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1. Enter the websites of YTL Corporation Berhad, http://www.ytl.com/ and Berjaya Corporation Berhad, http://www.berjaya.com/. Scan them to determine the key features of each organisation’s business strategy. In what ways are they similar and differ? How does each business strategy shape your expectation of how YTL Corporation Berhad and Berjaya Corporation Berhad’s managers should behave towards other employees, and employees should behave towards customers?

2. Select a particular professional groups, such as CEOs. What leadership competencies do individuals need to display to be effective in the profession?  

1. Case study: Managing Change at Eastern University

Prepare a report addressing the following:

a. Thinking about the situation at Eastern University, how effective are Lisa Chang’s and Peter Webster’s performance in each of Mintzberg’s managerial roles?

b. What recommendations would you make to the university’s senior management? How would this help.

2. You are asked to explore examples of team working by visiting the following website; www.honda.com . What in principles can be identified as ‘good’ job design when applied to work team? Looking at the companies that have introduced teams, what behaviours or ‘norm’ are expected of employees? How does the team-based model impact on other aspects of management such as HRM? Report your findings.

Similarities and Differences in Business Strategies of YTL Corporation Berhad and Berjaya Corporation Berhad

1. The following paper has been prepared to answer four different questions related to different management perspectives including business level strategies, Leadership abilities and many other such different perspectives related to marketing.

YTL Corporation Berhad is an integrated infrastructure developer with its operations based in countries including Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, Japan and many other countries. The company has a number of businesses under its fold that starts from cement manufacturing to construction, e- commerce, investment and many more such related activities. The company is one of the largest operating companies that is listed in the Berhad Malaysia securities. The company has also a secondary listing in the Tokyo Stock exchange of Japan (Kanaane et al. 2015). The main aim of the company is to provide their customers with unmatched products and services to build a reputed customer base. The enhanced services of the organization along with the large number of varied products under its fold assign huge responsibilities to the management.

The channels of distribution refer to the intermediate chain which is passed down to the next level of the product and goes on and on until it reaches the end user or the customers. The operations department of the mentioned organization is involved in supplying the cement to the end user. After the company receives back the profit received from the sales of the product, they invest it in other areas which help them to expand their business. The management of the organization in charge of the manufacturing, marketing and promotion of the different products that the organization produces have to be provide internal as well as external support to provide safe gateways for these products. This will help to keep their products on the market flow and visibility (Goetsch & Davis, 2014).

Modern business organizations are all dependent on the latest innovation and technological advancements that are needed to be implemented in the organizations to attain the best possible results and also to attain a completive edge in the market. YTL Corporation Berhad has installed the latest technologies in its different manufacturing as well as power plants to attain huge customer satisfaction that is beneficial for the sustainability of the organization. The management has also upgraded the entire IT infrastructure in its offices to help the up gradation of the e-commerce business.

The mission of the company is to achieve high returns by investing in high growth and companies that gives preference to new technologies and enhance the value of the following investments (Goetsch & Davis, 2014). The company also aims to utilize all the possible resources that are available with them. The company also has the target to be the provider of smart capital which includes financial as well as knowledge capital. This is done to eliminate all the risks that may hamper the operations of the organization.

Leadership Competencies for CEOs

The key strength of the YTL Corporation is its ability to utilize the limited resources of the organization for a given period of time. This is because the organization has the aims to make themselves one of the best in the business by means of different supplying quality products to all the customers.

A thorough analysis of the company’s organizational abilities will help to determine the drawbacks that the company faces while formulating the organizational structure. The main weakness of the company is divided into different parts of the enterprise development (Van der Voet, 2014). The working schedule of the company is haphazard and does not have a proper structure. The main absence of a work structure puts the employees in risk of working overtime. The absence of different types of organizational initiatives by the management of the company makes them vulnerable to achieve success in the modern market.

Innovation is one of the primary aims of the mentioned organization to make sure that they stay ahead from the other competitors in the market. Reengineering the supply chains, boosting the quality of the products and services, using effective management tools are some of the most useful things that are performed by the management of the company to make sure that they are the best in the business (Lozano, Ceulemans & Seatter, 2015). Over the last few years the company has led dozens of innovative projects and has taken up the challenge to build the high performance innovation engine. Some of the main steps that have been taken as a part of the innovation plans are;

  1. YTL Company is the first company in Malaysia to introduce Turnkey construction
  2. The first independent producer of power in Malaysia
  3. YTL Corporation is the first independent power producer of Asia to use a different currency apart from US dollar to invest in a power plant in Malaysia
  4. The company built its gas powered plant in just 22 months which was a world record as it involved a complex engineering process
  5. The company as mentioned in the following project was the first one to use a non recourse local financing to finance in a high speed rail project
  6. YTL Corporation was the first Malaysian company to issue a Zero coupon Euro bond
  7. The most remarkable achievement of the company was it being the first non Japanese company in Asia to get it registered on the Tokyo Stock Exchange.

The main parts of the innovation engine implemented by the following organization are;

  1. Employees of the organization have been taught to think like innovators-The management of the company have given a free hand to their employees for thinking freely and contribute in the innovation process that can make them feel as being one of the most important part of the organization (Van der Voet, 2014). This in turn will also boost up the innovation properties and help the company to produce the most exciting products.  
  2. Comprehensive metrics of Innovation- The Company measures almost everything that has an impact on the bottom-line but since the last few years the company has a dedicated workforce which measures the rate of innovation.
  3. Accountable and capable innovation leaders-The leaders in the company have specified roles in the organization to make sure that innovation happens on a regular basis. The leaders are assigned with the most key tasks to control the total innovation process and manage the people who are a part of the innovation process within the organization.
  4. Innovation friendly management processes- The friendly management process and the product development process is a boon for the employees as because it helps them to concentrate in their work and develop new skills. The new skills help them to innovate new products that will help them to gain a strategic advantage in the market.

Strategic Planning can be defined as looking ahead and chalking out the future course of actions for the company (Hornstein, 2015). Strategic planning is a systematic activity of the business organization that determines when and how will be a particular task of the organization will be performed. The planning helps the organization to determine the future courses of action. Strategic planning takes into consideration the different resources that are available with the organization and the ways to use them in the best possible way.

The sustainability of the organization depends on the efficiency of the management of the organization and the strategic decisions it takes. The company is committed towards being an ethical and sustainable business house by means of;

  1. Investing in quality sustainable Innovation
  2. Respecting the customers, employees and the partners of the business
  3. Building up a proper network of communication that helps to make the customers very much efficient in nature
  4. The company operates a responsible supply chains and procurement process
  5. Strengthening the responsible stewardship of the different services and products of the organization
  6. Maintaining a proper relationship with all the investors and other people of the organization who are actively involved with the organization.

YTL Corporation has came a long way since its inception in Malaysia and is now one of the largest companies not only in the host country but also in Asia. The large size of the organization has prompted the management to act according to different rules and regulations that makes sure that the organization complies with all the risk management policies (Hornstein, 2015). The company has produced huge results in spite of the challenges that they have faced over the time. The risk management system of YTL Corporation concentrates more on managing the risks that are vulnerable to the organization and on occurrence can threaten their operational performance. The proper update of the different type of risks helps the management to keep a tab on the occurrence of such risks. The risk management team also focuses on the different new risks that occur every now and then. The management of the company ensures that they comply with all the rules and regulations of the market. The following system helps the organization to reduce the business risks that occurs indirectly or directly in the form of reputation and fines respectively.

Case Study: Managing Change at Eastern University

The following organization was established in the year 1984 by Tan Sri Dato. The organization has its business spread all around the world and is one of the leading companies of Malaysia. The large size and the global presence of the company is reflected with the overall employee strength of 14000. The organization diversifies itself by means of;

  1. Food and Beverage.’
  2. Motor trading and distribution.
  3. Investment in clean technologies and environmental services
  4. Information Technology and Telecommunications
  5. Consumer Marketing

The following organization owns and manages different offices located in different large buildings and trade centers of Malaysia including the twin towers. Apart from these there are other buildings where the company operates. These landmark buildings include: 

  • Berjaya Times Square, Kuala Lumpur
  • Wisma Cosway, Kuala Lumpur
  • Berjaya Megamall, Kuantan
  • Plaza Berjay

The mission of the organization is to make sure about producing quality items for the customers.

The property development business of the following company has completed some of the best projects in Malaysia and around the world which includes the likes of Arena Green, Seputah Heights, The Peak, Subang Heights and many more as such (Ashkenas, 2013).

 Berjaya Corporation is generally an investment holding organization that has engaged in the provision of financial services, management and investment, lottery business, retail, hotels and many more such different businesses. The group primarily operates in Malaysia. It is headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and employs about 16,000 people.

The analysis of the strategies of both the companies has revealed that both the companies have been one of the frontrunners of business in Malaysia. However YTL Corporation has a strategy that is quite different to that of Berjaya. The former is focused towards an all round development of the company on the grounds of ethical leadership whereas the latter is more focused on the development of its business mainly in Malaysia.

2. The process of selection for the position of Chief Executive Officer (CEO) depends on various factors and one of them is the possession of the core competencies, which helps in carrying out the activities within the organization in a smooth manner. The capabilities of the leaders have to focus on the skills that are required in managing the departments by integrating the processes and the oriented thinking of the system, which has to be deployed in a systematic manner (Northouse, 2015).

The core competencies that the CEO needs to possess is that it will help them in collaborating and going in to a partnership with the other organization. They need to know the history of collaboration about the organization so that he can take a personal approach in initiating the collaboration. This will help the CEO in guiding the team so that the diversity of the individuals can be taken ion to account. It will also help the CEO to be a proper player in the team so that they can help in bringing together the employees to work as a team (Ziek & Smulowitz, 2014).

Principles of 'Good' Job Design and Expected Behaviors of Employees in Team-Based Models

The core competencies of these people also help in increasing the network of communication, as they help in prioritizing the mission, values and the vision of the organization. This helps them in associating the employees with the objectives of the organization so that the work can be carried out, which will help in increasing the profits (Molly, Arijs & Lambrecht, 2015). They can be able to challenge the authority and the power of the organization if they find something wrong in the management, which can be amended easily. The power of communication will help in compelling the employees in an effective manner by properly communicating with them. The problems that are present in the communication chain have to be resolved in a proper manner so that it can help the employees in working in a proper manner. This will help in increasing the level of competence interest among the employees (Herd et al., 2016).

The factor of decision making is yet another important thing that they need to posses so that it can help in delegating the responsibilities and make appropriate decisions. It will also lead to the inquiry of the staffs in gathering the amount of information that will be required in making the decisions in an effective manner. This will help the CEO in taking proper and timely decisions so that it can lead to the benefit of the company (Killingsworth & Flynn, 2016). Governance will help these persons in understanding the nature of the board that is present in the organization so that it can help in aspiring them in working according to the concerns that are present in the organization. They also have to abide by the laws that are related to governance so that they can be able to work together with the board regardless of the composition that is present. It will also help them in building up the board by contributing valuable insights and chalk out the accountability and the responsibilities of the employees in a clear manner (Maidique & Perez, 2014).

The CEO of the organization have to understand the culture that is present within the organization so that it can help them in understanding the team and break down the responsibilities among the employees who are forming the team. This will help them in creating a productive and a positive environment, which will result in increasing the level of output of the employees within the organization. The behavior of the staffs will help in promoting the practices that are inclusive in nature so that a sense of shared responsibility can be created among the work force (Carmeli & Paulus, 2015). This shared responsibility will help the team in accepting the failures and three challenges in a joint manner so that the teamwork can be effective in nature. It will also help them in leading an efficient and effective operation within the organization so that it follows the guidelines that are laid down in the ethical and the fiduciary requirement of the organization. It will also help in managing the interests by applying the consultants from outside so that it can help in effectively managing the work of the organization (AlMazrouei & Zacca, 2015).

Conclusion

The development of the organization will also take place under them, as they would use the expertise of the consultants that can lead to the change in the management. This will enable them to create a positive environment so that there is continuous process of learning, which will help the employees in feeling comfortable in taking the risks related to the mission of the company. It will also encourage the employees in thinking externally of their professional duties so that they can act as volunteers (Ashkenas, 2013). The detection of the changes in the functions of the organization along with the culture that is present can be identified in an easier manner. These qualities in the CEO will help in managing the change that will help in the development of the organization (Evans, 2016).

The CEO of the organizations will be developing on their professional and personal front, which will help them in expressing in a better manner to the board regarding the effectiveness of the development in a personal way. It will also help them in analyzing their ongoing professional and personal development so that it can evaluate the effectiveness of the board with respect to the organization (Saxena, 2017).

It will also help them in planning the initiatives based on the past records of the organization. The CEO has to be an effective leader who will understand the future needs of the organization, which will enable them to think in a strategical manner and plan the efforts in a proper manner. They will be able to understand the visual setting of the organization by reviewing the past documents of the organization so that the decisions can be made in an effective manner. It will also help in incorporating the vision of the organization in to better programs by organizing the initiatives and encourage the employees to participate in it (Ebers, Obied & Braun, 2017).

They also have to know the regulations and the guidance that are related to the ethical ways of running the organization so that it can enable them to develop the process of the organization based on the ethical standards. It will also help in creating awareness of the ethical issues so that the culture can be transparent with respect to the ethical policies that are being taken up in the organization (O’Sullivan, 2017). This will lead to the decrease in the conflict of the problems that may rise through the interest of the people and help in managing the interest of the people as well. It will also help them in relating the experience of the foundation with the realities that the organization is facing currently so that the values can be evaluated. It will also allow the members of the board in reviewing the employees so that it can help in managing the employees in a better way (Carmeli & Paulus, 2015).

They will also get to know the positions of the emergency issues that are present within the organization so that it can help the organization in putting more focus on those. This will enable the CEO to understand the issues from the grass root level so that a proper culture of work can be developed and ensure that the workers can associate themselves with the problem and work accordingly. The management of these issues can help in covering up the news that has been spread by the media so that the critics can be silenced (Killingsworth & Flynn, 2016).

They also have to know about the ways of proper staffing policies so that it can help them in making the rules and regulations in an effective manner and abide by it. It will also lead to the directing of the employees in an effective manner so that they can be delegated to their respective duties within their area of expertise. It will also ensure that the policies related to human resources that are chosen within the organization are appropriate so that the benefits and the salaries that are paid to the employees are fair. The CEO also have to support the staffs so that they can volunteer for the services within the organization and make better decisions regarding the level of efficiency required with respect to technology. These characteristics will help also result in delegating some of the employees’ leadership roles so that they can teach the processes to their team and increase the level of output within the organization (Northouse, 2015).     

They also need to have an idea about managing the finances of the organization, which will help in controlling the audit of the organization through an internal manner. this will help the CEO is knowing the ways through which the financial statements can be read in a critical manner and help in establishing a transparent and an effective way of keeping the records and controlling the finances. It will also help in the creation of the annual budget so that it can be aligned to the mission and the vision of the organization (Herd et al., 2016). The CEO will be able to understand the financial performance that is related to the annual budget, which will help in managing the reviews and audits in a financial manner. The CEO also needs to have a proper knowledge about the management of the portfolio so that the investments of the organization can be done keeping in mind the profitability of the firm. The main thinking of these persons have to be that the data and the trends have to be benchmarked so that the expenses that are of the administration can be dealt in a proper manner. This will help the CEO in understanding the issues and the systems that are related to finances, which will help in developing the financial position in a proper manner (Ziek & Smulowitz, 2014).

Thus, it can be said that the CEO of the organization plays an important part in the organization where they have to maintain most of the responsibilities so that the firm can run in an efficient manner. The entire organization depends on the policies that are taken up by them so that the employees can work in a friendly environment and help in increasing the output of the firm.

1a. The case study briefs the readers about the positive role of Lee Chang towards the organizational development of the University after taking charge as the Human Resource manager. The change in the competitive landscape and new models of competitiveness are very much needed to deal with the challenges that are faced by the managers in the modern days. The managers in charge of the Human Resources have an additional task in hand to make sure that the organization or the institution performs in an efficient manner that will help them in their growth. The Universities are resistant to any form of change and thus it is one of the most daunting tasks of the managers in these institutions to bring any change without facing any forms of challenge from the part of the students or any other side (Hayes, 2014). The unions which operate in different universities are the main bodies that oppose these changes. Performance of a certain task thus does not receive an official status unless and until there is any form of consent from the part of the union. The benefits of the top down policy of the new managers in charge of different universities include efficient time management as well as resource management. The outcomes from the completion of these processes differ vastly from the outputs as because outputs are believed to be the results that are received once the project gets completed. Some prominent examples are reports, IT Systems, procedures and many more such related things.

The universities all around the globe though have different styles of leadership and management shares one thing in common which is the culture of the universities within which the organization works by consent and incrementalism (Doppelt, 2017). The following sharing points are not the best methods for the top down policies. The modern human population lives in a world where technology advances faster and faster and with the following advances and change in these technologies the universities ought to keep pace to be much more competitive and be fully computerized to provide the students with the best possible education. Ms. Chang, after assessing the total organizational structure and the infrastructure of the university recognized the importance of totally changing the IT Infrastructure of the institution. She carried out an extensive study on the same topic and consulted with other concerned persons on the possibility of such a overall change. However she was taken aback after she was informed about informing the union on the possible change that was deemed to occur in the university. The following example clearly shows the helpless role of the Human Resource Management in the institution as a positive change initiated for the betterment of the students could also face vehement protests if the topic is not discussed among the Human Resource Manager, the deans and the people representing the union of the universities (Matos & Esposito, 2014).

After a thorough analysis of the case study the roles of each of the two namely Ms. Lisa Chang and Peter Webster a detailed sketch can be drawn out about their roles in the University. Ms. Chang can be seen to be a very positive person and is always in search of remedies and solutions to age old problems. She has all the potential abilities that can make her a perfect manager who will bridge the gap between the students and the management as well as the faculty. From the beginning she has tried to analyze the real problems and find an effective solution to the problem. She was able to convince all the people related to the organization to change the IT Infrastructure of the college. But she was not able to fulfill her commitments as because Mr. Webster, with his years of experience under his belt suggested talking with the Union at the beginning before taking the ultimate decision. This following attitude reflected the confidence that oozed out of her. This reflects the role of an ideal manager who have the vision to lead the organization to the path of the glory in spite of the great number of difficulties and challenges that are4 faced by them. However the role of Mr. Weber was bit more disappointing as a manager and his role was just opposite to the role of Ms. Chang. His frustrated suggestions about aborting the new change in the University were very much apathetic and reflected his traditional mentality. It was also very much shocking as because the concerned person was a senior manager and had a great experience to deal with such kind of situation. He could have taken a more constructive role and suggested a positive way to resolve the situation but failed to do so. A much more constructive decision was rather taken by Ms. Chang as she provided a detailed report and suggested to have a positive round of talks with the union to make them understand the new situation and also make them a part of the new changes to be made in the institution. Therefore it can be said Ms. Lisa Chang is a much better manager than her able counterpart Mr. Peter Webster.

b. The senior managers of the organization have a huge challenge to make sure that the organizations are transformed in exactly the same way as the plans and strategies. However in most of the cases the managers fail to understand the importance of the human behavior to change management and rather concentrate on the other aspects of the change management. The human understanding of the change management in the university refers to the alignment of the culture followed in the university, the values, students and their behaviors which is one of the most essential parts for the organization. The plans themselves do not capture value rather the values are realized only when the there is a sustained and round about action of employees who are employed by different organizations. After assessing the whole case study some of the most important recommendations that could have been given are;

  1. Address the human side systematically-The transformation of the organizational changes in the university will surely create student issues and the absence of the union in these regard will add up to the woes of the Human Resource manager. The new leadership has joined the voice for development of the university. However systematic address of the following can ensure the success of the university. The managers have to apply both speed and morale to remove the risks that are involved in the project. The management carries out the data collection and other different items needed to improve the condition of the industry.
  2. Restructuring from the Beginning- The manger of the university has to begin from the scratch and reconstruct all the different aspects of the change management. When it comes to change management it must be mentioned that even the most senior most members in an educational institution are impacted by the effect of the change management that takes place in the institution. It is their primary task to speak out at one voice and model the exact behaviors. The managerial as well as the executive team has their task cut out to follow the direction of change and carefully understand the culture and behaviors that the changes needs to introduce. Ms. Chang is the ideal leader who has started the change management herself has been effective in her planning to restructure the total outline as well as the inner structure of the university. This will help both the managers as well as the employees to earn a better future.
  3. Communicating the message-The communication of the message is one of the key tasks of the leaders and an effective communication is needed by the university union and the other concerned people to improve their understanding and take part in each and every change taking place in the managerial structure of the organization.
  4. Creating Ownership- The leaders of the change management programs have to over perform their own efficiency and work in tandem towards achieving the organizational goals. The following task requires more in buy-in or passive agreement that the direction to which the organization changes itself is acceptable. The ownership or the leader is often created by means of identifying different problems and finding different solutions in the organization (Cameron & Green, 2015).
  5. Getting an idea about the Cultural landscape-The successful change management programs have a tendency to pick up a certain amount of speed and intensity and thus making it a necessity for the leaders in the organization to understand the cultural traits in each of the different levels of the institution (Slack, 2015). The institutions however makes the most mistake of assessing the culture of the organization every now and then which makes the entry of the organization or the educational institution in the set up of the organization as early as possible.
  6. Addressing the cultural issues explicitly- After the basic idea of the cultural position of the following organization is understood the following should be addressed as thoroughly as any other area in change programs. The leaders in the universities must be explicit about the different cultures and underlying behavior that will best support the new way to project new business and must keep provisions for rewarding the employees according to their performance.
  7. Involve Every Layer- The transformation programs progress from definitive strategy and sets different targets for the business organizations (Albrechts, 2013). At each of the different layers of the organization the leaders are identified and trained are aligned to the mission and the vision of the company.

The recommendations provided by the researcher can be provided to the university to help them clarify and change their mistakes. Such a free valuable suggestion will help the university to clear the differences between different concerned parties involved in the organization and will pave the way for a clear and fast change (Cameron & Green, 2015)  .

2. In the principle of job design, a large variety of job can work on the improvement of interest, challenges and commitment of the person assigned to do the task. By conducting the similar kind of tasks for a number of times can pose to be a challenge where the leaders might lose interest or become dissatisfied with the work (Nahavandi, 2016). In order to break this monotony, variety can be implemented in the job design which is not restricted to the addition of something extra to the similar kind of tasks. For instance, in the case of Honda Company processing of job in different forms might not make any significance in the work structure as there will be no extra challenge. But there might be some other kind of activities pertaining to the tasks which can make it worthwhile (Kirkman et al., 2014).

But it can be contradicted that too much of variety in the work design might also make the ‘good’ work ‘bad’  leading to dissatisfaction and conflict within the team. The balance in the amount of variety in the work will be different from one person to another and dependent on the position and requirement of the particular job (Maznevski & Chudoba, 2013).

While designing good jobs, individuals should feel the need to be responsible and committed towards their work. They should make it a point to clearly identify their work in order to find out their personal responsibility towards the outcome of the work. With a clear idea of the responsibilities the leaders as well as the workers of Honda Company will be able to get an idea of the required responsibility of their position. Moreover, the employees will be able to realize the importance of their work that they are assigned to which meets the requirements of the organization (Goetsch & Davis, 2014).

Roles and responsibilities of an employee in the Honda Company is more or less similar to autonomy which refers to providing scope for individuals so that they can keep a track of their own work within the set parameters. On the other hand, the leaders will also get the scope to work on their own decision- making process, within the given framework for job. For instance, in the case of Honda the autonomy might include the opportunity for providing some judgment over their systematic method of delivering the work (Nagy & Anderson, 2017).

The employees of the Honda Company are more satisfied in doing a total amount of work which has the probability to work more when the job has a specific beginning as well as an end which is clearly explained to the leaders and the employees. It is highly pleasing for the employees to see the upcoming results at the end of their produced work either individually or as a part of the team (Haines, 2016).

Good job design is incomplete without receiving and giving proper feedback. Every member of the organization such as Honda gets benefitted from the knowhow and helps the individuals associated with the task to get motivation and enable the development of the specific role. By providing genuine feedback the line manager will be able to fulfill his responsibility and manage to create a formal working relationship through personal meetings about work objectives on a daily basis. Another important aspect of good job design in principles of the Honda Company is the staff review and development appraisal procedure. This important mechanism within the company helped the leaders to communicate effectively as well as give feedback to other employees (Serra & Kunc, 2015).

By looking at the companies who have introduced teams it can be found out that there are certain norms and behaviors that are expected of the employees. These team norms are a set of rules and guidelines that are established by the team leaders to interact with the internal as well as external members. Most of these companies develop these team norms by conducting a team meeting without any delay. Gradually, more norms can be added with the increasing need for additional guidelines in the team. With the development of the team norms there is an expectation from the team members to modify their behavior accordingly. If there are no team norms within a company, then there is a high probability for misunderstanding and negative conflict (Burke, Feitosa & Salas, 2015).  The team norms helps the organization to maintain discipline and helps them to better serve the customers and earn customer satisfaction.

There might be trouble with certain components of interpersonal communication or interaction which need to be worked upon for the success of the team. The leaders follow few steps while creating the team norms with the expectation of specific behavior from the team members (Short et al. 2013). First and foremost, the thought should be imposed within that all team members are equals and the members should also imbibe this idea of treating everyone equally. It is ensured that the thoughts and opinions of each and every member will be considered equally. Moreover, all the members of the team will have to keep up to their commitments that they will submit their work with great efficiency within the given deadline; also the team members will observe if their co- workers are abiding by the commitment to the team norms or not (Kadehjian et al., 2014).

It is expected from the team members that they will speak respectfully and with dignity to each other. They will not talk rudely or use any kind of harsh words or make any kind of derogatory remarks on each other (Henry & Lundberg, 2017). They will also make a habit of appreciating each other’s progress in work and thank for their contribution which will enable a health work environment. The team members are also expected to behave in a certain way during meetings and conferences (Cameron & Green, 2015). They should be able to listen without any kind of interruption and there should be no side conversations in the meeting. The employees are also expected to follow the rules of the meeting such as being punctual for the meeting, working from an agenda, keeping a track of the minutes of the meeting and ending the meeting on time.

With the monthly rotation of the leadership position, the sponsors of team management will also get a chance to attend the monthly meeting. The team members will have to make it a point that there is a fixed contract for the details of communication and if there is complaint or grudge of anyone in the team that need to be addressed in the team meeting itself. Every company follows the team norms where the members will make decision by agreement but there is a probability that it might be over with time. The conflicts that have emerged within the team need to be resolved directly with the person (Clegg & de Matos, 2017).

The policies followed within the team of many organizations can surpass if the team believes in the necessity of successful operation (Clegg & de Matos, 2017). Each and every team members need to contribute towards the effectiveness of team building for the success of the organization.

Team based models are a significant part of any company which has a huge impact on the other aspects of management such as human resource management (Cassidy, 2016). It is a popular system which is acknowledged at all levels of an organization in order to make use of powerful team work as the primary structure of the organization. This is helpful for increasing the production or successful delivery of services which is a part of human resource management. The primary task of human resources management is to look after the recruitment and selection of individuals and provide them with effective training so that they can contribute to the productivity of the organization.

The team based models have given rise to effective team work which improves the organizational performance. The thoughts and ideas of passing on responsibilities to other work groups can be categorized under different labels of management and human resource management is one of them (Henry & Lundberg, 2017). Many companies have used team- based models to work towards the improvement of organizational performance. In the same way, self- leadership theory puts stress on participatory decision-making, individual discretion and team work is considered as important motivating factors. Another aspect of management that is strategic management theory give rise to a properly designed human resource management and team work is a part of it. It enables job satisfaction of the employees along with their commitment and motivation which might result in behavioral changes and improvement in organizational performance (Van der Voet, 2014).

With the use of team based models the human resource management will be able to motivate the employees who seek for greater efficiency and effectiveness (Barney, 2014). As the companies are using team- based models, the human resource management will be able to share their work in this way. Different categories of human resource management are assigned with the task of recruitment, selection, training and developing individuals, maintaining workplace safety and so on. With the initiation of the team based models the human resource management can divide the task of training the employees to the specific group. In this way the old as well as the new employees will get proper training on the basis of team models which will help in increasing the productivity of the organization as well as work towards organizational performance.

It can be appropriately stated that the performance of the team is directly related to the department of human resource management, their empowerment, performance, leadership and many more. But the models of team work should not be restricted to these aspects as the specific team working has emerged within the course of time (Barney, 2014). One of the main goals of human resource management is to increase the performance of the organization. Therefore it can be stated that with the use of specific team models by different sectors of management, the company will be able to increase their productivity and work towards their betterment. Almost all the companies have started using this model to create an image for themselves in the industry. 

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