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Task description & requirements

There are three (3) pairs of countries in the following figure. Choose one (1) pair of your preference and complete the tasks on the next page. When choosing the pair, you need to consider the availability of information required for the assignment as well as the richness of the discussions you can put forward.

a. Compare and contrast the transport process of HDTVs from the other country of the pair to Australia and the transport process of wheat from Australia to the other country.

b. Discuss the factors affecting the cost and efficiency of the two transport processes. (20 Marksj
The assignment should be presented as a structured essay. At least 10 references need to be provided in this assignment.
See the Essay/report assessment criteria sheet on the following page for information about the criteria and the standards by which your work will be judged.

Comparison and contrast of transport process of HDTV from Netherlands and wheat from Australia

The report is related to the relevant discussions which are associated with transportation operations in Australia and Netherlands. The important assessment of the discourse of the study has well-thought-out the assumptions for importing high definition television from Netherlands and Netherlands importing wheat from Australia. The main assessment of the report has showed the comparison and contrast for the process of importing HDTVs from Netherlands and importing wheat in return. The second section of the discussions has considered the factors which affect the efficiency and cost for transport process between the two countries. The overall transportation process has included concepts which are depicted to be relevant in terms studying the market profiles in both the regions, demographic pattern and economic situation. It has also considered some of the other concepts which are concerned with exchange rates, Shipping Rates & Tariffs for both the countries in relation to the process of the import and export management. The discussion of the different elements related to the cost and efficiency of the two-transport process has been depicted with generic strategy model of transportation business (Findlay and Garnaut 2017).

Netherlands is recognized as a member of “European Union (EU)” which is supported by the EU trade regulations. Netherlands, is seen as a significant investment and trading partner of Australia with an investment of $ 2.6 billion in services and manufactured products as per the data revealed in 2015-16. Moreover, it is discerned that Australian merchandise for the exports with Netherlands are seen with products ranging from coal, medical instruments and electronics. These factors are seen to be favorable in terms of importing HDTVs (categorized as electronics) from Netherlands. Moreover, the Dutch business culture is represented with wide range of experience relating to conduction of international business. The overall commencement of the import and export process is generally initiated with a notice of six weeks (Zhong et al. 2016).

Aus-trade Assistance activities in the markets are considered as per attracting foreign direct investment pertaining to the promotional activities of the Australian services. The Australian exporters are further depicted with the various types of the investments related in providing wide range of assistance associated to providing more expansion options as per market research, channels and marketing consultants (Leal et al. 2016).

The main differences pertaining to the trade needs to be considered with the packaging of the items. The transportation of HDTVs is to be categorized as fragile item, therefore it is important for the courier, logistics and freight services to take special care in moving of the items locally, overseas or as per interstate. It needs to be also discerned that the staking of the fragile items needs to be well-thought-out with the several aspects of staking which will be able to ensure that the items are prevented from any event of shock and vibration. On the other hand, the exporting of wheat will be different. This will be considered with using jute bags, paper bags or polypropylene bags depending on the size of the individual lots which are to be transported. Some of the different types of the other aspects of the transportation of wheat and grain has been identified with perishability aspects. It needs to be understood that the transportation and storage of wheat needs to be considered with duration of the transportation process. In addition to this, the storage consideration pertaining to the transport of wheat from one hub to another needs to be depicted as different from storage of wheat (Baldwin and Lopez?Gonzalez 2015).

Factors affecting the cost and efficiency of the two processes of transportation

The HDTVs will require a storage condition so that it may be ensured that the items are free from dangers of falling or even damaged by a forklift. This is important to be considered from the perspective of intermodal transportation during hub to hub transits. On the other hand, the storage of the wheats needs to be ensured by its storage in a cool and dry place, which is free from any dust. It needs to be confirmed that the transport container is free from any pests and insects which may hamper the quality of the product (Anderson and Nelgen 2015).

The import agreement for Australia needs to be considered with wide range of aspects of Government regulations. This is mainly seen with the requirements of import permits, treatments to be applied to a specific category of items and nature of the goods imported. The televisions imported to Australia are inclusive of GST (which is 10% at present). It needs to be also seen that the important nature of the consideration for the importing the goods needs to be taken into account with other costs such as clearance fees and customs duties in relation to the regulations followed in Australia (Chen et al. 2018).

The process of successful export of the items needs to be represented as per the trade agreements of both Australia and Netherland. The difference in the transportation process of both the items needs to be further identified in terms of modes of transportation. The suitable mode of the import of HDTVs is acknowledged with Air Cargo and shipping. This will be able to ensure that there is least risk to the product as a result of shocks from vehicle movements. This will ensure that all the products exported are free from any damages. This will help in reducing the additional costs pertaining to damages.  On the other hand, the most suitable method of transportation of products like wheat needs to be taken into account as per all three modes of transportation (sea, air and road). In order to ensure the cheapest cost for export, Netherlands should consider procuring the items in terms of the shipment through waterways. However, if it decides to adopt any other mode of transportation it needs to compromise with the cost of transshipment. It needs to be also discerned that there may be significant nature of the other forms of issues which are needed to be taken into account as per safety of the transit (Pomfret and Sourdin 2017).

The import process for the HDTV transshipment needs to ensure that the documentation is covering for both the current state of affairs and agreement in case of any damages to the products. In addition to this,  the 3PL operators needs to hire specialty movers for moving of valuables such as HDTV. Some of the main aspects of the transportation needs to be ensured in terms of pelleting, special bracing and cushioning of the items. The export of the wheats needs to be taken into account as per including the road transportation and ocean transport. This will be able to ensure that the 3PL operators are able to maintain the lowest cost pertaining to transshipment of the goods (Van Marrewijk 2017).

The practice of logistics and transportation in the EU needs to be identified as per the support of information and communications technology. The process of transportation has been further considered as per the operational layout of the organizations which is dependent on the generic strategy model of transportation. This model needs to be taken into account as per government, prospects, supply and the factors associated with the competing factors. Transportation must be oriented with the strategies such as strategic options, mobility, legal and institutional integration of the activities in Netherlands and Australia. In addition to this, the factors associated to the supply of the products are related to the Macro Field. Furthermore, the mobility is involved with the cost and efficiency. The factors such as low mobility can be seen with lower amount of investment and lower efficiency in the overall process of transportation (Chaudhary and Kastner 2016).

The transport infrastructure of Australia needs to be integrated with the transport infrastructure of European transport system in such a manner that developmental interests are exercised at the optimum extent of the approximations made as per EU guidelines. The mobility of free flow of goods is further related to the fact whether the 3PL companies are able to implement optimum transport connections with surrounding countries (Golev et al. 2016).

In terms of Australia, the international documents need to be considered as per developmental perspectives of combined transportation which includes transport infrastructure, intimidation and non-discriminatory transit documents. Moreover, the transport infrastructure of Australia needs to be in harmony with European economic community which is associated with Republic of Netherlands pertaining to the field of import and export operations. The important concerns of road, rail and combined transport infrastructure should include the agreement of both signatories for following common objectives and improving the cooperation among EU and Australia as per the EU guidelines formulated from January 1993 to December 1997. The agreement as per set up a fund to consider as per cooperation of “Trans-European Railway (TER)” for ensuring the maximum efficiency in rail transit. The program of TER was mainly launched with the motive of bringing about political changes in the eastern Europe. The main focus should be given on increasing the efficiency and quality of combined transport and able to bring better transportation development on Netherlands and Australia (Peterson 2017).

The important factors related to supply should be based on the growth factors related to transport of goods in Australia. This should be built on the factors whether the country is able to increase its GNP by incorporation of efficient transport. On the contrary, the growth and development of transport is not only dependent on growth of GNP rather the result of demand from individual firms for providing necessary transportation services. Therefore, in terms of strategy scenarios it is important to consider the transportation strategy both at macro and micro level (McCombie and Thirlwall 2016).

The macro level goals are realized with the integration of such objectives in the economy associated to several types of activities and distribution of work in Australia in relation to trade with Netherlands as per EU agreement. Moreover, the measure of transportation policy should be considered with dividing the policy objectives into two main groups which are seen as direct and indirect groups. The direct measures are considered with influencing factors for supply of transportation services. However, the indirect measures are depicted with influence of distribution among infrastructure measures which are responsible for building and bring about real innovation infrastructures. The direct measures such as subsidies are further considered with financial means allocating state -wise efficient and transportation model without the need of repayment. The indirect measures are further depicted with acquisition of certain types of freight car systems and fostering carriages. As a transportation policy are mainly concerned with EU agreement the capital goals need to consider several aspects for bringing about efficiency in the transportation system (Yang and Dong 2016).

The factors such as improving the road and rail infrastructure would be the primary factor for ensuring maximum capacity and speed of the transit. This is necessary for utilizing the full truck capacity in terms of importing the HDTVs and exporting wheat. Several types of other needs to be considered as per ability, efficiency and accessibility of the world transportation system which largely depend on the transport infrastructure and international treaties of tariffs and trade agreements. Moreover, larger volume of transport will be consequently able to enhance the port operations on which the companies can depend in future for increased transit (Arto, I., Andreoni and Rueda-Cantuche 2016).

However, the process of import and export is not only limited to the factors associated to transportation infrastructure and agreements pertaining to combined transport operations. The intricacies are seen with factors which influence the country’s export and import policies. It is to be seen that the inflation rate of a country, exchange rate, productivity, quality, marketing, domestic GDP, foreign GDP and trade restrictions have a pivotal role in determining cost and efficiency of a transit process. It needs to be discerned that the inflation rate of consumer price index in Australia rose to 2.1% in 2018 from 1.9% in 2017. This is considered as highest since 2017. The increasing inflation rate in Australia suggests that there is a high possibility that the country will experience increased difficulties in exporting wheat in Netherlands. This is mainly due to the fact that it will be constrained with international competitiveness in terms of setting low price strategy for exports. There may be a situation that Netherlands may decide to go for other international importers for the same product (Zealand 2016).

It needs to be discerned that the exchange rate of Australia has suddenly fell from 1.33 in the beginning of September 2018 to Netherlands Antillean Guilder to 1.28 Netherlands Antillean Guilder at the end of the month. This signifies the country will suffer from lower prices for exporting wheat and increased price for importing the televisions. Productivity is another important factor which will determine the labor costs per unit. The average increase in productivity rate by 2% suggests that Australia can compensate for the loss pertaining to exchange rate in terms of exporting televisions at a higher price and importing wheat at a lower price (Prados De La Escosura 2016).


The important elements of differences in import and export activities between Australia Netherlands are depicted on several geopolitical and mechanical factors. A significant nature of difference has been shown with packaging of both the items. Secondly, the storage process between intermodal hub to a transit is also be different for high-value consumer electronic item such as HDTV and daily consumables such as wheat. Moreover, selection of transportation mode will be different for both items. The various nature of factors affecting cost and efficiency is in the transportation process are related to productivity, exchange rate of both the countries and rate of inflation.


Anderson, K. and Nelgen, S., 2015. Global wine markets, 1961 to 2009: a statistical compendium (p. 468). University of Adelaide Press.

Arto, I., Andreoni, V. and Rueda-Cantuche, J.M., 2016. Global use of water resources: a multiregional analysis of water use, water footprint and water trade balance. Water Resources and Economics, 15, pp.1-14.

Baldwin, R. and Lopez?Gonzalez, J., 2015. Supply?chain trade: A portrait of global patterns and several testable hypotheses. The World Economy, 38(11), pp.1682-1721.

Chaudhary, A. and Kastner, T., 2016. Land use biodiversity impacts embodied in international food trade. Global Environmental Change, 38, pp.195-204.

Chen, W., Wu, S., Lei, Y. and Li, S., 2018. Virtual water export and import in china’s foreign trade: A quantification using input-output tables of China from 2000 to 2012. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 132, pp.278-290.

Findlay, C. and Garnaut, R., 2017. The political economy of manufacturing protection: Experiences of ASEAN and Australia. Routledge.

Golev, A., Werner, T.T., Zhu, X. and Matsubae, K., 2016. Product flow analysis using trade statistics and consumer survey data: a case study of mobile phones in Australia. Journal of cleaner production, 133, pp.262-271.

Leal, M.C., Vaz, M.C.M., Puga, J., Rocha, R.J.M., Brown, C., Rosa, R. and Calado, R., 2016. Marine ornamental fish imports in the European Union: an economic perspective. Fish and fisheries, 17(2), pp.459-468.

McCombie, J. and Thirlwall, A.P., 2016. Economic growth and the balance-of-payments constraint. Springer.

Peterson, J., 2017. An Overview of Customs Reforms to Facilitate Trade. J. Int'l Com. & Econ., p.1.

Pomfret, R. and Sourdin, P., 2017. Where Will Your Next Holden Come From? The 2004 EU Enlargement and Trade with Australia. Australian Economic Review, 50(2), pp.181-194.

Prados De La Escosura, L., 2016. Economic freedom in the long run: evidence from OECD countries (1850–2007). The Economic History Review, 69(2), pp.435-468.

Van Marrewijk, C., 2017. International trade. Oxford University Press.

Yang, Y. and Dong, W., 2016. Global energy networks: Insights from headquarter subsidiary data of transnational petroleum corporations. Applied Geography, 72, pp.36-46.

Zealand, S.N., 2016. Global New Zealand–International trade, investment, and travel profile: Year ended June 2016. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, and Statistics New Zealand.

Zhong, W., An, H., Fang, W., Gao, X. and Dong, D., 2016. Features and evolution of international fossil fuel trade network based on value of emergy. Applied Energy, 165, pp.868-877.

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