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The working environment in offshore oil & gas sector expose personnel’s to involve in a high risk activity on a daily basis. A set of safety standard regulated by Statutory and Regulatory Body have been established and followed. The Organization is also playing a role to enforce and provide the required safety resources and training as to prevent any incident or accident to occur.

Unfortunately, with all the spent resources, there is still incident or accident happens throughout the operation period. The underlying causes of these calamities are often pointed toward the Safety Culture in the organization itself.

From the many calamities, it is necessary that the organization is to be made aware of the risks. This will allow the organization make necessary measures and create a clear path to ensure a total personnel awareness toward safety ownership. For this reason, a research is proposed on how to improve safety awareness in the offshore working environments.

The project proposed will therefore focus on the views of those working and involved with the offshore unit operation; both offshore and shore base support team. Individuals sampled from the population will be given questionnaires to answer and secondary data will also be necessary. The data collected will then be cleaned and analyzed using statistical (MS Excel). From this, conclusions and relevant recommendations will be proposed.

Organizational culture and safety culture

Work-related safety lingers being a challenge for executives, managers, and employees in all extents of the labor force. There exists an eye-catching absence of culture modification intervention investigations in the safety collected works (Barnett-Schuster, 2008). This is attributable to underdeveloped hypothetical context for safety culture plus the fact that linking this to research on corporate culture remains frail or even non-surviving. There stands, for example, no extensively established model for safety culture or even any agreement on definition or description of the safety culture of any corporate. Thus, the theory concerning safety culture remains imprecise and not straightforwardly converted into transformation efforts. One conceivable approach to cure this is by viewing safety culture as incorporated portion of the over-all model of corporate culture. Explicitly, safety culture may be viewed as the features or portions of the corporate culture which impact behaviors and attitudes that have some influence on the degree of safety in the corporate. Some information on the literature defines corporate culture as a design of common elementary assumptions which an assembly of people has learnt since it they applied them to solve problems of exterior adaptation and interior assimilation (Ariss, 2003)

These rudimentary assumptions are not enthusiastically discernable or quantifiable since they are insentient, and sometimes these beliefs are ignored although they are the critical source of standards and actions. These rudimentary assumptions are parallel to theories in application that remain as the imbedded assumptions which essentially guide conduct. The pinning down of these rudimentary fundamental assumptions is quite hard. It is a logical procedure centered on two different cultural levels which are more reachable: artifacts (observable corporate organizations and procedures which are easily observed but not easily interpreted) and adopted standards and beliefs (policies, philosophies and objectives which serve as the adopted validations for schedules and are comparable to adopted theories.

Organizational culture can be transformed deliberately if the correct initiatives and conditions are provided. Culture is perceived as a steadying force which works as an anxiety decreasing purpose, since it offers people relevant information on how to think, act, and carry on in different circumstances. Therefore, culture is a refined shield mechanism to counter change and uncertainty. Thus, cultural change remains as an anxiety initiating process which is embarked on if there exists sufficient incentive to change. This may be the situation when the corporate perceives a huge crisis, threat, or frustration with the existing set of circumstances to justify an alteration in its rudimentary assumptions (Fishback & Kantor, 2007).

Problem statement

The focused unit in the past has experienced several calamities. The causal factor is divided into two category; Occupational Safety and Process Safety. For this research, attention is therefore focus to Occupational Safety which has a direct connection and relation toward the organizational culture. Proper awareness created either quantitatively or qualitatively or both will result to a recommendation, action list and in depth gauges which will assist to reduced incidents. This makes the statement of the problem.

The general objective of the study will be to measure and determine the better and effective ways of elevating the safety culture in the organization. This will demand for in depth understanding of the personnel contribution, awareness and opinion.  This will include both qualitative and quantitative measures.

The research questions will include:

  1. How strong is the Safety Culture in MDPC?
  2. What is the current perception on the organization practices?
  3. Does safety awareness and ownership varied for each personnel?
  4. What is the role and level of shore base personnel in safety awareness?

H0: All personnel do not follow the code of practice.

H1: All personnel follow code of practice.

H0: The perception of safety is unsatisfactory

H1: The perception of safety is satisfactory

H0: Each personnel has diverse safety awareness and ownership

H1: All personnel have identical safety awareness and ownership

H0: Shore bases do not promote safety awareness

H1: Shore bases promote safety awareness.

The study will be relevant in preventing the occupational accidents experienced in the offshore unit. From the qualitative and quantitative input, all personnel will be aware and understand of the current situation and more importantly what contribution and action to be done in order to elevate the safety standard. The management will be able to have a clear overview and being able to react accordingly with the research result. Also, the research will also pin pointing the trouble area and increase the awareness and effort to resolve the issue.

This research will augment the existing knowledge body. The scholars all over the world will be able to understand the offshore measures in place as well any of the existing challenges in terms of the safety measures in offshore environment. The data and information obtained by this research will also hopefully trigger the study on occupational behavior particularly in Malaysia.

The study will be of relevance to the company as well as other players in the industry in coming up with measures to reduce the accidents and catastrophes experienced in the offshore environments. From the qualitative and quantitative ideas given by the people, people will be aware of the significant gap, and tailored any action item according to their needs. People will be able to focus the effort and resources in more efficient manner. The industry player will reflect the finding toward their organization and trigger the further development of methodology. Figure 1.1 explained the historical Global Safety Performance for Oil and Gas operation players.


Figure 1.1. SBM Offshore. (2018). Global Safety Performance [PPT]. Retrieved from Safety Leadership Workshop.

The operations always experience additional monetary problem and time wastage whenever there is failure at any of the accounts. Workers have also reported instances of either psychological or physical or both problems which stimulates luckless and unfortunate incidents.. Quantitative method involves measurement of observable phenomena while qualitative methods engage ideas, opinions and trends of events. This involves several methods for biodiversity and ecosystem management. This implies that the project will engage both factors in arriving to a conclusion of proper ways of promoting awareness and developing the culture.

The study will experience several limitations but not limited to:

  1. Cost of transport to the offshore may be high;
  2. Uncooperative and unruly respondents who may give insincere answers;
  3. Offshore areas being with sometimes unfavorable weather and terrain, there will be a challenge in travelling.

Organization: this refers to Malaysia Deepwater Production Contractor (MDPC)

MS Excel: these are statistical tools for data analysis.

SBM Offshore: Parent JV partner of MDPC

MISC: Parent JV partner of MDPC

Work-related Safety: refers to standard safety and health, usually related to the avoidance of falls, slips and trips.

Procedural Safety: refers to deterrence of accidental releases of chemical compounds, energy or even other hazardous substances

Statutory and Regulatory Body: this refers to external classification and government entity which govern the Unit operational specification and standard. For example:  American Bureau of Shipping and Malaysian Marine Dept.

The notion of safety and health tradition is further elaborated in this piece, as stated previously, minor sources like educational periodical, academic journal, paperback, study information, etcetera are intended to be used in this paper.

The idea of offshore safety and health traditions is described using various works of several writers and researchers within various extents. A few have recognized it as a procedure and philosophy whilst others have stated it to be in conditions of method plus device of holding individual source. This unit of literature review will try to discover the most potential magnitude of offshore health and safety culture so as to achieve deeper understanding (Burke and Clarks, 2012).

Offshore safety and health traditions is recognized in six main dimensions in the outline of it, that are interrelated amid each one and effective operation of every magnitude is compulsory for the effective implementation of the safety and health traditions in offshore oil and gas sector (Stranks, 2006). The six proportions were said to be commitment, conduct, alertness, flexibility, information plus fairness. The writer elucidated on every element into a meticulous way to determine how they impact and regulate the level of offshore safety culture.

Research Questions

Commitment reflects the degree toward which administrative and additional employees of the offshore oil and gas trade grasp optimistic approach to guaranteeing plus giving security to fellows. It is concerned mainly with the highest administrative authorities thereby gaining their sincere commitment for executing the offshore safety culture of employees is of utmost importance. The second dimension being conduct, it echoes the outlook of workers and other group associates towards applying, upholding and refining level of health and safety. Optimistic outlook and conduct of the group associates regarding the offshore safety culture will assist in reducing probabilities of risks, hazard, and suspicions in the concerned commercial firms (Burke and Clarks, 2012). It is mandatory nowadays to portray optimistic conduct towards health and safety culture so as to avoid likelihoods of legal trials.

Alertness is the third dimension (Walker, 2007) and it replicates the point plus degree near which workers in oil and gas corporations are mindful of the point so as to security plus health of everyone becomes the responsibility of all commercial establishments regardless of the level of operations. The author says that upholding high level of attentiveness and investigations concerning safety issues must be top priority are for workers and administrators. The flexibility and information dimension consists of workers and executive’s enthusiasm and diligence in learning and adjusting to new safety managing policies and activities through their flexibility dimension (Stranks, 2010). Information signifies the fifth dimension that centers on the correct movement and circulation of information toward the correct persons from the correct origin. The correct course of statistics is mandatory towards dodging all kinds of misinterpretations as well as taking the right measures at the precise instance. The administrative authorities must guarantee that their staff should get information in the correct manner so as to avoid any dangerous circumstances in the earliest (Wien, 2011).

Lastly, the fairness dimension is built and connected with the top consultants of the firms. Fairness regulates the success and impact of offshore safety culture and it is apparent as rewards motivate employees to execute safety issues diligently likewise, penalties cultivate a fear midst them assisting them lead the correct path (Collins, 2009). Other than the above mentioned dimensions of safety traditions, the idea safety and health traditions has been studied plus defined as a procedure consisting of eight elements (Oliveira, 2018) which are given below in Figure 1:

Fig. 1 Safety Culture Essentials (Oliveira, 2018)


This illustration places the eight basics of safety traditions in a spherical shape and they are all connected with and impactful execution of one affects the success possibility of the other to an extensive degree (Speegle, 2012). It can be estimated through the illustration that every features of the safety traditions are established on calculated workers of offshore gas and oil sector. The business priorities constituent denotes purposes and aims of tactical consultants of particular commercial firms with respect to security features and health matters. The risks perceptions differ considerably from one commercial industry to other as each of them operate differently so the risk elements are different in nature. Like, in manufacturing industries, the strategic workers are at greater risk than in service industries. The element of perception of safety procedure is an affirmation of the previous element.

The visualization and perception of safety procedures is done and then consulted with administrative authorities of the firm before confirming it (Iqbal et al., 2004). Further on, we have the competence and leadership element where these finalized safety procedures are executed with complete guidance and competence in the oil and gas sector. Then, the employee communication and employee involvement in safety element must be considered of utmost importance by the frontrunners and consultants (Collins, 2009). Lastly, the final element, the ownership of safety elaborates on the fact that a single member cannot carry out this process alone and that safety traditions is possessed by all the employees.

There are also advanced investigations made in the offshore health and safety culture by various authors. Like, one have studied the raising of the notion of safety and health traditions as ecological surroundings plus debated so as to identifying safety and health traditions as ecological surroundings grasp intense within present situation of gas and oil sector (Barnett-Schuster, 2008). Furthermore, the hypothesis of offshore health and safety traditions is elucidated through drawing the three constituents concerning oil and gas environment. The three constituents have been recognized as are psychological, situational and behavioral (Hughes and Ferrett, 2013). The psychological constituent of safety and health sector deals in customs, principles, approach, and opinion of association participants. The behavioral constituent stresses on performances, interpretations, self-coverage methods, etc. dominant in the commercial business. The situational constituent deals with the method and tactic of working and functioning of an association. The constructive alignment of all these three constituents will efficiently intellectualize the subject of safety and health traditions in the oil and gas sector.

Significance of the Research

This idea of offshore safety culture has also been deliberated through models as well and we will further dwell upon two of them-

  • Swiss cheese model
  • HSE culture theory

Swiss Cheese Model- It is assumed as a mishap casualty model utilized for risk examination and risk controlling purpose in the commercial setting (Sherratt, 2014). This model holds a high degree in all sectors especially the gas and oil sector as they operate under the hypothesis of catastrophe in gas and oil sector happen because of four types of failure importantly- Organizational impact, insecure management, prerequisite for dangerous work and dangerous works themselves. Every four malfunction are recognized like a sequence of happenings resultant in the catastrophe which is portrayed below in Figure 2:

Fig.2. The model for Swiss cheese (Sherratt, 2014).

The illustration above shows that catastrophe within gas in addition to oil sector occurs in a sequence of events. These events happen at unusual occasion and stages in the gas and oil sector. It has located the safety scheme like piece of a Swiss cheese and the gap denotes openings for failure which will end in accidents if not stopped or controlled by the stratums. The slices denote that the more there are stratums of safety system, the smaller are chances of mishaps to take place and if the holes in the stratums align together, mishaps will definitely take place. Hence, oil and gas sector must attempt to stop such holes from aligning by inserting more layers.

The HSE Culture Ladder- This is one of the most important models in the notion of offshore safety culture. This acts like a guiding instrument to execute safety culture and it gives us five different ladders- pathological, immediate, tactical, practical and creative (Hassel et al., 2017). It is illustrated in the Figure 3 below:

Fig. 3. HSE culture ladder. (Hassel et al., 2017)

The various ladders of the model are applied in a different way on corporate segment dependent on the character plus type of commercial method. It is as such due to the power and probabilities of dangers that range and are determined by the nature and type of business method to a higher degree. The ladder in the illustration is appropriate and intense in terms of oil and gas sector as the fourth step proactive is practiced in the oil and gas sector. As it is evident by the name, practical safety tradition practice in the gas and oil sector requires administrators plus executive establishments to recognize dangerous measures, hostile activities, etc. in the initial level itself. Therefore, it is anticipated that security consultants and workers at the gas and oil corporations must attempt to avert dangers and threats by promoting safety culture and principles amongst personnel.

Significance to Academe

The developments of security tradition in respect of gas and oil sector are debated under the supervision of supervisory contexts and governing groups (Blunt and Balchin, 2002). It is claimed that monitoring agendas of gas and oil sector has been carried out more inclusive as well as unified in present setting from the governing groups which are legislative senates, business representatives, regulatory authorities, etc. These broad group of rules as well as supervisory agendas has made a progressive effect on the health and safety ideals. Some light has also been thrown on several quantified supervisory agendas like structure of administration and design principles in case of safety culture. The supervisory agenda need the gas and oil corporations for assign adequate term as well as assets regarding all the initial activities and frequently supervise and evaluate them to prevent any dangers and risks (Cahill and Kane, 2010). A supervisory agenda known as Work at Height Regulations promotes the dominance and application of finest safety amenities from gas and oil sector in case of their workers. The safety and health principles of the agenda needs every worker to guarantee and notify about their capabilities so as to collaborate efficiently with their managers and squaring trusted parts in an operative manner (Bennear, 2015)

The feature of gas together with oil atmosphere remains elaborated further for clarifying the types of dangers, threats as well as mishaps which are dominant in the particular atmosphere. The gas and oil sector is faced with several types of dangers and threats including naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) which consists of radioactive components like radium, uranium, radon, etc. The hazardous impact of NORM is determined by the amount of consumption, period of contact, etc. and its effect also results in cancer amongst the employees (Pitchel, 2010). Another physical danger is cramped space in which the employee has to work in the oil and gas sector that may harm the safety and health of the workers like tunnels, pipelines, boilers, etc. The atmospheres as well as setting of these cramped gaps are really dangerous whose outcome may be death of employees if not correctly trained before entering such spaces (Bonehill, 2011). Other than the existence of dangerous components, the oil and gas sector also has an environment of mishaps and losses. The rigorousness and period of dangers in the oil and gas sector and the recovery period is worse than any other sector where the main types of mishaps are blasts, salt dome mishaps, pipeline transportation misfortunes, etc. (Zanko & Dawson, 2012).

Significance to Industry

This grasps one more relevant sub-division of the literature review as well as examined and explored with reference of numerous discoveries and inquires. It can be evident that frameworks of safety and health is applied in the gas and oil sector to achieve numerous types of parts regarding making itself a secured and safe functioning point. Few of the parts are elaborated following:

Internal and external influences at this point denote the features and variables likely to affect commencement and execution of safety culture and wellbeing. All the internal plus external affects are not damaging in characteristics. The external and internal affects might be observed as well as assumed with reference to negatives and positives because few make constructive impact although few others produce destructive impact. In such situation, the core segment has nurtured distinct study of all of the external and internal affects. It is the quite apparent part of commercial union earlier as well as throughout the operation of safety and health tradition (Portman, 2014).

The graphic illustrates the main internal influences which are administration dedication, manufacturing/facility demands, interactions, worker representatives, and competence.

Fig. 4. Safety culture internal influences (Portman, 2014).

Administration dedication specifies the ability from high-ranking administrators of gas plus oil corporations in giving engaging communication to the staff about safety and health matters. Production/service demands replicate compulsions on oil and gas corporations’ part to create stability between client’s demand and workers activities. Poor communication frequently produces misperceptions and conflicts amongst establishment’s staffs (Bohle and Quinlan, 2000). Another important internal influence, competence deals in learning and accepting the works of establishment’s staffs and the abilities which need to be upgraded to make them more efficient. Employee representation must be looked after at fixed intermissions by particular establishments’ to make their staff more competent and capable (Bennear, 2015).

Several external influences should be measured from the gas and oil sector for making the safety and health tradition quite adjustable. The chief external influences are society, legislation, insurance companies, trade unions, economics and commercial stakeholders as depicted in the illustration following.

Fig. 5. Safety culture external influences (Bennear, 2015).

Communal prospects vary considerably from one country to another; they are higher in prosperous states and lower in underprivileged countries. Therefore, high end society’s anticipations have excessive impact on factory safety principles (Monney, 2014). The other major external influence, Trade unions of oil and gas sector mandate great values for conserving the safety and health of their workers (Iqbal et al., 2004) which has forced the establishment’s to stress on the safety and health concerns. The influence of commercial stakeholders on the safety culture is quite heavy as the establishments needs to contemplate their role in executing the health and safety culture because they are apprehensive about both productivity and sustainability feature of business (Cahill and Kane, 2010).

Scope of the Research

The aspect of safety teaching and wellbeing appears to be the next quite significant part of the oil plus gas sector to implement security and wellbeing culture. The institution of safety and wellbeing exercise must make the organization members more aware and understanding towards these issues (Bonehill, 2011). In the present times, it is lawfully mandatory for the oil and gas corporations to organize these training programs through which they reap benefits as well like decline in risk occurrences’, enhancement of the health status of workers, decrease in reimbursements, nonattendance due to health issues, and intense enhancement in the drive and determination of the workers as well as associates.

Fig 6. Training requirements and prospects (Monney et al., 2014)

The training programs notify and empower the fellows to study regulator methods as well as protection actions regarding averting dangers and risks which may occur in the oil and gas sector. The above illustration specifies the requirements and prospects of leading health and safety training programs (Monney et al., 2014). It was stated that concerned associations are projected to conduct these programs in certain circumstances and settings. Health and safety programs become mandatory in occasions like new employee hired, modifications in functioning designs, introduction of new tools, adopting fresh technology, alteration in the service status, exposure of work setting, and much more factors (Zanko & Dawson, 2012).

This segment of inference has originated after the point that safety and health tradition perception belongs to the future, established besides being determined mostly as a result of high-ranking specialists of certain establishments (Collins, 2009). It is common conjecture that the high-ranking authorities are worried with the safety and health matters and the staff has generally not as much opportunity to contribute to the process. In this perspective, sound and effective leadership is essential to strive the staff towards safety linked measures and devices.

In the gas and oil sector, it might have a crucial part to play in inspiring as well as stimulating staff for application of security associated techniques. It seems to be quite possible that the staff can take the process for granted and begin to overlook it in their daily functioning patterns but comprehensive and efficient leadership can reduce such probabilities by making their staff more conscious of the importance of health and safety techniques along with making a way for efficient execution of these measures. Therefore, effective leadership has the possibility of refining their workers commitment towards the wellbeing and safety measures, guaranteeing the execution of wellbeing and safety levels, promote safety and health tradition in a form of enduring practice, develop and recommend health and safety systems.

Execution of security tradition within the gas and oil sector appears to be a tough activity and there are many challenges to face especially in their setting (Maslen, 2008). The first one being, shortage of sufficient support and obligation on the administrations part, they paid less attention to the significance of execution of safety and health measure amongst workers. Another one is the difficulties of the protection working structure in the gas and oil sector (Ariss, 2003), where the complications and problems faced by commercial corporations in executing the safety culture discourage other companies from evolving and executing safety methods. Lack of staff’s participation also deters the execution of protection philosophy in the gas and oil sector as there is not as much involvement as is required by them (Quartey and Puplampu, 2012). One big factor is that of assessing the workers performance based on the number of mishaps and damages they indulge in, this acts as a barrier because the techniques adopted by the employees to prevent mishaps are not supervised; only the outcome is given weightage which will eventually demotivate them to execute safety methods as main aim will become rewards and not safety methods.

The part of methodology of the assignment is focused on offering evaluations of protection tradition prevalent within the international gas and oil environment. The gas and oil atmosphere appears to be a really vast subject as well as hence an effort is carried out for substituting conclusions as well as evaluations with reference of few definite gas and oil firms. Although, the research has aimed on the complete industry as well as few companies are chosen by it for determining practices, tradition, and movements of safety culture existing within the gas and oil environment.

The chief aim after choosing and evaluating complete industry despite of definite trade companies appears to attain full observation of the particular industry for the security alarms. Next, the subject of the fundamental task remains basic, that is, independent as well as not associated with only one nation, region, or location. Hence, it appears to be complicated and unreasonable for choosing Trade Company or firm depending in any nation with respect to the subject of the task. The evaluations and conclusions are offered from desktop study i.e., from studying secondary foundations of data feasible on these industries about safety and health problems for creating basic results about safety setting on gas and oil trade around the globe.

Some study on marketplace document called “Professional illness dangers in the gas and oil industry” issued in 2013 explained that gas and oil industry is known to be an important income generating industry over the globe. The vast assortment of tasks carried out from the gas and oil industry has created it to be one amongst the flexible and dynamic industry. It seems to be clear as items manufactured from the related industry is developed in different profitable deeds such as entertainment, transport, leisure, etc. (Borayek et al., 2015.

This study was able to explain that gas and oil are employed from different trades such as engineering, aerospace, chemical, automobile, etcetera extremely extending the industry. The vast practice of gas and oil items in various industries has too expected amplified care for healthy and safety working atmosphere existing within the related industries. In such matter, the study has studies as well as measured nearly 102 firms identified as chief as well as main performers of gas and oil industry. Few of the noticeable names such as Royal Cutch, Gulf Oil, Petro Canada, Enron, Texaco, Mobil Corp, Chevron, British Petroleum Company, and much more (Ndeda et al., 2015).

The safety as well as health managers in America in the direction from legislative managers assumed study concerning the frequency and rate on mishaps in the vehicle firms. The research has been organized during the year 2010 as well as determined that the accident rates as well as damages within the related firm was identical to such of other markets. In other explanations, the associated firm has not been left behind during the competition of damages and accidents as well as documented great count of mishaps such as those occurred in other businesses. The figures gathered from the Safety and Health managers has drew the statistic that accidents and injuries’ rate was crucially greater in reference to Mobile Corp. With reference to Gas and oil business, force of accident and injury is dignified with respect to 1 day, 2 day, 3 day injury and much more. The force as well as amount of discomfort is recognized and identified with reference to it. In other terms, great number of injury days imitates greater force of hazards and pain as well as the other way round (Mette et al., 2018).

All the figures and facts showing damages displayed nearly 9037 executives had been grieved by accidents and injury in gas and oil business over the globe during year 2010. These facts were really large hence demanded the requirement of implementing instant suitable actions in case of decreasing examples of accidents and injuries in international gas and oil business. It is hence sensible that workforce groups, business associations, and industry experts to approach and align together in case of stopping staff by getting damaged as well as maintaining their health positions.

Following to the evaluating measures of safety and health tradition within Mobil Corp, an effort has been carried out to measure the consequence of “Enron oil and gas (EOG)” safety tradition. This appears to be among the greatest gas plus oil survey firm along with established resources situated in US. The different market study press releases and reports have also been evaluated regarding such purpose. One of these report known to be “Safety problems within the EOG” (2012) stressed information that safety plus health alarms might not be overlooked as well as has occurred as important factor within the firm currently as per Stranks (2006). The item’s parts, manufacturing methods, resources, etc. make quite obvious influence on the executive’s safety and health in the business of furniture.

The executives in the related firm seem to be not supported along with educational qualifications and tough professional talents. With reference to this, it appears to be the liability of their managers as well as supervisors for making sure that gas and oil survey method makes least negative effect on health of executives. The chief health dangers existing within the gas and oil survey firm comprise publicity to fire explosion, worst administration of waste, unguarded machinery, worst tackling of tools, noises, and chemical (Stranks 2006).

Perry (2003) debated that executives performing in gas and oil business appears to be quite disposed for heart and breathing issues between the complete staff population. The international figures has drew the information, which staffs of gas and oil business are quite disposed to cancer, asthma, etc. in the form they seems to be quite uncovered for chemical dangers and accidents. It seems to be measured, which employees and workers of gas and oil business are receiving more occurrences of asthma as well as other breathing issues as linked for entire employed population. The study educations need also proved the information, which resources as well as parts are tackled physically from the staff of the gas and oil business. The speed of technological growth as well as innovation is originate at really gentle speed within the gas and oil business in a form of outcome of that staff are needed for tackling parts and materials physically. This condition creates them quite vulnerable for health damages as well as dispenses less significance regarding the protection concerns (Perry 2003).

The safety tradition as well as organization of Chevron Corporation has too appeared to be studied within an effort for studying health and safety problems of gas and oil environment quite intensely. Chevron Corporation appears to be a famous multinational energy company involves in all form of refining, production, geothermal energy exploration, gas, and oil, etc. “International Oil and Gas Workers’ Federation (ITGLWF)” performs within nearly 110 countries from a channel of diverse united firms. This alliance acts regarding several purposes such as in case of helping in policy construction issues as well as tasks for the businesses, safeguarding and securing human authorities, operating vast range of development programs and education within progressing nations in case of creating staff quite organized and educated, and much more (ITGLWF. 2013).

Checking, studying as well as helping within the office of safety and health factors too liable in the form of one among the quite important workplace region of ITGLWF. The current conclusions issued from ITGLWF in case of office of safety and health issues claimed that gas and oil industry requires institution steps in case of enhancing their conditions of working. The global business union movement has too claimed this information as well as specified its conditions of working in these businesses created the staff’s livelihood quite disposed to illness as well as other wellbeing threats (Costa et al., 2015).

Literature has shown that nearly 2M people grieve through different form of accidents and health hazards in such businesses. The facts and figures offered from ITGLWF has displayed that approximately 270 million executives over the globe is grieving by professional mishaps within the gas and oil industry although 160 million employees agonize by professional diseases and illness every annual term.

The ITGLWF has drew the requirement of a tough government attempts in case of decreasing examples of occupational diseases and accidents as well as applying great levels of office safety. Hence it can be suggested that the related business might just withstand as well as prevail on the globe’s map from following with office security levels. With reference to this, the association has suggested legislation for implementing different legislation and levels in case of making sure safe and healthy working environment within the gas and oil business. The “International Labour Conventions No.155” hooked on workplace safety as well as healthy steps, and No.161 on Health facilities is few of these regulation supporting safety and health of employees on international working atmosphere (ITGLWF. 2013).

The aforesaid statement has designated that state of safety and health tradition within the gas and oil atmosphere over the globe is not acceptable as well as comprises different performance spaces. The safety and health tradition at gas and oil tradition at gas and oil atmosphere is yet being identified as well as preserved as inferior as well as offered moderately less significant. The international offshore atmosphere too includes few of these gases and oil firms containing favorable as well as striking security atmosphere rather than such stated aforesaid. Hence, it too appears to be relevant for substituting an evaluation of these gases and oil firms for attaining a concept about styles of safety and health tradition existing at these firms. These evaluations too offered an entire evaluation of the international gas and oil functioning atmosphere for the vast degree (Gran et al., 2012).

There are many of these gas and oil firms such as Royal Dutch, Petro-Canada, Texaco, etc. portrayed favorable marks with respect to protection tradition. With respect to this, a gas and oil firm known to be Petro-Canada has been chosen in case of evaluating its safety and health tradition. The Petro-Canada involve within the wholesale and retail promoting the Suncor fuel situated at Alberta City - Calgary. The “Petro-Canada” consist of functions in nearly 50 nations as well as catering vast range of natural gas and oil operations, mining, and petrochemicals. The association is generating nearly 18 billion income every annually income every year by vast association of gas and oil processes. The function attitude of Petro-Canada claims that environment, safety, and health undertake for being its highest importance. It is confirmed that individual functioning in the “Petro-Canada” must experience working within safe and hygienic setting. Experience within the firm concerning handling the offshore as well as defense industry has offered some advantage in identifying serious problems and essential risks within a positive (Fleming & Leveson, 2015).

These positive deliberations among strategic workers in a firm has allowed the firm to accomplish the responsibilities of various groups in an efficient way. A combined method is being employed from the Petro-Canada regarding purpose of evaluation of risk as well as avoidance of danger. The method is presented along with the reasons of accomplishing the constitutional responsibilities, fulfilling customer needs, observing as well as obeying with safety and health conservational practices. In each, the method has offered a methodical method in case of making sure safety and health anxieties for the Petro-Canada in current scenario of trade world. The tactic has added in allowing the associations for identifying in the form of an business frontrunner fixed along with “safety and health” standards (Yang et al., 2017).

Petroleum Corporation of the Britain has likewise been famous for gas and oil. This company offers vast assortment of gas and oil refining, production, exploration, etc. facilities for the wholesale and retail customers. The business employs safety and health manager in case of making sure about applying of safety and health policy rules within an operative way. The managers make sure that office offers healthy and safe working situations in case of workers as well as motivates them for producing their lively engagement as well as help in performing under these situations. It is thought that tasks of individual worker effects as well as influence safety standards of other workers for a vast degree and hence it is essential for attaining lively engagement of each of the workers in case of having hygiene and secured atmosphere (Danciu, 2015).


On the foundation of all that is discussed so far, it is concluded that health and safety culture is intensely and efficiently executed in the oil and gas sector, however some are still not following it meticulously. For this, a model is suggested to reduce and regulate the incidences of safety mishaps and dangers. It may be entitled ‘low threat and incident free contract model’ to target development of safety culture and wellbeing in the gas and oil sector. Application of the model involves active backing and alliance amongst trade amalgamations, business partnerships, managers as well as government organizations. They signify the diverse participants of the model and their participation is essential for guaranteeing the accomplishment of the suggested model. This model will provide tools to improve the status of the current safety and wellbeing settings. (Fleming & Leveson, 2015). Its purpose include but not limited to the following:

1) Adopting comprehensive management: It is alleged that comprehensive management in the oil and gas sector will guarantee the success of the model. So, it is essential for business frontrunners to lead persons and employees to make them understand that they be directed besides being steered in a modified way concerning safety and health matters. The outlook of the frontrunners must be such to conserve the health of the staff at all costs. This approach and conduct will instill confidence in the staff to follow the safety standards (Maslen, 2008).

2) Attaining administration assurance: As every initiative requires backing and assurance of the administration, likewise administration’s assurance towards its employees by allotting and providing for implementation of safety culture will decide the success of the model. Overall, it can be supposed that construction of strategy concerning suggested model, its application set-up and observing and revising may be done efficiently through attaining ample backing and assurance from the administration.

3) Acquiring backing and participation of staff: Staff’s participation is as significant as administration’s participation. The administration will only suggest and approve the application of the model; the staff will in fact execute it. For this purpose, they must be directed and encouraged by the administrators. Consulting with the employees also helps in acquiring the maximum participation of the staff.

4) Decreasing risk occurrences: This is the main purpose of the suggested model which is to be applied. It will make and frame an action strategy for determining primacies and preferences. The action strategy will identify and summarize the safety and wellbeing concerns to be controlled in the near future. It will also state a strong set of principles and activities for applying the strategy.

5) Decline of mishaps purpose: The quantity of mishaps in the gas and oil sector remains fairly greater compared to other segments. In regard to this, a device which persistently monitors and observes the occurrences of mishaps is deliberated as a requirement of current stretch of time. A fundamental model will target at offering a similar device to the gas and oil sector by introducing some reliable mishap recording structure.


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