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Write a report in which you identify a contemporary issue in healthcare management. For your chosen issue, outline the main aspects of interest to those working in healthcare management. Critically evaluate what might constitute best practice in addressing the issue you have described.

Nature and Scope of Healthcare Management and Policy

Nature and scope of healthcare management are one of the key contemporary issues in the healthcare policy management and practice, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), health policy refers to the plans, decisions, and actions which are put in place to obtain the specific health care objective, goals in a given society. The plans and decisions in the healthcare can either be global or decided upon by the health organizations or by specific nations. All the health policies must always be related to the global policies set by the World Health Organizations ( WHO) (Hoffman and Ventresca 2002).Well-Organized health policy can achieve its laid objectives within a given the given time frame. The following are some of the functions of the health policy in any organization. First, it defines the plans which are used to establish the targets for both the short and the long-term of an organization. In addition to this, the health policy also outlines the given roles in priorities of the individual organizations or groups and also to build the agreement on these roles by giving proper and affordable healthcare to people.

An example of Healthcare policy is Evidence-Informed policy Network (EVipnet), this is a network policy which was established by the global health organization (WHO) in promoting research to strengthen the health department to get the designed results within the program, services and on drugs to give good service to the needy. The current global research by the World Health Organization shows that the health sector is still faced with the contemporary issues which needed to be addressed to provide good service to people. Some of these are emerging issues ranging from the conditions of working stations to the drugs itself; every nation is working so hard to come up with the solutions to these challenges in collaboration with the World Health Organizations and other international organizations such as the UNICEF, CDC (Center for Disease Control) among others.

This is a section in the health sector which is concerned with the delivery cost of the individual and population's healthcare and quality of the service offered. The sector is also concerned with the legal and ethical issues within the healthcare as well as policy design and processes which can be used to improve the healthcare for the quality delivery to people. The following are some of the health policies and management in the health sectors.

Health economics is a very important part of the policies and management in the healthcare; this section deals mostly with the health care system and the way the payments are made around the global setting. The economic challenges of the healthcare can be categorized in some groups which include the government, health insurance mitigations, and the individuals. In addition to these, the sector also deals with economic principles such as health services finances, cost payment policy and containment of the provider (McKee, Ferlie and Hyde 2008). The general demand for the health care services and financing forms part of the benefits of the health goals. Reasons behind the increase in cost if health care and their access to general insurance to the policy care Act is one of the benefits of the health economics.

Functions of Health Policy in Organizations

For every healthcare setting legal and ethical issue is key to its functionality; this, therefore, helps in maintaining the ethical considerations in the health policies and interventions which include intellectual property, benefits from which one is entitled and finally the confidence of the patient in the healthcare sector and their providers. Public health law and ethics also provide for information on health care institution's operation and the legal doctrines which have been formulated.

Nature and scope of healthcare management

Contemporary health care issues refer to present or current issues in the health sector and give the divergence in the human opinion. The issues can either have negative or positive influence depending on how the community receives and perceives the information. Some of these contemporary issues include hospital standard care, elderly care and funding from the government in some issues which forms the basic part of the contemporary issues (Health 2002).Contemporary issues may also be health and social issues which have various factors that influence both the public and the human opinion s on such matters. Below are some of the issues which can either be environmental or psychological. This document talks about the current and emerging issues in the entire healthcare sector and policy and management skills that can be applied to solve the problems. Most of the contemporary issues are general but varies from one nation to the other.

There are some contemporary issues still debated upon that are found in the healthcare sector. The issues range from to another and have impacts on both the personal health and public opinion on the access to the medical care. There are a number of the issues that affect both the private and public sectors in the healthcare system. Some of these issues have historical injustices, unlike others that are caused either due to the changes brought about by world economy or environmental changes due to the global warming (Gabbay and May 2004). The health department is one of the most delicate section in the whole world since every human being in need of good, efficient and quality healthcare for the survival, so does each nation is supposed to invest much on the health sector to solve some of the challenges that are brought about by the contemporary issues. The following are some of the contemporary issues that should be looked into for us to realize the good health care (Fawcett, Featherstone and Goddard 2004). The following represents a few of them but the number is great ranging from one nation to the other. All the health policies on the contemporary issues must always be related to the global policies set BT the World Health Organizations. All these issues can be solved if the laid down policy on health care is well followed and attended to within a specified period. Most of these contemporary issues have either positive or negative influence in the healthcare sector; some have brought about the health inequality between the rich and poor of a given nation.

Emerging Issues in the Health Sector

Antitrust enforcement

Federal and state policies which safeguard the enforcement of antitrust are regarded as weak and have not been enforced in the healthcare sector. Therefore both hospitals and healthcare networks can negotiate either higher than the required competitive rate because of the market power they possess. This gives rise to much consumer prices than access to the medical care in the hospital consolidation (Wikström and Dellve 2009). For example, if there will be a consolidation of hospitals in the market if providers, then the health care Costs is likely to increase by twenty percent. As hospitals will acquire the physicians, then there is the likelihood that the price will increase since they will have the deal with feeders if Laxer Contractual team. These prices increase always determined by the health consumer by higher insurance premiums paid.

Cost of the healthcare policy

The debate whether the federal or the state governments should control health care policies is still going on, some of which have agreed that the states should come with their policies but others feel that the federal government should come up with policies that govern from top to bottom of the state governments. This explanation is well illustrated within the content of the paper using health care exchange network methodology (Gilson, 2013). Most of the States have developed there health policies which are affordable care Act exchange while others have decided to form a partnership model with some of the federal nations which are termed as the federally facilitated marketplace. In summery state-controlled exchanges tend to control the greater number of people compared to that of federally controlled policies.

Deductibles

The debate on the evils of higher deductible plans and expensive market costs is still on by the health policymakers. The deductibles and out-of-market costs have been promoted by the Healthcare policymakers who still promote choice and free-market opinions (Bandura 2016). On the other hand, the liberal nations/ policy health makers have failed to support the opposite policies rather ending up passing the ACCA which has created the marketplace plans which has come up with higher deductibles. Higher deductibles are associated with things including health savings accounts which provide options for flexibility and tax savings. Debating on middle ground policies that protect individuals with limited income is still on with the healthcare policies. Finally, this will deal with the problem of high deductibles.

Shared Concerns

Both political parties and concern organizations are more concern with the health care issues and reforms for example in the United States of America both the Democrats and the Republicans have separate manifestos in healthcare policies, and it always mitigated during the campaign period. Most of the healthcare policymakers look into the limitations against age discrimination, insurers and lifetime discriminations (Stefl and Bontempo 2008). Some of the policymakers supported the ACA because their most interest is to provide more health insurance and also to make healthcare to many people. One of the core issues that has bit been looked into us who is required for the consideration and if any then who should be covered for contraception. The Supreme Court gave a ruling in the United States of America (Burwell 2000) if a health plan to be offered by for-profit cooperation will not be needed to cover the whole of it; the issue of the shared concerns is still hotly debated upon by the world leaders.

Health Economics and Challenges

Equal payments

One of the contemporary issues about the health care plan and policy is the equal payments; this issue has brought some debates and arguments. There are still arguments among the policymakers whether the hospitals should be given more pay than the individual physicians who provide identical services within the hospital (Walshe and Rundall 2001).From the research and conferences, it is the records that Ambulatory Surgery Centers (ASCs) are always paid by half of what the hospitals are paid for the same job that is done within the code procedure. Almost all the hospital's leaders argue that they should get extra payment because the services they offer such as trauma and other specialized care (Shortell and Kaluzny 2000).On the other hand, the physicians argue that these high payments are not necessary since they have no benefits to the hospitals, under the powers of the consolidated hospitals, this body can decide to force consumers to pay more for any emergency services which they will not be able to control

Another important contemporary issue is whether an individual from the federal exchange can also receive subsidies. This is because the state government are currently doing the subsidies and also buying healthcare insurance to both the federal and state exchanges but ACA legislation does not allow this to take place in the federal exchange (Fairman, Rowe, Hassmiller and Shalala 2011).A good  example of Healthcare policy is Evidence-Informed policy Network (EVipnet),this is a network policy which was established by the global health organization (WHO) in promoting research in order to strengthen the health department to get the designed results within the program, services and on drugs to give good service to the needy (Rothschild 2009). The current global research by the World Health Organization shows that the health sector is still faced with the contemporary issues which needed to be addressed to provide good service to people. It is upon every nation to work so hard to come up with the solutions to these challenges in collaboration with the World Health Organizations and other international organizations such as the UNICEF, CDC (Center for Disease Control) among others (Kennedy, Rogers and Bower 2007). All these contemporary issues should be properly addressed for the world to realize the quality and affordable health care among the nations.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it is very important to take up issues of contemporary issues with a lot of interest if we are to realize affordable health care which is globally accepted. Contemporary health care issues are present or current issues in the health sector and give the divergence in the human opinion (Abdelhak, Grostick and Hanken 2014). The issues can either have negative or positive influence depending on how the community receives and perceives the information. Some of these contemporary issues include hospital standard care, elderly care and funding from the government in some issues which forms the basic part of the contemporary issues (Health 2002).Contemporary issues may also be health and social issues which have various factors that influence both the public and the human opinion s on such matters. Below are some of the issues which can either be environmental or psychological.

Legal and Ethical Issues in Health Care

This document talks about the current and emerging issues in the entire healthcare sector and policy and management skills that can be applied to solve the problems. Most of the contemporary issues are general but varies from one nation to the other. There are some contemporary issues still debated upon that are found in the healthcare sector. The issues range from to another and have impacts on both the personal health and public opinion on the access to the medical care (Currie and Guah 2007). There are a number of the issues that affect both the private and public sectors in the healthcare system. Some of these issues have historical injustices, unlike others that are caused either due to the changes brought about by world economy or environmental changes due to the global warming. The health department is one of the most delicate section in the whole world since every human being in need of good, efficient and quality healthcare for the survival, so does each nation is supposed to invest much on the health sector to solve some of the challenges that are brought about by the contemporary issues. 

The following are some of the contemporary issues that should be looked into for us to realize the good health care. The following represents a few of them but the number is great ranging from one nation to the other. All the health policies on the contemporary issues must always be related to the global policies set BT the World Health Organizations. All these issues can be solved if the laid down policy on health care is well followed and attended to within a specified period (Loo 2002). Most of these contemporary issues have either positive or negative influence in the healthcare sector; some have brought about the health inequality between the rich and poor of a given nation. Some of the international laws should be passed to facilitate the funding of the health sector and also to boost the funding through the World Health Organizations and other international organizations which support the health sector at large.

Options available on the healthcare management

Healthcare cover is a very important policy in the medical sector since every individual needs medical cover.This is due to the difference in the earning power of the individuals. For this reasons, some options are Left to be looked into to solve the problem of the health globally. Solutions to the healthcare are never the same; they may be designed by different nations and medical institutions depending on the nature and the urgency on the health sector (Mitchell and Shortell 2000). The following are some of the options left for the healthcare policy to individual nations. Most of the options might not be accepted by everyone since the give the difference that exists between the rich and the poor.The following are some of the examples of the healthcare solutions.

  1. a) By ensuring that the health insurance is made personal and portable

Debates in Healthcare Policy: Federal vs. State Control

  There is need to fix our healthcare system instead of leaving it in the hands of the few individuals who can afford. Personal insurance healthcare may be strengthened through a monthly contribution from the few who are employed but the unemployed the respective governments should make a law that helps in paying for them (Rafiq and Ahmed 2013). The benefits of personal healthcare are that one can access medical healthcare at any time so long as the cards are produced at the hospitals during the services again this will solve the problem of deductibles.

  1. b) There should be an increase in the completion and break up in the insurance Thiswill be able to solve the issue that is brought about by the concern issues. The consumers will be able to access healthcare services at a lower rate as compared to if there was no competition
  2. c) There should be the empowermentof non-physician medical professionals. The issue of having all the medical professional as the service provides should always be avoided. Another medical professionalshould also be allowed to offer services within the healthcare. The problem of the payments of individuals and hospitals will be solved through this method.
  3. d) The seniors in the medical field should be left to make their deals as opposed the issues where all decisions and laws are lefttohealth care policymakers. Sometimes the policymakers come up with the laws which will favor them best as opposed to other medical practitioners. Finally, the States empowerment with Medicaid should be encouraged among the member states. Use of health care is very important for the noble For every healthcare setting legal and ethical issues is key to its functionality; this, therefore, helps in maintaining the ethical considerations in the health policies and interventions which include intellectual property, benefits from which one is entitled and finally the confidence of the patient in the healthcare sector and their providers (Herman 2001). Public health law and ethics also provide for information on health care institution's operation and the legal doctrines which have been formulated. Finally, research on health care policy management should always be encouraged among the nations. Financial support is one of the key issues which should be looked into for the support of healthcare research (Ginter 2018). One of the best examples of Healthcare policy is Evidence-Informed policy Network (EVipnet), this is a network policy which was established by the global health organization (WHO) in promoting research in order to strengthen the health department to get the designed results within the program, services and on drugs to give good service to the needy.

References

Abdelhak, M., Grostick, S. and Hanken, M.A., 2014. Health Information-E-Book: Management of a Strategic Resource. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Antrobus, S. and Kitson, A., 2009. Nursing leadership: influencing and shaping health policy and nursing practice. Journal of advanced nursing, 29(3), pp.746-753.

Bandura, A., 2016. The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of social and clinical psychology, 4(3), pp.359-373.

Currie, W.L. and Guah, M.W., 2007. Conflicting institutional logics: a national programme for IT in the organisational field of healthcare. Journal of Information Technology, 22(3), pp.235-247.

Dubois, C.A. and Singh, D., 2009. From staff-mix to skill-mix and beyond: towards a systemic approach to health workforce management. Human Resources for Health, 7(1), p.87.

Fairman, J.A., Rowe, J.W., Hassmiller, S. and Shalala, D.E., 2011. Broadening the scope of nursing practice. New England Journal of Medicine, 364(3), pp.193-196.

Fawcett, B., Featherstone, B. and Goddard, J., 2004. Contemporary issues and policy and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.

Gabbay, J. and le May, A., 2004. Evidence based guidelines or collectively constructed “mindlines?” Ethnographic study of knowledge management in primary care. Bmj, 329(7473), p.1013.

Gilson, L., 2013. Trust and the development of health care as a social institution. Social science & medicine, 56(7), pp.1453-1468.

Ginter, P.M., 2018. The strategic management of health care organizations. John Wiley & Sons.

Herman, B., 2001. The scope of moral requirement. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 30(3), pp.227-256.

Hoffman, A.J. and Ventresca, M.J., 2002. Organizations, policy and the natural environment: Institutional and strategic perspectives. Stanford University Press.

Kennedy, A., Rogers, A. and Bower, P., 2007. Support for self-care for patients with chronic disease. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 335(7627), p.968.

Leatherman, S., Metcalfe, M., Geissler, K. and Dunford, C., 2011. Integrating microfinance and health strategies: examining the evidence to inform policy and practice. Health policy and planning, 27(2), pp.85-101.

Leatherman, S., Metcalfe, M., Geissler, K. and Dunford, C., 2011. Integrating microfinance and health strategies: examining the evidence to inform policy and practice. Health policy and planning, 27(2), pp.85-101.

Loo, R., 2002. The Delphi method: a powerful tool for strategic management. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 25(4), pp.762-769.

McKee, L., Ferlie, E. and Hyde, P. eds., 2008. Organizing and reorganizing: Power and change in healthcare organizations. Springer.

Mitchell, S.M., and Shortell, S.M., 2000. The governance and management of effective community health partnerships: a typology for research, policy, and practice. The Milbank Quarterly, 78(2), pp.241-289.

Rafiq, M. and Ahmed, P.K., 2013. The scope of internal marketing: defining the boundary between marketing and human resource management. Journal of Marketing Management, 9(3), pp.219-232.

Rothschild, M.L., 2009. Carrots, sticks, and promises: A conceptual framework for the management of public health and social issue behaviors. The Journal of Marketing, pp.24-37.

Shortell, S.M. and Kaluzny, A.D., 2000. Health care management: organization, design, and behavior. Cengage Learning.

Stefl, M.E. and Bontempo, C.A., 2008. Common competencies for all healthcare managers: The healthcare leadership alliance model. Journal of healthcare management, 53(6), p.360.

Walshe, K. and Rundall, T.G., 2001. Evidence?based management: from theory to practice in health care. The Milbank Quarterly, 79(3), pp.429-457.

Wikström, E. and Dellve, L., 2009. Contemporary leadership in healthcare organizations: fragmented or concurrent leadership. Journal of health organization and management, 23(4), pp.411-428.

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