prevent absenteeism and high employee turnover in an organization. Additionally, managers can enhance and maximize the efficiency and outputs of the firm by motivating and encouraging employees (Kinicki and Kreitner, 2012).

Motivation and its role in productive performance

In today’s era, organizational behavior faces several challenges and risks due to immense competition in the global market. Therefore, the firm needs to focus on enormous elements to motivate and encourage workers in the workplace. Apart from above-mentioned factors (goal setting, job design, working condition, rewards, and motivation), performance management system and good wages also play a significant role to develop the organization effectively and efficiently. Additionally, job security also helps an integral role to develop and build in organizational behavior. It also helps minimize absenteeism in an organization (Tooksoon, 2011).  

Conclusion and recommendation 

On the above-mentioned study, it is evaluated that job design, working conditions, rewards, motivation and setting goals help to accomplish the mission and vision of the association. These factors play an integral role to motivate and encourage the effectiveness of the subordinates in the organization. In addition, these factors also help to maximize the profitability and returns of the firm.

Now it is recommended that the managers should build and develop a reciprocal relationship with employees. They should resolve and handle the grievances and complaints of the workers. Additionally, managers must know and focus basic amenities of the employees. They should provide training and development coaching to the workers. In addition, they must focus on the strategies, policies, and plans of the competitors 

References 

Bouskila-Yam, O. and Kluger, A.N., 2011. Strength-based performance appraisal and goal setting. Human Resource Management Review, 21(2), pp.137-147.

Elnaga, A. and Imran, A., 2013. The effect of training on employee performance. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(4), pp.137-147.

Gruman, J.A. and Saks, A.M., 2011. Performance management and employee engagement. Human Resource Management Review, 21(2), pp.123-136.

Kinicki, A. and Kreitner, R., 2012. Organizational behavior: Key concepts, skills & best practices. McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Lunenburg, F.C., 2011. Self-efficacy in the workplace: implications for motivation and performance. International journal of management, business, and administration, 14(1), pp.1-6.

Miner, J.B., 2015. Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.

Mone, E.M. and London, M., 2014. Employee engagement through effective performance management: A practical guide for managers. Routledge.

Nicolini, D., 2012. Practice theory, work, and organization: An introduction. Oxford university press.

Northouse, P.G., 2015. Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage publications.

Shields, J., Brown, M., Kaine, S., Dolle-Samuel, C., North-Samardzic, A., McLean, P., Johns, R., O'Leary, P., Robinson, J. and Plimmer, G., 2015. Managing Employee Performance & Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies. Cambridge University Press.

Tooksoon, H.M.P., 2011. Conceptual framework on the relationship between human resource management practices, job satisfaction, and turnover. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 2(2), pp.41-49.

Tzeng, G.H. and Huang, J.J., 2011. Multiple attribute decision making: methods and applications. CRC press.

Wood, S., Van Veldhoven, M., Croon, M. and de Menezes, L.M., 2012. Enriched job design, high involvement management and organizational performance: The mediating roles of job satisfaction and well-being. Human relations, 65(4), pp.419-445.

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