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Role of management in Health care and social care

Discuss about the Modern Management Theories and Practices.

This report outlines the role of the management and leadership in the social and health care. Both the terms are similar in some aspects and both the  concepts are very important for the performance of the organization. The managementand the leadership are the most widely used concept for the delivery of the social and healthcare services.  The main motive of these concepts is to influence the people and manage the people to achieve the goals of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to reflect the role played by the management and leadership  in the social care and delivery of the health services and also portrays the different theories and models associated with these concepts. However, there are many traits and theories are associated with the process of the leadership and the most common attributes or traits used by the leaders  are determination, intelligence, self confidence, charisma and integrity. Therefore, the leadership and management have a great impact on the organizational performance (WHO, 2010).

Both the concepts are same in some aspects and different in the case of skills, duties and the behaviors. Both the concepts complement each other. It is the fact that a good managers are  good leaders and to become good leaders, a person must have the managerial skills.

Management ensures that the all the available resources in the organization are properly utilized or not and apply all the managerial skills and management strategies to achieve the optimum results. A good manager can be a leader to achieve the best output. Therefore, all day to day activities are managed well by the managers in order to produce the desired results. The main attributes that a manager should have are as follows:

  • Perfect organizational skills
  • Have the Clarity of the tasks and mission of the organization
  • Must have the skills to Delegate the authority
  • Must be able to communicate about the expected outcomes and tasks in an effective way.
  • Negotiation of the regulatory processes (Dodson, 2017).

Leadership is the quality that a person has to influence others and motivate them to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. A leader sets a vision what they can achieve and builds strategies, how to achieve and also communicate this with the others to reach the goals. Coming to the attributes that a good leader must have are:

  • Creative in nature
  • Flexible
  • Ability to motivate and influence other people
  • Charismatic personality
  • Skills of solving the problems and offering a positive environment for their followers.

In this report the role of the management and specific functions carried out by the health and social care is going to be discussed. The main role of the management is to build and implement the strategies and controlling the financial resources by properly utilizing the available resources (Hin?ea, et al., 2009). There are many roles and responsibilities that need to be managed by the managers which involves the following roles :

  • Delivery of the health and social care services
  • Proper utilization of the resources that are available in the organization and these resources are the staff, budgets, infrastructure and other information.
  • Managing people, including the patients, staff nurses, partners and other people for the delivery of the quality services.

Management theories

However, management in health and social care is the act of planning, organizing, controlling, delegation of the authorities, monitoring and evaluation of the plans and the implementation of the plans. The management in the health care delegates the various tasks to the employees and  train and support them in order to achieve the expected outcomes.  Management in the health care departments and social care, organized meetings with the employees. The main purpose of these type meetings is to communicate about the proper messages to the staff about the expectations of the company with them. Moreover, what is to be achieved and how it is to be achieved is also the main part of the meetings in the healthcare (Wick, 2012).

Furthermore, a major task in the management is to review the important information and available data with regard to the delivery of services in health and social care. The review of the information and data is to be used to take the best decisions with regard to the improvement and modifications of the services. Financial management is the most important part as to make the best use of the available funds in order to produce the best possible results for the patients and staff.  

There are many theories given by the different authors like Taylor, Maslow and Elton Mayo and they share the different aspects in relation to managing the activities in the organizations with the proper utilization of the resources. In this report three main theories are explained in context to the social and health care services (Bartlett, 2010).

This theory was introduced by the famous Frederick Taylor, who  was an American inventor.  All the Scientific as well as the engineering knowledge has been applied by the Taylor for the development of this theory. This theory is applicable in the health and social care as it involves the following principles.

  1. In the health care sector, the information and data related to staff, patients are collected, analyze and convert into the mathematical form to complete the tasks.
  2. Selection and training of the staff  members can make use of the scientific approaches in order to improve the efficiency of the health and social organization.
  3. This theory is used or applied when both the science and workers come together in the health and social care organizations to perform simple tasks.
  4. Application of the scientific techniques by the management in order to divide the work equally between the workers and managers and to check the tasks performed by them are according to the plans or not (College, 2014).

This theory is based on the building of the human relations by the introduction of the fundamental concepts of the management. According to this theory, the human relations are the best way to achieve the desired goals of the organizations. In the case of health and social care, relations with the supervisor and relations with the patients are playing the effective role to improve the performance of the organization as well as to achieve the expected results (NMIMS, 2012).

Most of the health and social care organizations are linked with the national health system of the district. However, all the activities in the health care sector are performed with the permission of the district, which includes the procurement of drugs, human resource management activities, technical support and infrastructure support. Therefore, in the healthcare sector,  all the managers must have the good level of communication and the ensure the optimal supervision. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the district managers to communicate about the new policies and the tools of the management to the local facility managers for the purpose of the compliance. However, the relationship between the district managers and local managers is the key to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the health systems (Olum, 2004).

Elton Mayo Theory

According to the Elton Mayo theory, the building of the human relations is the most important factors as the organizations have the main purpose is to gain the competitive advantage via client satisfaction and similarly in the health system, the patient satisfaction is the main motive of the management teams. This is the reason that all the staff members like nurses, doctors need proper training to understand the rights and the needs of the patients.

According to the Maslow theory of the management, it is very important to understand the needs of the people in order to manage all the actions accordingly. Therefore, in the health and social care services, it is very important to understand the basic, physical and psychological needs of the patients. The management team in the health and social care system can take the better decisions regarding the treatment options, behavior and their level of satisfaction to improve the status of the health (Groth, 2013).

Therefore, all the management theories help the staff members understand the following roles such as:

  • Avoid participating in the risky and negative behavior
  • To know healthy lifestyle
  • Always ready to face the problems
  • Motivation for the patients and make them happy with the positive working environment

Leadership is a very significant part of human personality. The main function of the leader is to communicate with the other personalities and motivates them to improve their efficiencies. Providing directions to the team is the main task of the good leaders and these directions of the leader helps the team to achieve the future goals and objectives. Leadership is the quality that a person has to   influence others and motivate them to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. A leader sets a vision what they can achieve and builds strategies, how to achieve and also communicate this with the others to reach the goals. The good leaders always make strategies to achieve the goals and manage the good relations with the people. As a leader, it is very important to think out of the box and always choose the best option among the number of the alternatives to make the right decisions. Being a leader, it is very important to have some qualities in the personality to lead and inspire others (Lawrence & Steck, 1991).

As in the above management theories, it has been analyzed that the more emphasis is given to the employees and their needs as well as to provide them the informal environment. For all these activities, an organization needs a good leader and communication approaches to understand the needs of the employees for the improvement of the performance of the employees. Talking about the leadership styles first, then there are many styles adopted by the leaders to control the organizational activities and these styles are directive, participative, transformational and autocratic, etc.

Maslow Theory

In the context to the health and social care, it is very important that the leaders understand the nature of the organization and work accordingly with the coordination of nurses, administrators, physicians and other members of the organizations. It is analyzed that for the smooth working of the health and social organizations, there should be a proper and effective leadership. According to the point of view of the Bass, leadership is defined as the interaction and relationship between the two people where one person can follow the other for the successful achievement of the desired goals. There are many healthcare and social organizations who are spending the large amount of money on the infrastructure of the health care system to provide the quality services and social services to the people of the country. It has been observed that the overall performance of the organization is largely affected by the behavior of the leaders with its followers. The negative role of the leaders in the health and social care organizations leads to the downfall of the organization (Sharma & Jain, 2013). There are various leadership theories are available, out of which the Transformational and Transactional theories gained the popularity in the field of the health and social care organizations and these are going to be explained as below:

This leadership theory is very popular in the health care organizations because this theory is based on leading followers by the way of the management position in the hierarchy of the organization. Moreover, this is also based on the motivational theory concepts as it involves the exchange of the rewards and targets between the managers and the employees.

This theory basically identifies the needs of the followers and then try to motivate them thorough the reward systems. In the health and social care organizations,  it is also applicable because it involves the giving attention to the health of the local population to achieve the goals of the organization. As per the point of view of the Bass in the year 2006, this transactional theory is helpful in the health and social care organization to main the equilibrium level by performing their roles and the enhancing the employees performance by offering them the attractive incentives and rewards. Therefore, the leaders set up the goals, use the directive leadership style to guide the  employees and offer them rewards to motivate them so that they can perform better towards the achievement of the organizational goals (Bolden, et al., 2003).

Role of the leadership theory in Health and social care

This leadership theory focuses on the needs of the employees and the development of the employee that may help to transform the organizational performances. This theory is very useful for the healthcare organizations, because it transforms the performance of the employees in order to achieve the goals of the health and social care organizations. Transformational leadership is defined by the Burnes as a process where one person can engage the other person in such a way that to influence that person for the better performance. According to this theory, leadership motivates the staff members by understanding their needs and making them aware about the organizational expectations from them and about the mission of the company. This theory is considered to be more beneficial in comparison to the transactional as it involves the overall transformation of the employees without any rewards. This leadership style also promote the creativity among the followers as they come up with the new ideas in the organization. Moreover, this theory is beneficial in the improving the healthcare services and raise the standards of care and treatment which is good for the healthcare organizations (Team, 2015). There are six leadership processes involves in the transformation leadership and these are as follows:

  1. Development of the vision
  2. Communication and inspire others
  3. Importance to the values
  4. Facing challenges
  5. Development of the trust
  6. Enabling

Management ensures that the all the available resources in the organization are properly utilized or not and apply all the managerial skills and management strategies to achieve the optimum results. A good manager can be a leader to achieve the best output. Therefore, all day to day activities are managed well by the managers in order to produce the desired results.

Taylor’s Theory: Frederick Taylor was an American inventor who gave the theory of the scientific management. The Taylor applied all his scientific knowledge as well as engineering knowledge to the management in order to develop this theory. According to this theory, the engineering and scientific principles can be applied in the system to avoid the waste and to improve the production methods and fair distribution of the goods. Taylor’s theory of the scientific management is applied in all the manufacturing firms as the principles of the theory are helpful in production planning, quality control, design and distribution of the goods, etc. 

Maslow Theory: Maslow’s theory is very useful from the management perspective as it is a motivational theory that describes the hierarchy of the five different needs of the human beings. According to the view of the Maslow, the best way to motivate the employees is to understand their needs and fulfill them. The theory given Maslow revealed the hierarchy of needs which includes – physiological, safety, psychological needs, self esteem and self actualization needs. All these are related to the basic needs, luxurious needs, mental or psychological needs of the human beings. Every employee in the organization always expects appreciation and money for their work (Ololube, 2015).

Elton Mayo Theory: This theory is based on the building of the human relations by the introduction of the fundamental concepts of the management. According to this theory, the human relations are the best way to achieve the desired goals of the organizations. In the case of health and social care, relations with the supervisor and relations with the patients are playing the effective role to improve the performance of the organization as well as to achieve the expected results.

In the management theories, it has been analyzed that the more emphasis is given to the employees and their needs as well as to provide them the informal environment. For all these activities, an organization needs a good leader and communication approaches to understand the needs of the employees for the improvement of the performance of the employees.  Talking about the leadership styles first, then there are many styles adopted by the leaders to control the organizational activities and these styles are directive, participative, transformational and autocratic, etc. In the context to the health and social care, it is very important that the leaders understand the nature of the organization and work accordingly with the coordination of nurses, administrators, physicians and other members of the organizations. It is analyzed that for the smooth working of the health and social organizations, there should be a proper and effective leadership (University, 2014).

Talking about the leadership styles first, then there are many styles adopted by the leaders to control the organizational activities and these styles are explained as follows:

Autocratic: According to this style, a leader put more emphasis on the performance of the organization and a low emphasis on people. In this case, the manager involvement is more and he holds the discretionary power in their hands. These leaders took the decisions on their own and do not take the advice of the employees.

Laissez- faire: This style is totally opposite of the Autocratic style as this style gives more importance to the employees rather than the overall performance of the company. This leadership style focused more on to hire those employees who are highly experienced and trained in their field and they do not require any supervision.

  1. Transactional: this leadership style is based on the motivational theory concepts as it involves the exchange of the rewards and targets between the managers and the employees.
  2. Participative: This is the democratic style of the leadership as the company gave the importance to the employee’s work and their suggestions. The employees feel motivated when their participation is considered as the important part of the decision making process.
  3. Transformational: This leadership style focuses on the needs of the employees and the development of the employee that may help to transform the organizational performances (Nanjundeswaraswamy, 2014).

In short the, leadership and management are the most important part of each organization as it is the key to success of the health as well as social care organizations. In the above, the role played by the leaders and managers has been discussed and it is clear from the above analysis that the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organizations is not possible without the leadership and management activities. A good manager and leader must have all the abilities and skills to solve the problems in organizations and have the required skills to influence the other employees in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives.

Conclusion

This report outlines the role of the management and leadership in the social and health care. Both the terms are similar in some aspects and both the concepts are very important for the performance of the organization. The management and the leadership are the most widely used concept for the delivery of the social and healthcare services. The main motive of these concepts is to influence the people and manage the people to achieve the goals of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to reflect the role played by the management and leadership  in the social care and delivery of the health services and also portrays the different theories and models associated with these concepts. However, there are many traits and theories are associated with the process of the leadership and the most common attributes or traits used by the leaders  are determination, intelligence, self confidence, charisma and integrity. Therefore, the leadership and management have a great impact on the organizational performance. At the end, this report is concluded that the employees are the most precious thing in the organization and it is very important to understand their needs. The communication and leadership are the most important concepts that are helpful to improve the performance of the employees in order to achieve the objectives of the organization. In the above report, all the management theories and the communication and leadership approaches are analyzed in order to understand the application of these approaches in the real life.

References

Bartlett, J., 2010. Theories of leadership and management, Available at: https://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763749761/49761_PT01_Clark.pdf

Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A. & Dennison, P., 2003. A review of leadership theory and competency frameworks, Available at: https://www2.fcsh.unl.pt/docentes/luisrodrigues/textos/Lideran%C3%A7a.pdf

College, C., 2014. General Theories of Management, Available at: https://www.colbournecollege.com/files/BA_103_Lesson_FOUR.pdf

Dodson, D., 2017. What’s the Best Leadership Style for Healthcare?, Available at: https://nchica.org/whats-the-best-leadership-style-for-healthcare/

Groth, L., 2013. Overview of theories on organization and management, Available at: https://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/ifi/INF5890/v13/material-to-download/lecture-presentations/Feb_6_organization-and-management-theories/overview-of-theories-on-organizations-and-management-inf5890-v2013.pdf

Hin?ea, C., Mora, C. & ?iclau, T., 2009. Leadership and management in the health care system, Available at: https://www.apubb.ro/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/LEADERSHIP-AND-MANAGEMENT-IN-THE-HEALTH.pdf

Lawrence, J. & Steck, E., 1991. Overview of management theory, Available at: https://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a235762.pdf

Nanjundeswaraswamy, T., 2014. Leadership styles. Advances In Management, 7(2), pp. 1-7.

NMIMS, 2012. Management theory and practice, Available at: https://distance.nmims.edu/uploads/docs/samples/management-theory-and-practice-eBook.pdf

Ololube, N., 2015. A Review of Leadership Theories, Principles and Styles and Their Relevance to Educational management. pp. 1-10, Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nwachukwu_Prince_Ololube/publication/283081945_A_Review_of_Leadership_Theories_Principles_and_Styles_and_Their_Relevance_to_Educational_Management/links/56292c3408ae04c2aeaee901/A-Review-of-Leadership-Theories-Principles-and-Styles-and-Their-Relevance-to-Educational-Management.pdf

Olum, Y., 2004. Modern management theories and practices, Available at: https://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/AAPAM/UNPAN025765.pdf

Sharma, M. & Jain, S., 2013. Leadership Management: Principles, Models and Theories. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies., 3(3), pp. 309-318.

Team, F., 2015. Leadership theories, Available at: https://www.free-management-ebooks.com/dldebk-pdf/fme-leadership-theories.pdf

University, P., 2014. Leadership theories and models, Available at: https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/25691/04chapter4.pdf?sequence=5

WHO, 2010. Leadership and management, Available at: https://www.who.int/hiv/pub/imai/om_10_leadership_management.pdf

Wick, E., 2012. Leadership and Management, Available at: https://www.ache.org/pubs/Evashwickchap1.pdf

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