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Analysis

Discuss about the Physiological Analysis of A Female Tennis Player?

This article deals with the Physiological Analysis Of A Female Tennis Player. Mac (a pseudonym) is a 15 year old female tennis player. She is rated among the top-5 national player in this year. She has been taking part in many national, international and pre-qualifying tournaments. This athlete undergoes a number of physiological assessments before an international level tournament. Different physiological test that this athlete has to satisfy includes body composition, sub maximal and peak oxygen uptake and the key variables associated with the maximal sprinting. The main problem that a tennis player often faces during the sports time is fall in Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP). This leads to the scarcity of energy causes a contraction in muscle. Therefore, this tennis player requires some energy systems in order to keep fit during the match time. Different energy systems that are required to replace ATP in the muscle are Anaerobic and Aerobic. Moreover, this anaerobic energy system can be classified into two categories: Alactic Phosphocreatine (This action lasts 0 -15 sec) and Lactic Anaerobic Glycolysis (This action lasts 15 -20 sec). The six essential fitness components that a tennis player required are aerobic fitness, flexibility, Strength, speed, body fat and agility. The characteristics of the player who is chosen for the sports physiological assessment is described now. The percentage of fat in the body of this player is 27.8%. The weight of the player is 56.3 kg. The height of the player is 157cm. The player is 15years old and the player is female (Ausport.gov.au, 2015).

The physiology of a sports person can be assessed by different test procedure. These tests are blood lactate testing, anthropometric testing, blood sample and handling, flexibility assessment, VO2 max testing and the last one is strength and power testing. To win in a sports match, the pre-requirement of a sports person is to keep active and faster throughout the match time. Every athletic wants to lose fat to keep fit all the time and for this they need to do regular exercise. However what particular exercise an athlete will do depends on the different characteristics of the athlete. The result of lactate testing helps the athlete to determine the appropriate exercise for them. It is better than the heart rate. The value of the lactate test supports the player to intensify its power and strength through appropriate training exercise. Lactate is produced by the muscle even at the leisure time. The amount of lactate increases with the intensity of the exercise. When this lactate value rose exponentially, this means that the exercise that the athlete is doing exceeds lactate threshold (LT). The lactate threshold value is 4.4 mmol/L of lactate. The breakdown of energy will be rapid above this level of LT whereas the athlete can retain its strengths and power up to one hour if the value of lactate in the blood sample remains below the above mentioned LT value. Since the athlete is a trained person already, therefore the normal value of LT generally fall between 70% and 80% of the max heart rate. The report of the lactate testing provides the reports that the amount of lactate in the blood sample 3.4 mmol/L and it is approx. 75% of the max heart rate. Lactate testing is also useful to rectify the intensity of interval training. The anthropometric test is used to measure the body size, composition and structure of the human body of a sportsperson. These factors are important for a sportsperson as any change in these factors may effects the performance of the sportsperson. The winning condition of a sports person generally depends on the different characteristics of the body of a sportsperson. The body sizes for example whether the sports person is tall or short, the body composition for example whether the body is fatty or not matters significantly on the performance of the sports person. Body composition of a sports person can be tested using different test procedures like skin fold measurement, girth measurement, hydrodensitometry, bioelectric impedence etc(International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2015). Among these results, anthropometric test provides the accurate result. The result of this anthropometric test provides that height of the player is 157cm and the weight of the player is 56.3 kg. According to this result the percentage of the body fat is 27.8%. The main objective of a sports person is to keep fit all the time. The sports persons are often requested to keep a periodic logbook of the blood test. The blood test of an individual provides the overall health condition of that individual.  The tennis player may get help from this blood sample during the design of its training and physiology time. The factors that are generally checked through the blood test are total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, inflammation, blood sugar, liver enzymes, kidney biomarkers, Vitamin D level, carbon-di-oxide level, blood count,folate,B12,DHEA,testosterone and different metabolic hormones like insulin, cortisol.  The test results shows whether the person take appropriate food and medicines, whether the individual take enough leisure time, whether the training and exercise the individual does is appropriate for its health or not, whether the individual needs any change both in his food habit and exercise & training programme(Labtestsonline.org, 2015). According to the result of blood test the total cholesterol is 180mg/dL, the triglycerides is 150mg/dL, HDL is 60mg/dL, blood sugar is 80mg/dL, creatinine is 0.6mg/dL, chloride is 104mEq/L, bilirubin is 0.4mg/dL, AST is 30IU/L, alkaline phosphates is 130IU/L, albumin is 4.5g/dL. The fitness of a sportsperson is an important factor. The flexibility of a sports person can be determined using different methods. These methods can be classified again into two parts- Indirect method and direct method. The indirect method involves Sit and reaches test, V-sit test, Floor Touch test, Groin flexibility test, calf muscle flexibility test and trunk rotation test. On the other hand, direct test includes 90/90(AKE) hamstring test, straight Leg raise and Modified Thomas Test(Mackenzie, 2015). These test procedures are evaluated using Goniometer and Flexometer(Rhinofitness.ca, 2015). According to the flexibility test, the individual tennis player has fair flexibility. The VO2 of a sports person has been defined as the maximum amount of oxygen the person can intake at the time of doing exercise. The value of the VO2 max helps to determine the health condition of the person.  High value of VO2 implies that the person has a good health condition. The VO2 of a person can be increased by more intense exercise. The VO2 of a sports person can be tested using 2.4km run test, Astrand Treadmill test, Astrand 6 minutes cycle test, Balke VO2 max test, Balke Incremental Treadmill protocol test, Wheelchair VO2 max test,VO2 max step test etc. According to the test result of VO2 max test procedures the VO2 of this female athlete is 3.5litre/minute. The performance of a sportsperson mostly depends on its speed and strength during the match time. Therefore it can be said that these two components are important component of the sports life of a tennis player. Different tests are performed to check the actual power and strength of the tennis player. Jumping and Running test, Throwing and hitting test are done to measure the muscular power. On the other hand, sprint test, cycling 40m sprint test, swimming 100m test, plate tapping test are used to check the actual strength of the tennis player. According to the result of these power and strength test the tennis player has moderate strength and high power.

Conclusion

Conclusion: 

The performance of a tennis player in a match depends mostly on the anthropometric characteristics of that player. Any difference in this characteristics leads to the variation in the performance when it is compared to the other persons. The anthropometric characteristics of an individual sports person can be defined as a study of the human body characteristics of that person relative to other person. This comparison is necessary to improve the performance of that particular tennis player. It is known that, how well the tennis player who is the subject of this case study performs in a match depends upon her physical fitness and strength and flexibility.  The physical fitness and other components in turn depend on the condition of health of the player at that time, the height and weight of the player and also the percentage of the body fat.  A survey was conducted to check the overall characteristics of the tennis player relative to other tennis player. From that survey report it can be observed that, the tennis player has relatively higher body fat than other players. Also the weight of the tennis player is more than other players. These relatively high weight and body fat affects her fitness and strength during the match time. The player has undergoes different physiological test. According to the results of that report, the player has moderate flexibility, speed and strength but these are still lower than those of other sports persons. Therefore it can be said that, to improve the performance of the tennis player she needs to reduce these gaps of anthropometric characteristics. For this improvement, a specific training programme is necessary which includes on-court drills, high intensity interval training, repeated sprint and control training. It is expected that, these training program will help her to increase his fitness and place her in a winning condition in any match(Sport-fitness-advisor.com, 2015).

The case study in this assignment deals with a 15 years old female tennis player Mac, ranked among the top 5 players of the year. The study focuses on the various physiological assessments she undergoes to take part in the international tournaments. The athlete is compared with 15 other athletes whose detailed physical characteristics is provided.

Since, the athlete in the case study is preparing for participation in international sports events; she needs to have a standard health and very high level of physical fitness status. This study thus emphasize on the assessments of her physical fitness traits and providence of the necessary nutrition to ensure her possession of a good health. Considering the critical aspects as body fat, weight, height, age and gender of Mac, the relevant diet chart is provided for the athlete. In this section the diet and nutrition is analyzed and relevant information is provided.

It is highly significant to ensure the consumption of a healthy and suitable diet for Mac, to optimize the sports performance of the athlete. As per the view of Hooda et al. (2014), diet is highly important to drive us towards consuming foods that can provide individuals with the necessary 6 essential nutrients. These include minerals, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins and water. Relevant variety of diet consumption ensures the required amount of nutrients for the individual that facilitate efficient health and weight management, an essential aspect for the athletes. Sufficient amount of carbohydrates and fat are very important for the athletes to achieve peak performance (Nutrition.org.uk, 2015). Correct amount of water consumption is also essential to avoid dehydration, muscle cramping and fatigue thus decreasing the risk of heat stroke. A diet retrieving 70% of the calories from carbohydrates is preferable. The adequate amount of fluid intake is a very important nutritional requirement to improve performance (Better Health Channel, 2015).

The diet prescribed for the specific male athlete 35 years old, requires including the relevant amount of proteins, carbohydrates and mineral proportions to ensure the availability of sufficient energy for delivering a good performance. As stated by ((Better Health Channel, 2015)), the healthy diet not only provides the necessary nutrients but also helps in preventing adverse health effects as well. The 7 days diet chart provided in the current study for the male athlete highlights the high intake of calories by the individual which is subsequently balanced through a gap of a day with lower calorie intake. As conveyed by (Cengage.com, 2015) (), the high energy requirement for the athletes can be considered as the reason for prescribing such high calorie consuming diet for him. She can therefore benefit from this diet by acquiring sufficient energy to perform well in his sports event. However, at the same time the diet chart shows relevant exercise routines are suggested for specified hours of time to balance the energy intake. The exercise routine includes swimming, weight training, running and cycling.

The diet shows a limited intake of protein consumption for the athlete. The fats, protein and CHO intake of the individual seems restricted. It is beneficial for the athlete as higher protein intake can prove detrimental for the individual (Endmemo.com, 2015). Higher rate of kidney problems are evident with persons consuming excess proteins. Balanced fluid intake is evident through the diet chart that helps the athletes to prevent the high risk of dehydration to which they are exposed extensively. The fluid intake of the concerned 35 years old male athlete seems to be sufficiently appropriate in regards to his energy expense. The fluid need for an individual is related to the energy expenditure of the person. Consumption of fluids in the range of 1.0 to 1.5 ml is considered optimal (Extension.iastate.edu, 2015). The diet chart shows the fluid consumption of the male athlete within this range. Therefore, it is clear that the diet is efficient to drive the athlete towards a healthy lifestyle.

Research conducted by (Insel, Turner and Ross, 2007), highlighted the issues associated with the foods containing high carbohydrate contents. There are many food items that are considered to be highly nutritious. However, consumption of such food products can prove beneficial to some people while it may prove highly detrimental to the other persons. The exact timing of the consumption of the food is highly important. As asserted by (Men's Fitness, 2015), many foods are of such property that acts as beneficial when taken at a particular time while acts detrimental when consumed at another time. Consideration of such foods and preparing the diet chart accordingly is highly essential. Therefore, the current diet chart for the athlete needs to be implemented exactly with strict follow up of the time of food consumption to achieve maximum beneficial result for the person. (0 however, argue that consideration of the composition of the food stuffs is most important to ensure a highly relevant and beneficial diet and nutrition for an athlete.

The training aspects highlighted in the diet chart given in the study are necessary to be considered deeply. As per the opinion of, (Pearsonhighered.com, 2015) the training is vital for ensuring a continuous fitness of the athlete, which is the most significant criteria for any sportsperson. The training methods highlighted in this diet chart for the 35 years old male athlete comprising of cycling, front crawl swimming, running, etc are quiet appropriate to meet the objective of  expending the required amount of energy and achieving the preferred level of fitness.

However, at the same time, there is always the risk of developing genetic deficiencies or infections from the environment or other people around (Services.cengage.com, 2015). This diet chart lacks the aspect of going for a health check up regularly at fixed time intervals. It may lead to the problem of acquiring disease that have minimum or no appearing symptoms in the initial stages but cause serious detriments to health later on. The individual needs to access a thorough health check up at regular intervals to ensure the early identification of any disease or risk to any concerning infection or disease. It will not only help him to maintain a good health status but also avoid several potential dangers to his health.

Nutrition and training are highly interconnected. Best adaptation to the demands of repeated training session requires a proper diet which can maintain muscle energy reserves. As nutrient stores play the most important role in the performance of athlete, it helps them to perform prolonged intense exercise and also in refill of energy for further exercises. Programming with respect to utilization of nutrition is   to plan or prepare a diet chart by the trainer for all athletes who will make sure that the entire athlete people must get a proper diet so that they can intensely perform their prolonged exercise and they can also have enough energy to perform further exercise. A diet plan for athletes includes all the necessary nutrients which are provided to them at particular times. The more the athletes are trained more availability of nutrient substrate are required so a planned programming is a very crucial part in training process, so that all the athletes could get a proper and complete  diet . a balanced meal comprises of mostly carbohydrates which we get from the grains, vegetable, fruits etc . it consist of few serving of protein , milk and meat has a high amount of protein, most meals which are served have less oil and fat . Many meals are in form of fluid like milk, water or juice.

As more training is provided to the athlete more nutrient availability is also important. So programming and appraisal is an important factor as it will supply complete amount of nutrient to the entire athlete. Appraisal of performance can be done by analyzing the athlete body weight, nutrient deficiency etc so by documenting each player deficiency of nutrient as well as each athlete daily energy consumption due to the exercise can give an complete idea of the amount of nutrient which is to be supplied to the athlete in his/ her meals so that the player can replenish the energy consumed. And even a budget plan of the complete can be done with the help of complete documentation, that if an athlete is deficient of carbohydrate then his meals will be rich in carbohydrate. To overcome the deficiency, similarly there may be some players who are allergic to specific food such as lactate intolerance so they can be supplied with meats in meals so that they get enough amount of protein. So implementing appraisal and programming with a proper health details chart of the player can help in improving the availability and utilization of nutrient. Second is appointing nutritionist to monitor that are the players getting sufficient nutrition. Monitoring the programme will increase the efficacy of the training. Thus this programming will enhance the complete dietary program. Change in dietary intake will also alter the concentration of hormones and blood borne nutrient this will in turn regulate a short-term macronutrient  oxidative as well as the storage of skeletal muscle. These are the two ways of improving dietary plans(Time-to-run.com, 2015).

Although tennis plays is a very popular racket game .male tennis player usually have a significantly high energy intake  than the female Mac being a tennis player had higher intakes of energy in comparison to male control  i.e. 14.5% higher than control males, with respect to protein 21.2% higher intake than female, fat (18.9%), carbohydrate (18.9%), iron (14.3%), zinc(2.5%). Even the RDA% is higher in tennis player than control with regards to fat, iron, protein. However the intake of energy was comparable in case of female. The distribution of energy percentage which was derived from the macronutrient is significantly high in case of tennis players carbohydrates form 58-60% of the complete energy intake, fats which contributes 29% and proteins contributes 12- 13%.Thus in Mac ‘s case he is not prescribed with high amount of proteins and carbohydrates. According the food diet chart Mac was having 1200ml of fluid a day(Shirley Gerrior, 2006).

Tennis is generally considered an irregular sport, that comprise short periods of (4 - 10 s) of action interspersed with small active revival durations of (10 - 20) and it also comprises of long passive healing bouts of (60 - 90 s). However sometimes matches can even last for more than 3 hours but actual time of match is only 15% of the total match. Predictable energy expenditure throughout tennis play for between 1-5+ h for men can range from 2.72 ± 0.44 MJ to 13.58 ± 2.19 MJ that is  (649 kcal ± 105 to ≤ 3244 kcal ± 524).

Thus from the above analysis some improvements like including protein in the diet chart can give a better result to others. Energy balance that is the relation between the energy expenditure and energy intake is a crucial concept for health of human. Weight plays a very crucial role in energy intake and energy expenditure. Body morphology that is if the athlete is overweight there will be increase in energy intake as well as there will be reduction in energy expenditure(Shirley Gerrior, 2006). 

Here the sport chosen is tennis. Mac is a tennis player who is 56.3kg and his height is 157cm and he is playing football from last 15 years. The performance of a sportsperson completely depends on the strength and speed of the athlete. Numerous test are performed for Mac and resulted as follows, the flexibility test resulted in as fair flexibility. Mac has gone through anthropometric test also provides accurate result.

In the second part analysis of the diet is done with the respect of metabolic pathways which is involved in complete utilization of variety of nutrient. And it highlighted the following areas through which analysis was done that are energy balance, carbohydrate, proteins, fats intake, and appropriate fluid intake. And according to all such the tennis player had a balanced fluid intake and fewer intakes of carbohydrates. It also highlighted the importance of implication of programming and appraisal which would help in utilization of substrate nutrient. Lastly it gave an idea about the interrelationship of energy intake and energy expenditure in human biology.

References

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