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Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:

  • Refer to the annotated bibliography and outline you created in the Module 6 assignment along with any feedback from your instructor.
  • Review the journal readings from Modules 5 and 6 of this course. You may wish to create annotations for the readings from Module 7 for use in the synthesis process.
  • This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
  • Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
  • You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.


Locate the annotated bibliography and outline you created in the Module 6 assignment. Using the outline, you developed, the information from the annotated bibliography, and the feedback provided by your instructor, write a paper that synthesizes all of the articles assigned in the Modules 5-7 of this course. Do that by including the following:

1.A statement of common themes addressed in each of the articles.

2.A statement of the conclusions that can be drawn when the articles are taken together as a single entity. What is the overall message of the group of articles? Focus specifically on the key aspects of Freudian thought which caused these other theorists to distance themselves from Freud's views and influence. Consider also the major differences among themselves which caused them to diverge from one another.


Sigmund Fred is an eminent Austrian neurologist, who had founded the concept of psychoanalysis, a clinical method of treating patients through verbal therapy. Freudian theory has put emphasis on the unconscious mind and according to Freudian philosophy, “the unconscious mind governs the behavior” of an individual to a larger degree than society suspect. Freudian theory has three main elements namely id, ego and superego which are considered to be the chief characteristics of human personality. Modern psychology has been greatly aided by Freudian theory. However, several Non-Freudian theories are there that demonstrate human behavior from a different aspect. In this report, analysis of the contrast of Neo-Freudian and Freudian theories along with an evaluation of the modern-day applicability of Neo-Freudian theories will be performed.

It cannot be ignored that a strong relationship exists between executive effectiveness and self-awareness. Executive consultation is seen to be sharing the crucial role with psychoanalytic treatment due to enhanced self-knowledge. Self-awareness of leaders in an organization is a crucial factor on with the success and effectiveness of that organization depends. Leaders who lack self-awareness often evidence conflict between team members resulting in employee attrition and loss of the yearly revenue of the company (Axelrod, 2012). Self-awareness in leaders helps them to make an ideal and right decision for the development of the company.

In contrast to the modern concept of self-awareness and self-reflection, the term self-observation has a fairly narrow and specific meaning. It has been identified that self-observation is the central role of free association in psychoanalytic theory. Considering the fact that ego and Id of the executives and leaders have the potential to bring about the serious hazard in the organization, it is crucial to enhance the self–awareness of the leaders to prevent any unwanted scenarios. Considering the fact that emotional awareness is a crucial part of self-awareness, enhancement of emotional awareness in executives will enhance their professional effectiveness. Analytical therapy is one of the best ways to treat unwanted ego.

Physiological and analytic therapy helps the healthcare service users to gain more control over his or her increased complex and intrapsychic mode of self-observation (Kline, 2013). Psychoanalytic therapy helps an individual to undergo in-depth analysis and understand their own flaws and qualities. Moreover, as being stated by Freud, “instituting a free-associative kind of self-observation would give analyst and patient access to the unconscious.”Axelrod, S. D. (2012). Modern physiologist should incorporate Freud’s psychoanalysis theory in their therapeutic procedure to develop and maintain emotional awareness along with self-awareness in the executives.

Physiological and Analytical Therapy

Psychologists face several dilemmas when it comes to providing psychotherapy to the healthcare service users. Unlike other clinical dilemmas, the clinical dilemma in psychotherapy is difficult to assess due to lack of non-discrete quality. Due to the inseparable and interpersonal character of psychotherapeutic treatment, clinical dilemmas are present when it comes to psychotherapy. It must be noted that clinical dilemmas are highly different from that of the ethical dilemmas faced by the psychologists during the time of providing treatment to the patients. Psychotherapist is often seen to face issues while making decisions about the treatment of the patient. Decisions like the appropriate time to shift from an exploratory mode to a more active behavioral intervention or creating a barrier to intervene in a patient's life for the treatment can be considered as a clinical dilemma. Clinical dilemma while providing a healthcare service user with therapeutic treatment has the potential to impose a negative impact on the treatment of the patient.

Psychotherapist, in spite of their theoretical persuasions, frequently find themselves in situations where their judgment calls are similar for different patients as well as their families. Hence in order to eradicate clinical dilemmas in psychotherapy, several Freudian theories can be implemented. Psychologists have understood that in order to prevent the above-mentioned dilemma, it is highly crucial to differentiate between the professional psychotherapists and the behavioral technician (Lacan, 2013). This differentiation will help the psychologist to gain a better insight into the issues of the patient which in turn will lead to improvement and betterment of the condition of the patient. For instance, the theory of self-efficiency can be implemented while treating patients as a unifying concept of in the behavioral change process. Including Freudian theory for differentiating the behavioral approach of the patient can help the physiotherapist to make effective decisions.

According to Neo-freudian theory, as highlighted by Newton (1992), with advancing age comes maturity and a sense of responsibility, however it should be critically noted that between the age group of 39 to 44, individuals tend to inculcate in themselves a sense of insecurity and fear pertaining to the major realisation of the fact that they have already lived half the tenure of their life-span and are approaching their old age which would eventually lead to their death and individuals grouped under this age group are extremely anxious and frustrated in accessing the extent to which they have gained success in terms of accomplishments and failure (Gluck & Bluck,2013). Research studies reveal that ‘the mid-life crisis’ can last for a period of three to almost ten years (Lachman et al.,2015). Also, the theory on which the mid-life crisis is based relies on the insecurity that Freud had faced associated with the discovery of the origin of neurosis. While carrying out the research study, Freud had encountered the feelings of insecurity that had ultimately paved the track for the discovery on the realization of dreams (Weaver,2009). Therefore, it should be critically taken into consideration that mid-life crisis is a serious problem as it leads to a number of complications that contribute in lowering of the morale of the individuals who belong to the above-mentioned age groups. Mid-life crisis leads to a negative effect on the mental health of the individuals as it often leads to depression and feelings of loneliness and despair.

The Drivers of Human Behavior

Hence in order to conclude, it can be said that the middle age should not be treated as an age of acute emotional crisis but should be more or less considered as the age which should deal with designing modern ideas and also an age to upgrade one-self with changing times and the modern scenario.

Sigmund Freud and BF Skinner is view as polar opposites when it comes to psychological theories. But both of the psychologists believed that in order to enhance desirable behavior a system of reward as well as punishment is highly necessary. In spite of several contrast and dissimilarities between the theories of Sigmund Freud and B.F. Skinner, the theories of skinner like, dream symbolism, defense mechanism and metaphor use is found to be highly influenced by Freud theory of psychoanalysis (Overskeid, 2007). Skinner was found to agree with numerous theories of Freud when he was composing a book on human behavior. According to Skinner, the desired behavior in a human being is enhanced through a system of positive reinforcement, rewards and punishments. This belief of skinner is totally based on the theories of the human behavior of Freud. According to the theories of Freud, superego, the person of a human being, is considered to be unselfish is created by a system of reward and punishment. Freud believed that Id that is one's impulses is controlled by the external superego.

However, when it comes to methodology and conclusion, the idea of Freud and Sigmund is found to be contrasting. For an instant, according to Freud, in order to Freud desirable behavior can be developed in a child through properly shaping id, superego and ego by the society and the parents (Fenichel, 2014). Skinner, however, in contrast, believed “that reinforced operant behavior would only last temporarily without some intermittent reinforcement”Overskeid, G. (2007). Whereas Skinner thought desired behavior in a human being requires occasional reinforcement in order to prevent the effect of operant behavior to become extinct, Freud believed that desired behavior can be made a part of the life by eliminating the need of modification.

The concept of both the psychologist has highly aided modern psychology. With the help of Freud and Skinner's theory, psychologists are able to understand human behavior with more clarity which in turn helps them to provide the healthcare service users with better medication.

Theme 3: Psychoanalysis and Its Critics

The idea of Psychoanalysis had been developed in the nineteenth century by Freud and has progressed a great deal through the years. Initially when it was discovered, it remained confined to the practice of laying down the depressed patients in the chamber on the bed and make them blabber anything and everything in their sub-conscious state of mind and then derive inferences from whatever the patient had said (Berman,2013). The Psycho-analysis theory had then been developed and more refined and in the modern context is segregated into five phases, the first of which includes resistance, wherein the patient resists in providing minute details pertaining to imparting the important personal data on account of feeling hesitant to face a stranger who in this case is the concerned psychologist (Eagle,2007). The second phase involves the step of transferase or counter-transferase which implies the ability of the counsellor to develop an attitude of love and affection or hatred by the patient towards the therapist. The step involves the development of an insight and finally the last step incorporates the designing of the intervention by accessing the insights analysed during the therapy session and accordingly adopt measures to help the patient in combating the prevalent psychological stress (Fonagy et al.,2015).

Hence, it should be noted that the method in which the psychoanalytical approach is undertaken should be moulded so as to develop better strategies to make the patient more comfortable so that the patient is able to express the deep feeling and thoughts that had led to the creation of a chaos in the mind-set. Also, the factors that lead to the exposure of vulnerability of the patient should be adequately analysed and considered prior to the implementation of the therapies in terms of narrative therapy or counselling sessions. Also, focus groups and parameters to interpret the insight of the patients should be judged on the basis of the consideration of specific characteristics that include the various age groups and other important factors.

Theories of personality can be defined as the differences in an individual with respect to their behavior and personality. As being stated by Freud, the personality of an individual remains the outcome of interface between ID, ego and superego. Freud in his theory had also stated that development of personality in an individual start at an age of 5. However, Freud had not considered an external factor that imposes an impact on the personality of an individual. After Freud, four of his followers, namely, Alfred Adler, Eric Fromm, Karen Horney and Harry stack Sullivan have worked upon the theories of personality. The theories evolved by the mentioned psychologists have greatly aided the modern psychotherapists to access the behavior and personality of the patient to understand the issues faced by them. Aldler has developed the school of universal psychology. His theory has given importance to the feelings, drives, memories as well as emotions in the framework of the wholelifetime of an individual. He has also described various levels of energy associated with human personality (Fenichel, 2014). According to Adler, human behavior deals majorly with the phenomenon that can be observed rather than a phenomenon that can be taken as faith. The idea of freedom in human personality is added by Eric Formm. He stated that freedom is the most crucial factor that can be evidenced in human personality. He describes three methods by which one escapes from independence, namely, strict, harmfulness and robotconformism. Fromm defined two types of “unproductive families”: “symbiotic and withdrawal families.” According to Formm, the economic system of a country is the best determinant of the social unconsciousness of its residents (Hall & Lindzey, 1957).

Horney in his theory has described the causes of female psychiatric disturbance. She stated that the male-dominated culture that had produced Freud theory can be considered responsible for psychiatric disturbance in females. In the concept, she has presented the notions“of womb envy that demonstrate male envy of nursing, pregnancy and motherhood.”(Hall & Lindzey, 1957)The fact that women have the potential to create and sustain life has led men to claim their superiority. Horney, his theory has explained ten patterns of physiological needs that characterize neurotics in their attempts to combat anxiety. The theories of Horney help modern psychiatrist to provide effective treatment to female patients suffering from anxiety disorder.  Sullivan's theory, on the other hand has focused on both the social as well as cognitive aspects of human personality. His theories are more inclined towards the eclectic approach instead of Freud's psychosexual approach. Sullivan stated that anxiety results only from social interaction. Hence the defense mechanism can be used as an effective tool to fight social anxiety.


From the above themes, it can be concluded that both Freudian and Non-Freudian theories have highly contributed to the development of modern applicability. Several similarities between the Freudian and Non-Freudian concept of personality has been detected. It has been found that, Non-Freudian theories which have been developed from Freudian theory has the potential to eradicate several issues associated with clinical intervention taken by psychotherapists. Finally, it can be concluded that though several research has been performed about the various concepts associated with Non-Freudian theories, more researches are needed to obtain clarity about of theoretical approaches that are required to be taken by therapists to provide a better intervention to the patients. In the above themes it can be seen that there are a number of different factors affecting the formulation of the ideology in the people in the society ranging from inheritance to interaction. The identity of a person may cannot be differentiated from any of the above said tenets as the human ideology depends on the person themselves and the acculturation they get. This in tandem with the interaction and its intensity can be said to be the formation of an identity.


Axelrod, S. D. (2012). "Self-awareness: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340–357.

Berman, E. (2013). Psychoanalytic supervision: The intersubjective development. Relational Psychoanalysis, Volume 2: Innovation and Expansion, 1145.

Eagle, M. N. (2007). Psychoanalysis and its critics. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 24(1), 10–24.

Fenichel, O. (2014). The psychoanalytic theory of neurosis. Routledge.

Fonagy, P., Target, M., & Gergely, G. (2015). Psychoanalytic perspectives on developmental psychopathology. Developmental Psychopathology: Volume One: Theory and Method, 701-749.

Glück, J., & Bluck, S. (2013). The MORE life experience model: A theory of the development of personal wisdom. The scientific study of personal wisdom (pp. 75-97). Springer, Dordrecht.

Hall, C. S., & Lindzey, G. (1957). Theories of personality. Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Hall, C. S., &Lindzey, G. (1957). Social psychological theories: Adler, Fromm, Horney, and Sullivan. Theories of personality (pp. 114-156). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. doi:10.1037/10910-004

Kline, P. (2013). Fact and Fantasy in Freudian Theory (RLE: Freud). Routledge.

Lacan, J. (2013). The ethics of psychoanalysis 1959-1960: The seminar of Jacques Lacan. Routledge. Weaver, Y. (2009). Mid-life - A time of crisis or new possibilities? Existential Analysis, 20(1), 69–78.

Lacan, J. (2013). The ethics of psychoanalysis: The seminar of Jacques Lacan: Book VII. Routledge.

Lachman, M. E., Teshale, S., & Agrigoroaei, S. (2015). Midlife as a pivotal period in the life course: Balancing growth and decline at the crossroads of youth and old age. International journal of behavioural development, 39(1), 20-31.

Overskeid, G. (2007). Looking for Skinner and finding Freud. American Psychologist, 62(6), 590–595.

Scaturo, D. J. (2005). Clinical dilemmas in psychotherapy: A transtheoretical approach to psychotherapy integration. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Weaver, Y. (2009). Mid-life--a time of crisis or new possibilities? Existential Analysis: Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 20(1).

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