Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!

PSY251 Psychology Biological Bases Of Behaviour

tag 0 Download10 Pages 2,313 Words tag Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it later. GOT IT

Question:

Do Different Circadian Typology Measures Modulate Their Relationship With Personality?

 

Answer:

Introduction

Sleep is a natural process that results in a reduction in the responsiveness to both internal and external stimuli (Tamaki, Bang, Watanabe, & Sasaki, 2016). During the process of sleep, an individual loses consciousness and experiences a period of inactivity. Memory is a component of the central nervous system responsible for encoding, storage, and retrieval of information (Santoro, Bartunov, Botvinick, Wierstra, & Lillicrap, 2016). Quality sleep over a long time improves the memory of an individual. Recent research has shown that sleep elevates the gelling of memory to accommodate information encoded recently (Ladenbauer et al., 2016). Additionally, sleep guard fresh memory from the necessary disrupting experiences during wakefulness. Sleep also combines memories concerning the expectations of the learner and importance of each memory. An additional study is necessary to broaden the understanding of the relationship between sleep and consciousness. From the research examined, it was hypothesized that sleep has a weak positive relationship with memory span. Additionally, there is no significant relationship between memory span and sleep the night before a test.

 

Methodology

The participants were both male and females from onshore cohort at Murdoch Campus. The collection of data proceeded for seven days. The total number of individuals who turned up for the test was 156. Out of the total amount, 47 of them were male while the remaining 109 individuals were females. The numbers reflected a hundred percent turnout for both genders. The minimum age of the women was 18 years while the maximum age was 56 years old. Therefore, the range age for the women was 38 years. On the other hand, the minimum age for the males was 18 years while the maximum was 37 years old. Therefore the range age for the men was 19 years. The mean age of the participants was 25. 65 while the standard deviation was 8.410.

Materials

The Data Collection sheet, digital span, and the demographic forms are the three basic requirements for the experiment. The investigators required the Data Collection Sheets to record the sleep quantity of the participants for the last seven days. The participants were to record the number of hours they slept from the first day up to the seventh day. The researchers required the participants to indicate their age, gender, and the average memory span before filling the sleep time for the seven days.

The investigators issued the digit span forms to gauge the memory span of the 156 participants. The researchers required the participants to fill the forms containing the four trials and submit for analysis. The investigators used the demographic forms to record vital statistics about the participants. Examples of essential information inserted in the demographic forms included the number of participants and their respective genders. The investigators also worked out other vital statistics like the mean age, range, and standard deviation. The researchers also indicated the individual confidence levels for both male and female participants.

 

Procedure

The investigators explained the nature of the study to the participants before beginning the process. The participants filled the demographic forms. The researchers then issued the digit span forms to the participants before beginning the memory test. The participants took the first test in the morning after the seven days of sleep. They then took the second test in the morning after a night of sleep. The researchers were to read a series of numbers and expected the participants to write the ones they could remember. Each series would increase by one digit. The researchers were to spend a second in reading each digit. The researchers then thanked and debriefed the participants. The second reading involved the researchers reading the numbers and expected the participants to write the ones they could remember in reverse order.1

Results

Data analysis indicates that there is a weak relationship between the normal sleep after seven days and average memory span. The Pearson correlation between the two variables stands at 0.16. The link is weak since a strong linear correlation is 1. The analysis also shows that there is no relationship between memory and sleep, a night before the experiment. The p-value between memory span and the rest a night before the test is 0.143. The findings also indicate a correlation of seven days of rest and the sleep a night before the memory experiment. The p-value for the two variables stands at 0.6. Table 1 indicates the correlations between the three variables.

Average Sleep Over Seven Days

Sleep Night Before

Average Memory Span

Average Sleep

Over Seven

Days

Pearson Correlation

1

.595**

.158*

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

.048

Number

 

156

156

156

Sleep Night

Before

Pearson Correlation

.595**

1

.143

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 

.075

Number

 

156

156

156

Average

Memory Span

Pearson Correlation

.158*

.143

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.048

0.75

 

Number

156

156

156

Table 1: Correlations

The Pearson correlation establishes the linear relationship between two variables (Zhou, Deng, Xia, & Fu, 2016). The values of the correlation range from -1 to 1. The relationship between similar variables is 1, indicating the strong linear correlation. The spaces below the maximum value (1) are blank since the 2-tailed of 1 remains 1 (Weiss et al., 2016). Values that are closer to 1 are more significant than those far from one. From the table above, the relationship between memory span and sleep after seven days is 0.158. However, the correlation between memory span and sleep the night before the test is 0.143. Therefore, the two results show a significant relationship between memory and numerous days of sleep than a night of sleep.

 

Discussion

The results obtained from the onshore cohort at Murdoch Campus were significant for a night of sleep over the last seven days. However, the findings show no correlation between memory and sleep from the previous twenty-four hours. Numerous uncontrolled variables contribute to the lack of relationship between memory span and sleep within twenty-four hours. The first variable is the time that the students report for their classes. Attending classes at dawn and dusk interfere with the sleep of the students (Minges, & Redeker, 2016). Waking up at 4 AM shortens the number of sleeping hours. Therefore, the sleep within twenty-four hours can fail to improve the memory span. Other students also attend classes as late as 10 pm in the night. The late classes also shorten the sleeping time. Therefore, there is a lack of relationship between the sleep in the last twenty-four hours and memory span.

Apart from the time of class, circadian sleep rhythm also plays a role in the little relationship between the memory span and sleep within twenty-four hours. Different individuals have various cycles that dictate their sleep and waking up time (Randler, Gomà-i-Freixanet, Muro, Knauber, & Adan, 2014). The circadian cycle also dictates the number of hours that an individual can sleep. Therefore, different individuals show a distinct correlation between the memory span and a day's sleep.

The sleep/wake cycle is a brain clock that determines the periods between alertness and sleepiness (Roenneberg, & Merrow, 2016). A majority of people tend to be deeply asleep between two and four AM. Some individuals fall asleep after taking lunch. However, the activities of an individual can alter the cycle. Individuals who like to go to bed at midnight and wake up at four in the morning will be sleepy and alert on the two separate occasions. Therefore, the different circadian rhythms do not have an impact on the memory of an individual.

Compensatory behaviors like the intake of caffeine interfere with the sleep of an individual. Caffeine is a stimulant that increases the level of alertness in a person (Watson, Coates, Kohler, & Banks, 2016). The tonic makes individuals awake for long periods by blocking the chemicals that induce sleep. The blockage of the sleep-inducing chemicals increases the production of adrenaline; thus increasing the periods of wakefulness (Robillard, Bouchard, Cartier, Nicolau, & Carrier, 2015). A person who is addicted to caffeine stays awake for a long time and only sleeps for a short period within the twenty-four hours. Adequate sleep for a long time improves the memory span (Dissel et al., 2017). However, the short sleeping time has no relationship with the memory span.

Health, emotions, and daily stressors also affect the quality and duration of sleep. Various ailments are a source of pain that prevents the victims from obtaining quantity sleep (Scott, 2015). However, a healthy individual can have an uninterrupted sleep at night. Bad emotions can also keep an individual awake for long periods (Palagini, Moretto, Dell'Osso, & Carney, 2017). Daily stressors also interfere with the brain component that controls the circadian rhythm (Kollmann, Stöckmann, & Kensbock, 2018). Therefore, a stressed individual can have difficulties in sleeping or staying asleep. The three independent variables have an impact on the quantity of sleep over the night. Therefore, sleep over the last twenty-four hours does not correlate with memory span.

Limitations of the Study

The investigators only used a cohort from Murdoch Campus to conduct a study on the correlation between sleep and memory. The researchers should have considered numerous areas in their research like marketplaces, churches, and others instead of concentrating on one campus. The male participants were 47 while their female counterparts were 109.  The large gap in the number of participants invites the question of gender inequality. The researchers should observe gender parity when conducting such surveys. The total number of participants is 159, which is a small number. A larger sample provides more credible results than a smaller one.

 

Areas of Future Research

Researchers should conduct a separate study on males and females to determine the relationship between sleep and memory for men and then women. The above research combined males and females before conducting the investigations. The investigators should also research on the impact of circadian rhythm on the sleep of individuals after seven days. Additional study is also necessary for the uncontrollable variables like taking stimulants, late and early classes, among others. The researchers should also carry a similar experiment on individuals who undertake night shifts at their various companies and sleep at daytime.

Implications of the Study

The findings from the experiment imply that sleep after seven days has a relationship with the memory span of an individual. However, a 24-hour rest does not correlate with the memory span. Classes that take place late in the night and those that occur at dusk and dawn cut short the sleeping time. Circadian rhythm dictates the alertness of individuals and the sleep cycle differs from one individual to the other (Potter et al., 2016). Daily stressors and bad health prevent an individual from obtaining quantity sleep. Stimulants like caffeine prolong the period of wakefulness; thus increasing the alertness (Clark, & Landolt, 2017).

Conclusion

From the results from the above experiment, there is a relationship between memory span and a seven-day sleep. However, there is no correlation between memory and a 24-hour sleep. Sleep reduces an individual’s response to stimuli. Memory functions to prepare, preserve, and retrieve the stored information. Quality sleep over long hours improves the memory span of an individual. Therefore a 7-day sleep has a significant association with memory span. In order to minimize the limitations of the research under this study further research will need to ascertain the impact of circadian cycle on the 7-day sleep and researchers should conduct separate investigations for males and females.

 

References

Clark, I., &Landolt, H. P. (2017). Coffee, caffeine, and sleep: A systematic review of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 31, 70-78. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2016.01.006

Dissel, S., Klose, M., Donlea, J., Cao, L., English, D., Winsky-Sommerer, R., . . . Shaw, P. J. (2017). Enhanced sleep reverses memory deficits and underlying pathology in drosophila models of Alzheimers disease. Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms, 2, 15-26. doi:10.1016/j.nbscr.2016.09.001

Kollmann, T., Stöckmann, C., &Kensbock, J. M. (2018). I cant get no sleep—The differential impact of entrepreneurial stressors on work-home interference and insomnia among experienced versus novice entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(7), 567-787. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2018.08.001

Ladenbauer, J., Külzow, N., Passmann, S., Antonenko, D., Grittner, U., Tamm, S., &Flöel, A. (2016). Brain stimulation during an afternoon nap boosts slow oscillatory activity and memory consolidation in older adults. NeuroImage, 142, 311-323. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.06.057

Minges, K. E., & Redeker, N. S. (2016). Delayed school start times and adolescent sleep: A systematic review of the experimental evidence. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 28, 86-95. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2015.06.002

Palagini, L., Moretto, U., Dellosso, L., & Carney, C. (2017). Sleep-related cognitive processes, arousal, and emotion dysregulation in insomnia disorder: The role of insomnia-specific rumination. Sleep Medicine, 30, 97-104. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2016.11.004

Potter, G. D., Skene, D. J., Arendt, J., Cade, J. E., Grant, P. J., &Hardie, L. J. (2016). Circadian Rhythm and Sleep Disruption: Causes, Metabolic Consequences, and Countermeasures. Endocrine Reviews, 37(6), 584-608. doi:10.1210/er.2016-1083

Randler, C., Gomà-I-Freixanet, M., Muro, A., Knauber, C., & Adan, A. (2014). Do different circadian typology measures modulate their relationship with personality? A test using the Alternative Five Factor Model. Chronobiology International, 32(2), 281-288. doi:10.3109/07420528.2014.968282

Robillard, R., Bouchard, M., Cartier, A., Nicolau, L., & Carrier, J. (2015). Sleep is more sensitive to high doses of caffeine in the middle years of life. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(6), 688-697. doi:10.1177/0269881115575535

Roenneberg, T., & Merrow, M. (2016). The Circadian Clock and Human Health. Current Biology, 26(10), 432-443. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.04.011

Santoro, A., Bartunov, S., Botvinick, M., Wierstra, D., &Lillicrap, T. (2016). Meta-Learning with Memory-Augmented Neural Networks. International Conference on Machine Learning, 48, 1842-1850.

Scott, B. (2015). Disruption of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep in Critical Illness and its Impact on the Development of Delirium. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 21(24), 3443-3452. doi:10.2174/1381612821666150706110656

Tamaki, M., Bang, J., Watanabe, T., & Sasaki, Y. (2016). Night Watch in One Brain Hemisphere during Sleep Associated with the First-Night Effect in Humans. Current Biology, 26(9), 1190-1194. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.02.063

Watson, E., Coates, A., Kohler, M., & Banks, S. (2016). Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults. Nutrients, 8(8), 479. doi:10.3390/nu8080479

Weiss, S., Treuren, W. V., Lozupone, C., Faust, K., Friedman, J., Deng, Y., . . . Knight, R. (2016). Correlation detection strategies in microbial data sets vary widely in sensitivity and precision. The ISME Journal, 10(7), 1669-1681. doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.235

Zhou, H., Deng, Z., Xia, Y., & Fu, M. (2016). A new sampling method in particle filter based on Pearson correlation coefficient. Neurocomputing, 216, 208-215. doi:10.1016/j.neucom.2016.07.036

OR

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2019). Psychology Biological Bases Of Behaviour. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/psy251-psychology-biological-bases-of-behaviour.

"Psychology Biological Bases Of Behaviour." My Assignment Help, 2019, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/psy251-psychology-biological-bases-of-behaviour.

My Assignment Help (2019) Psychology Biological Bases Of Behaviour [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/psy251-psychology-biological-bases-of-behaviour
[Accessed 15 December 2019].

My Assignment Help. 'Psychology Biological Bases Of Behaviour' (My Assignment Help, 2019) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/psy251-psychology-biological-bases-of-behaviour> accessed 15 December 2019.

My Assignment Help. Psychology Biological Bases Of Behaviour [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 15 December 2019]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/psy251-psychology-biological-bases-of-behaviour.


Gone are the days when you had nightmares of failing to secure marks in math assignments. If you are considering, “Will someone do my math homework?" you are incredibly fortunate. PhD experts at MyAssignmnethelp.com will help you out with your algebra, calculus, geometry etc. Math homework help is efficient with proofreading backup to check for mistakes. Math solvers offer swift assistance so that the students can submit the assignment on time. Moreover, you will also gain insight into approaching a particular question. Thus, grab the opportunity to end your quest of finding 'someone to do my math for me’.

Latest Psychology Samples

PSY216 Psychology Of Ageing 2

Download : 0 | Pages : 2
  • Course Code: PSY216
  • University: Charles Sturt University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: 1 a).  During the early stages of human development, senescence which is a condition that threatens reproduction that needs to get checked. Fecundity and a stable survival rate isalso present during this age. The disposable soma theory suggests that there is a drastic reduction of reproduction at later stages hence natural selection favors early reproduction. b).  Yes, aging is directly related to sexual reproduction in h...

Read More arrow

PY2112 Individual Assignment Experiment Conducted

Download : 0 | Pages : 10

Answer: Introduction In many cases, people tend to have different abilities to memorize things which are either appealing to the senses, whether they are sound, touch, smell, sight or taste. On the other hand, some people can also memorize different effects which are disgusting. However, each person has a different ability to memorize various scenarios. In face recognition, different aspects can be considered. For instance, the race of the fa...

Read More arrow

PY2112 Individual Assignment Experiment Conducted

Download : 0 | Pages : 10

Answer: Introduction In many cases, people tend to have different abilities to memorize things which are either appealing to the senses, whether they are sound, touch, smell, sight or taste. On the other hand, some people can also memorize different effects which are disgusting. However, each person has a different ability to memorize various scenarios. In face recognition, different aspects can be considered. For instance, the race of the fa...

Read More arrow

PY2112 Individual Assignment Experiment Conducted

Download : 0 | Pages : 10

Answer: Introduction In many cases, people tend to have different abilities to memorize things which are either appealing to the senses, whether they are sound, touch, smell, sight or taste. On the other hand, some people can also memorize different effects which are disgusting. However, each person has a different ability to memorize various scenarios. In face recognition, different aspects can be considered. For instance, the race of the fa...

Read More arrow

PSY141 Introduction To Psychology B 2

Download : 0 | Pages : 9
  • Course Code: PSY141
  • University: Charles Darwin University
  • Country: Australia

Answer: The humanitarian and the community studies mainly provide the opportunity for the students in learning, critically analyzing and applying the concepts of the human service delivery in the field of humanitarian aid, social and community engagement (Green et al., 2017). The individuals get scopes of being employed for service delivery in the field of humanitarian aid, social as well as community engagement. The workers mainly need to dev...

Read More arrow
Next
watch

Save Time & improve Grades

Just share your requirements and get customized solutions on time.

question
We will use e-mail only for:

arrow Communication regarding your orders

arrow To send you invoices, and other billing info

arrow To provide you with information of offers and other benefits

1,164,507

Orders

4.9/5

Overall Rating

5,051

Experts

Our Amazing Features

delivery

On Time Delivery

Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.

work

Plagiarism Free Work

Using reliable plagiarism detection software, Turnitin.com.We only provide customized 100 percent original papers.

time

24 X 7 Live Help

Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.

subject

Services For All Subjects

Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.

price

Best Price Guarantee

Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.

Our Experts

Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

610 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Cheryl Zhao

PhD in Statistics

Singapore, Singapore

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 4/5

248 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Lloyd Bernabe

MSc in Accounting

London, United Kingdom

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

752 Order Completed

100% Response Time

Hugh Cleave

Masters in Human Resource Management (MMgt, HRM)

Wellington, New Zealand

Hire Me
Assignment writing guide
student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating 5/5

2830 Order Completed

97% Response Time

Leroy Bicknell

MBA in Marketing

London, United Kingdom

Hire Me

FREE Tools

plagiarism

Plagiarism Checker

Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.

essay

Essay Typer

Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.

edit

GPA Calculator

Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.

referencing

Chemical Equation Balancer

Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.

calculator

Word Counter & Page Calculator

Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.

Refer Just 5 Friends to Earn More than $2000

Check your estimated earning as per your ability

1

1

1

Your Approx Earning

Live Review

Our Mission Client Satisfaction

My assignment was completed on time and i got complete marks. IT WAS EXACTLY THE WAY I WANTED IT.

flag

User Id: 299002 - 15 Dec 2019

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

This was amazingly put together, I could not have asked for a better company to do my assignment. Delivered earlier than expected. Absolutely amazing.

flag

User Id: 260056 - 15 Dec 2019

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

thank you again, it is a good work, everything is perfect. I am very happy. It is not the first time and I know that I can count on you.

flag

User Id: 265909 - 14 Dec 2019

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating

Love using this company they are very useful always on time . I absolutely would recommend them

flag

User Id: 334177 - 14 Dec 2019

Australia

student rating student rating student rating student rating student rating
Have any Query?