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Factors contributing to Non-Communicable Diseases

Question:

Disucss about the Planning, Implementation and Evaluation of a Non-Communicable Disease Prevention Initiative.

Disease refers to a condition in which individuals are out of their comfort zone. Some disease are communicable whereas s some are non-communicable (Kumar et.al. 2014). Non-communicable diseases are basically the one that are caused by infectious bacteria’s. These diseases last for long time in the body and are capable enough to become the reason for the death (Baum, 2016). Some of these diseases may include, heart attracts, cancers, diabetes, Alzheimer’s and many others.  Research over the years had shown that these diseases were the main cause behind 68% of death in the year 2012 and 60% in the year 2000.

There are factors which give rise to all these NCDs such as, lifestyle of the people, edible habits, family background, age and environmental factors. As some of these factors are internal and some external so, it’s not an easy task to manage all the factors in an efficient manner. Normally more than 5 million individuals die because of taking tobacco (Rayner & Mendis, 2017). 

According to the world health organisation there are five major factors (World Health Organization, 2016). Behind non communicable diseases and further these factors may give rise to certain major health issues such as, cholesterol, blood pressure and overweight. Apart from all these things economic as well as social factors also plays an important role in determining the health of a person living in the society.

In this report discussion will be carried on demographic characteristics, overweight and obesity, intervention description, communication strategy and overall evaluations.

Demographics characteristics basically include complete information regarding the gender, age, profession, education, overall income level of an individual, age, cast and many more things (Florian &Panti?, 2017). .At the time of making any kind of plans as well as interventions for the purpose of evaluating health of the individuals living with in the society, demographics plays a very important role.

Only with the study of demographics it can become easy to identify the changes that are likely to come over the period and on the basis of these changes all the adjustments can be made in the plans. Although there are many primary schools in Australia but being a public health officer in the starting our focus is only on the suburban state primary school that is Ardross Primary School (Simonaityte, 2016).

Demographics and Health Planning

Being a government school it is essential for the schoolto spread information regarding the different ways in which non-communicable diseases can be prevented. In this primary school total students are 437 in which boys are 224 and girls are 213 whereas, total strength of staff members is 27. This school provide the education to the student whose age group falls in 4-13 years. In this age these children are capable enough to understand health related this and contribute in health sector (Watanabe & Honda, 2017).

Size of the community has grown tremendously over the last 20 years. Although the migration level is considerable low but overall there is a natural increase in the birth rate so, in order to assure that healthy population there is a need to spread complete information related to health care.

Apart from all this maximum number of people living in the nearby community follow Christianity because of which maximum primary schools provide education on the basis of catholic system. Although there is no specific language used in the families but among the different languages, English is most common among all but still diverse culture can be seen in certain sections of community as few of them are Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs. These individuals comein the age group of 21- 55 years. Maximum among them are working because of which it become more important to come up with new interventions so, that these people can maintain a balance between their work as well as their health.

Etiologic and epidemiology both are the same terms but are slightly different from one other. Epidemiologists (Biondi-Zoccai, 2014) is a kind of scientific method which is widely used for observation and analysis to identify the causes behind the health problem and coming out with the measures to prevent them, ethology on the other hand only focuses on causes as well as effects both the terms are medical and are widely used by the health care organisations.

As the target group members are the teachers and they generally face of the problem of overweight because they do not indulge themselves in any physical activity over and above this all of them are badly indulge in taking fast food which provide instant energy but still are not at all good for the health. On the other hand obesity refers to a situation in which these individuals face multiple situation lead many genetic as well as non-genetic problems. Amount of energy consumed also depends upon many socio-economic factors because maximum rich people incur huge amount on the beverages as well as on the drinks due to which they face all these health issues.

Health Risk Reduction and Interventions

Overweight may give birth to, many other diseases like two different types of diabetes, cancers and many more. In 2012-13 it has been observed two- third of the population that falls in the age group of 18 years and above  were overweight whereas, trend has been observed that although women’s were also over weight  but they do not faced the of obese (Flegal et al., 2013).

Large number of health risk occurs because of the overweight therefore it’s important for the policy makers to come up with all the new policies that can reduce the chances of premature deaths. According to the survey conducted by Australian Burden of Disease Study 2011 (Ferrari et. al., 2013), different percentage is assigned to the habits as per their contribution in the weight gain. For example, by taking tobacco and alcohol may affect 9% and 5% to the body.

From the past analysis it has been experienced that in the last 20 years there were 71% of the males that were overweight and at present it has just doubled. This is a serious problem and should be taken under the control.

Community –families take the decision on the basis of the community they are living in, that if they want to reach a place they have to travel with the car, bike or bicycle. Apart from this some decision are taken on the basis of the family structure like, whether the children should be sent to normal school or to health care school (Avsar, Ham & Tannous, 2017).

Genetics – Although the problem is not genetic, it does not transfer from one individual to another but still depending on the family structure people response to the external factors such as, decisions like whether they should consume high-caloric food or not (Rugseth et al., 2017).

Drugs - Everyone face one or the other type of tension in the life. When all these tensions get over a certain limit then they become dangerous for the body organs because of which an individuals have to take heavy doses which can become the key case behind the problemobesityOng, 2017).

As the adults are involved in performing heavy work and they do not have enough time as well as have knowledge with the help of which they can maintain their health (Cooper, (2017). Apart from this they do not persists good stamina in them so many a times they may indulge in illegal activities such as, in taking overdoses of drugs, alcohol, tobacco and many other items which are deadly injurious to their health and wellbeing.

The Whole School Model

These mainly include the family members that are providing their services to the schools. This section of the community are mainly face the heal issues special the problem of overweight. Therefore is a need to develop some interventions so, that the adults can take care of themselves.

Apart from all this, excess intake of junk food especially the things that are made up of all-purpose flour effects the health badly or it can be said that such kind of food has capability to kill the person slowly from inside. But there are many problems that a health care organisation had to face because it’s not an easy task to convince these people.

Whole school is basically a type of model that is widely used to identify the social, political, and cultural environment within the school and its effects over the health of stakeholders (families). Certain interventions that students have adopted are -

  1. Great fun2Run – this was implemented by the great run. Main aim of the programme was to increase the running activities with the help of PE lessons by organising sports events and other related activities (Cochrane & Davey, 2017).
  2. Proper education will be provided to the families that how they can make healthy and best choice in the food and different ways in which they will provide benefit to the body.
  3. Interactive website should be developing through which families can get the updates related to the healthy eating and physical activities.
  1. APP (action planning process) – educators manual should be made as per the APP guidelines. Each and every section of the book will contain proper guidelines related to the strategies as well as prorating actions and health guidelines for the teachers (Jenkins, 2016).

Over all aim of the intervention was to reduce the risk factors. All the interventions will be considered efficient only when they will results in reduction in the use of tobacco, enhance the consumption of fruits and vegetables in spite of junk food items, decrease in overall consumption of salt, sugar, simplex carbon, saturated fat, alcohol, drugs and many more this that are injurious to health (Joshi, John &Jha, 2017).

On the basis of the survey all those primary schools target group, families and many others that will be included in the intervention so, that a good life style in the society. Major resources that are required to complete the plans that are made are -

  • Availability of the one big garden which can be used for sports activities.
  • Proper canteen that can provide healthy and nourishing food to the teachers and the students (Waqa et.al 2017).
  • Unhealthy diet plan followed by the adults (family members) should be paid high attention.
  • Proper evaluation of the vitamins and minerals in which all the people are deadly lacking behind.
  • Identifying the poverty level among the community members.

Proper planning should be done so that all the students working as the public health officers for the department of the health can attain their concerned targets. There are wide ranges of resources that are required for the same. Some of these resources are- diet chart, experts that possess the knowledge in nutrition and value that is needed to be maintained, availability of funds, proper advertisement and many more things.

It’s not an easy task to arrange all the things. Wide range of hurdles these students have to overcome. Some of the common barriers (Reidy et.al. 2017) that are likely to come are –

  • Difficulty in arranging resources such as tools and machineries that are used to measure blood pressure and debilities.
  • Proper kit that will include physical resources related to activities such as- skipping rope, balls, chalks or white powder that will be used for making on the ground.
  • A complete resource box that will contain charts for representing healthy lifestyle and its role along with the importance in the school curriculum.
  • Students cannot do all the things themselves they required proper support from the government as well as well qualified doctors. Many times it happens that these doctors are not will to cooperate.
  • As all the work is performed by the students then they find it difficulty in obtaining medical reports.

Apart from all these problems set plan that are made with the help of intervention map proper diet as well as physical activities can be planned as per the food- based guidelines made by the expert which will help the family’s specials the individual to groom themselves in the health and fitness areas and lead a healthy life.

Barriers to Successful Interventions


At the end important to evaluate the plan in order to assure whether the students are able to perform their work in an efficient way or not and it can be done by exercising some control over them and their work like from time to time a test should be conducted with the school to check diabetic level, weight and blood pressure of the family members. If there is any negative results obtained then changes should be made.

Communication strategy basically refers to a plan which explains goals as well as methods adopted by the organisation to outreach the activities to the family members. There are many different types of communication strategy that can be adopted by Public Health Officers.

Basic outline of communication strategy-

  • Developing the draft of key message with the help of which everyone should be made aware about the different ways to protect themselves from non-communicable diseases.
  • Identifying the target group (families which may include kids, youth, aged and others.)
  • Different ways to reach the audience can be radio, websites, and school students. All these mediums will not only help in attracting new families but they will also help in keeping existing families which have joined to programme up to date.
  • Time to time adoption of new medium in order to attract more and more people overall aim to make maximum people free from non-communicable diseases can be attained.
  • Evaluating the overall communication strategy – at the end entire communication strategy should be evaluated by analysing the trend of the families.

No strategy will be successful until unless it is communicated to the target segment so, it is very important to develop an appropriate communication network to assure that all the strategies as well the interventions reach the families so, that they can avail the benefits provided by Public Health Officers working on the basis of state Department of Health (Pagnamenta et.al 2016).

Evaluation basically refers to a process in which it’s been analysed that whatever the targets are established among them many were actually attained by the organisation. A complete process is followed in order to access the viability of the plan. Some key steps that are involved in it may include (Issel& Wells, 2017). 

Health program planning and evaluation learning.-

Complete description of the plan

It includes all the goals, mission, and objectives of the heath care programme along with the issues that are likely to come at the time of formulating any new interventions. At this stage Public Health Officers will make sure that all the families will get the benefit of under the supervision of state department of health (McKeever, 2016).

Evaluation preview

It involve many components inside it such as, key stakeholders (families) of the organisation, major purpose behind the evaluation and resources that are required to carry on evaluation process. At these stage students only focus on the family members in order to evaluate the changes that had taken place in their health over the period after joining the organisation (Thomas, Lobo &Detering, 2017).

Sometimes in order to carry on this analysis they have to accrue some resources such as, complete demographic data, their previous medical report as there are many diseases which give rise to another health issues the future. In order to grasp this information can use many tools such as, fax, telephones and many more as per the distance between the family and the organisation.

When there are large numbers of families it’s not an easy task for the organisation to manually to count the number of families which are physically fir and which are not to there is one formula which help the department to analyse the trend in quantitative terms (Goel et.al.2016).

Make changes if need arise

If in any case it happens that state department health care organisation feels that an appropriate interventions are appropriate because of no positive effect in the health of the family members then they can make the changes by investing more and more funds, making changes in strategies and health care plans and many more (Tolan& Cameron, (2016).

Conclusion

At the end it can be concluded that after facing so many difficulties like ensuring availability of capita whenever the need arise (Issel& Well, 2017),  proper advertisement and communication health care information, obtaining quality resources still the Public Health Officers are able to attain all their objectives. Whole school approaches has given the new platform to all the families to lead a healthy and safe life. Although still there is a need of improvement because of so many risks factors.

References

Avsar, G., Ham, R., &Tannous, W. K. (2017). Factors influencing the incidence of obesity in Australia: a generalized ordered probit model. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(2), 177.

Baum, F. (2016). The new public health (No.Ed. 4).Oxford University Press.

Biondi-Zoccai, G. (2014). Network meta-analysis: evidence synthesis with mixed treatment comparison. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Cochrane, T., & Davey, R. C. (2017).Mixed?Methods Evaluation of a Healthy Exercise, Eating, and Lifestyle Program for Primary Schools. Journal of School Health, 87(11), 823-831.

Cooper, S. (2017). Corporate social performance: A stakeholder approach. Taylor & Francis.

Ferrari, A. J., Charlson, F. J., Norman, R. E., Patten, S. B., Freedman, G., Murray, C. J., ... &Whiteford, H. A. (2013). Burden of depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: findings from the global burden of disease study (2010)PLoS medicine, 10(11), e1001547.

Flegal, K. M., Kit, B. K., Orpana, H., &Graubard, B. I. (2013). Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Jama, 309(1), 71-82.

Florian, L., &Panti?, N. (2017). Teacher Education for the Changing Demographics of Schooling: Issues for Research and Practice (Vol. 2). Springer.

Goel, S., Wang, N., Gonzalez, J., Horsey, H., & Long, N. (2016). Streamlining Building Efficiency Evaluation with DOE’s Asset Score Preview (No.NREL/CP-5500-67073).NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)).

Issel, L. M., & Wells, R. (2017). Health program planning and evaluation.Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Jenkins, R. (2016). Assessing the effectiveness of an exercise app: An examination from the health action process approach(Doctoral dissertation, University of Waikato).

Kumar, V., Abbas, A. K., Fausto, N., & Aster, J. C. (2014). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Professional Edition E-Book.Elsevier Health Sciences.McKeever, M. (2016). How to write a business plan.Nolo.

Ong, K. K. (2017). Summary of Factors Influencing Healthy Growth. In Complementary Feeding: Building the Foundations for a Healthy Life (Vol. 87, pp. 197-199). Karger Publishers.

Pagnamenta, A., Bruno, R., Gemperli, A., Chiesa, A., Previsdomini, M., Corti, F., &Rothen, H. U. (2016).Impact of a communication strategy on family satisfaction in the intensive care unit. ActaAnaesthesiologicaScandinavica, 60(6), 800-809.

Rayner, M., &Mendis, S. (Eds.). (2017). An Introduction to Population-Level Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases. Oxford University Press.

Reidy, J., Halvorson, J., Makowski, S., Katz, D., Weinstein, B., McCluskey, C., &Tjia, J. (2017). Health System Advance Care Planning Culture Change for High-Risk Patients: The Promise and Challenges of Engaging Providers, Patients, and Families in Systematic Advance Care Planning. Journal of palliative medicine, 20(4), 388-394.

Rugseth, G., Roos, G., Stronks, K., Langøien, L. J., Terragni, L., Nicolaou, M., & Lien, N. (2017). Systematic mapping review of the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in ethnic minority groups in Europe: a DEDIPAC study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 99.

Simonaityte, K. (2016). History and Novelty in Ecological Restoration in the Southwest of Western Australia: A Discourse Analysis.

Thomas, K., Lobo, B., &Detering, K. (Eds.).(2017). Advance care planning in end of life care.Oxford University Press.

Tolan, J., & Cameron, R. (2016). Skills in person-centred counselling & psychotherapy.Sage.

Waqa, G., Bell, C., Snowdon, W., &Moodie, M. (2017). Factors affecting evidence-use in food policy-making processes in health and agriculture in Fiji. BMC public health, 17(1), 51.

Watanabe, Y., & Honda, K. (2017).Community demographics, socio?economic and health status among older Australian residents of Japanese origin living in New South Wales, Australia. Australasian journal on ageing.

World Health Organization.(2016). World malaria report 2015.World Health Organization.

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