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Profile Score of Intelligence

Discuss about the Psychology for Individual Differences.

Intelligence among humans is a very long sought topic of interest to the researchers. In general terms intelligence refers to the ability of a person to acquire knowledge, utilize and apply the knowledge and involve in abstract reasoning. The intellect of an individual is a direct harbinger of one’s state of well being and mental health status. Psychologists have devised a novel technique to measure the intelligent score of a person by virtue of intelligent quotient (IQ). Testing of the IQ in a person renders useful insight into the genetic inheritance of intelligence. Apart from the hereditary component certain environmental and biological factors play significant contribution towards improved intelligence in persons. Parental encouragement, a stimulating surrounding, good reasoning skills, and repeated practice account for improved intelligence in persons. Additionally, biological factors pertaining to nutritional status (particularly in early childhood), prenatal care, devoid of any sort of disease, physical trauma or any other co-morbidities also determines the  expression of intelligence apart from health and wellness. The concept of intelligence is a multifaceted one and essentially comprises of numerous intermittent constituents encompassing verbal, numerical, reasoning, spatial, perceptual speed, fluency. Cattell proposed intelligence in terms of coining the terms for fluid and crystallized intelligence (Jewsbury, Bowden & Duff, 2016). On the other hand, Gardener put forwarded the ideas of linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal that may be understood in the light of intelligence concept. However the difficulties in measuring intelligence emanate from the individual differences in cognitive abilities that often do not reflect in the test score. In this context, the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory may be mentioned that is based on the structure of human cognitive abilities. The vital components of individual differences that underpin the performance of an individual in cognitive test form the basis of the CHC theory. The psychometric approach as followed in the influential CHC theory accounts for the individual difference in abilities thereby facilitating the study on human intelligence (Shum et al., 2013). CHC theory was formed out of conglomeration of two previously established theoretical models of intelligence: the Gf-Gc theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence as well as Carroll’s Three Stratum Theory, a hierarchical three stratum framework of intelligence. Following, proportionate similarities between the two past theories; they were effectively amalgamated to result in the CHC theory. Nowadays CHC theory has been widely reckoned and deeply regarded as the most comprehensive and empirically backed theory of cognitive abilities and contributes towards valuable inputs in terms of testing the IQ scores.

Strength and Weakness of Profile Score

In psychological experiments and experimental analysis profile score is a widely used tool to measure the level of intelligence in a concerned person considering a number of pertinent factors that directly relate with the individual’s cognitive abilities and perceptions measured through valid indicators and test predictors. Profile scores are evaluated in conjunction with the personality types that in turn predict the behavioral items. The purpose of the profile score is to analyze and find out whether profile in one or two test takers varies significantly. The personality profile depicts the individual person’s positioning with respect to the multiple trait dimensions and allow for the measurement of profile similarity for distinct persons (Borkenau & Leising, 2016). However, the concept of profile score is very much complex as it is dependent upon factors concerning numerous issues. In the context of intelligence evaluation, profile score has profound impact and importance. According to the CHC theory, three stratum model of cognitive abilities may be interpreted based upon general, broad and narrow cognitive abilities. Seventy narrow or specific abilities constitute the stratum one, eight primary second order abilities form the stratum two and finally the general intelligence form the stratum three. The broad cognitive abilities encompass a vast range including the fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, broad visual perception, broad auditory perception, general memory and learning, broad retrieval ability, braid cognitive speediness and finally processing speed. Intelligence analysis is a widely studied topic in modern research and profile score has been attributed with it to measure the level of intelligence (Mellers et al., 2015). The complexity of profile score may be indicated through understanding of the applications of the CHC theory. As per general notion, intelligence is perceived in terms of reading, writing and mathematics ability and failure to take into account these general cognitive capabilities connect with the learning disabilities and mental retardation eligibility. Therefore, the profile score may be utilized in this respect to assess the intelligence of an individual and corroboration of multiple factors into evaluation of this abstract attribute make it all the more complex. However, the significance of profile score cannot be negated in view of analyzing the intelligence in a person and hence demands insightful and careful prudence on the part of the psychologists and researchers to undertake a study in an effective manner.

The role of psychometric analysis in assessing the outcomes of intelligence through expressions in terms of profile score may be understood through evaluation of the vital criteria like reliability, validity and reproducibility of the methods harbored. The involvement of several factors in the profile score linked to the assessment of intelligence in a person may be well addressed by weighed through its prospective advantages and disadvantages. The CHC theory is pivotal to the measurement of intelligence through profile score analysis. The strengths of profile score may be interpreted through evidences provided from empirical researches in support o the CHC theory under the categories consisting of structural, neurocognitive, heritability, developmental and outcome criterion. Structural analysis constitute evidences from factor analytic studies, outcome criteria concern evidences from differential linkages between several CHC abilities in conjunction with external outcomes involving reading, mathematics ability and occupation of the person. Neurocognitive component associates between CHC abilities and neurological operations. Differential inheritance pattern across populations distinctive to CHC abilities along with developmental outcomes with respect to different patterns of growth and decline across the life span may be understood as well referring to profile score. Pertaining to this context, the Wechsler tests that measure the general intelligence of a person may be mentioned where the tests appropriate to particular conditions and measuring the overall capability of an individual to understand and adapt to the surrounding environment. The Wechsler tests consist of a number of a range of tests concerning populations belonging to various age groups. For instance, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) are utilized repeatedly for psychometric analysis. Thus the positive aspect of profile score highlights that the statement and response as designed in the study should match each other and thus essentially be understandable and unambiguous to all. Thus it imparts crucial role to identify and recognize definite learning disabilities and guide future interventions in practice (Miciak et al., 2014). Despite the benefits of profile score, there are limitations as well. The intra individual differences to varied cognitive abilities exhibited through profile score are not assessed effectively. The individual components during profile scoring need to be separately scrutinized so as to get an idea regarding the prevalence of the specific issues related to mental retardation and learning disabilities (Koriakin et al., 2016). The corroboration and correct interpretation of the data in case of scores differing by less than one standard deviation are required that is essential for any standard psychometric analytical tool.

The level of intelligence occurring in a person is often linked to the score of his Intelligence Quotient (IQ). IQ scores enable the educators in detecting specific issues in pupils regarding their learning processes and adaptive strategies in response to changing environment. The identification of the prospective as well as the struggling students who encounter challenges in their daily discourse stood on the way of their emancipation of knowledge. However, often the IQ scores in the test subjects lead to production of negative outcomes in the pupils due to stereotyping and dearth of motivation generation in those pupils. Generally, this test score utilizes a standardized protocol to compare children’s abilities and performances by means of predicting the talent in the concerned students thereby helping the parents and teachers to tailor the educational plan customized to individual needs of the pupils (Ritchie t al., 2013). Classically the single test score of IQ generally gives additional information concerning a range of IQ and not just merely a score. This range specification in case of the intelligence tests poses certain ambiguities and discrepancies in interpreting the findings. However, the IQ test scores are not full proof and have certain intrinsic limitations by means of restricting the people’s ideas to the concept of intelligence. Thus prediction of success often becomes faulty and misleading as the multidimensional aspect of intelligence is overlooked. The IQ test scores generally measure the verbal and logical-mathematical abilities in a person without emphasizing on the other crucial components of intelligence (McDermott, Watkins & Rhoad 2014). The propositions made by American developmental psychologist Gardener in the year 1983 however stated nine types of intelligence among humans ranging from naturalist, musical, existential, logical-mathematical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, linguistic, spatial and intrapersonal abilities in a person and all of them are not adequately addressed and assessed in IQ test score. Hence a single total score of IQ is not good enough to measure the intelligence in a particular individual and necessitates the improvisation of a novel tool that will incorporate all nine documented types of intelligence a parameters for measurement. Another major drawback of the single score of IQ emanates from the difference within the same individual from results of different IQ tests. Lack of uniformity in the score though may be minimized by means of visualizing the score in terms of a specific range. Another test known as the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability utilizes the CHC theory as the basis of their working hypothesis, and providing cognitive scores to the users by virtue of the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM). Recent researches have indicated that this CPM acts as intermediate factors lying between the second and third strata of the CHC based theoretical model (Taub & McGrew, 2014). An in depth analysis of all the associated factors and cognitive abilities are evaluated in this test concerning visual-spatial thinking, auditory processing, speed of processing, comprehensive knowledge, long term retrieval, short term memory, sped of processing, quantitative knowledge, along with reading and writing skills. As a result, a general intellectual ability (GIA) or a brief intellectual ability (BIA) is procured that in turn is indicative of a comprehensive analysis of a general ability (g). The scoring pattern in this test is applied via weighted combination of multiple tests that are believed to underpin all intellectual performances suggestive of a single common ability. Hence, the single total score of IQ obtained from the concerned test give a more generalized proof for judging one’s intelligence rather than assessing the necessary attribute holistically.

The implications for the various assessment tools for intelligence may be effectively understood in the light of CHC theory on cognitive abilities. The single IQ score on intelligence is an indicator of a person’s intelligence as it showcases certain vital aspects of cognition that in turn account for improved intelligence in the individual through repeated practice and honing of the skills. A crucial consideration of IQ score pattern in individuals refers to the perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed and verbal comprehension components of cognitive abilities. Research has provided evidences for differential responses in IQ test based upon the gender, age, educational level and socio-economic condition (Ariffin et al., 2010). The profile score on the other hand encompass emotional intelligence component that addresses behavioral profile that renders a noncritical behavioral analysis of an individual in an effort to highlight his or her strengths and areas of forte. The personal profile analysis expressed in terms of profile scores thus provide a more insightful and individualized response specific to a particular given scenario (Legree, Mullins & Psotka 2016). Researchers often utilize this mode of scoring to evaluate the personalized response of the person pertinent to a specific scenario which in turn enables the psychologists to plan effective treatment modalities for the distressed individuals accordingly. Thus intelligence although a very dichotomous and poorly understood concept, holds implications and potentials for future research and practice.

Conclusion

The variability of human nature and psychology seem to affect the fundamental parameters of a person’s well being and mental status. The evaluation of the personality types based on the profile scores in conjunction with intelligence quotient (IQ) that reflects upon the level of understanding and logical reasoning skills in a person thus provides a thorough insight and rational for analyzing the responses of individuals relevant to specific circumstances and the subsequent coping strategies with the prevalent scenarios. The CHC theory is a very useful and case appropriate theory to assess the outcomes of the various types of cognitive abilities in a person. A holistic consideration of all the factors pertaining to the acquisition and development of skills in a person ranging from the general intelligence, sensory perceptions, concepts of crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence to other broad spectrum and narrow range abilities thus ensure an overall evaluation of an individual’s needs in the real world situations. In fine, it may be said despite the presence of a numerous tool and devises pertinent to the measurement of intelligence till date, yet the assessments made cannot be said to be conclusive and therefore requires constant evaluations for correctly interpreting the data obtained. Thus intelligence as perceived in general terms attributing to the specific skills such as reasoning and problem solving abilities, language acquisition and spatial manipulation must not be simply interpreted through IQ score as predictor of an individual’s success and well-being. The impact of the genes and the interaction with the environments call for further probe into analyzing the intelligence component in a person which is in reality more complex than we can imagine or accurately interpret. Batteries of Psychometric tests trying to assess the intellect in a person hence need extensive research to provide empirical support and rationale behind the test execution inclusive of all the essential factors that make up one’s intellectual component.

References

Ariffin, S. R., Suppian, Z., Shahar, S. N., Majid, R., & Yasin, S. F. M. (2010). Students’ Profile Score in Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) and Working Memory Index (WMI) for Intelligence Test. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7, 77-81.

Borkenau, P., & Leising, D. (2016). A More Complete Picture of Personality What Analyses of Trait Profiles Have Told Us About Personality Judgment—So Far. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25(4), 228-232.

Jewsbury, P. A., Bowden, S. C., & Duff, K. (2016). The Cattell–Horn–Carroll Model of Cognition for Clinical Assessment. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 0734282916651360.

Koriakin, T., White, E., Breaux, K. C., DeBiase, E., O’Brien, R., Howell, M., & Courville, T. (2016). Patterns of cognitive strengths and weaknesses and relationships to math errors. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 0734282916669909.

Legree, P. J., Mullins, H. M., & Psotka, J. (2016). Comment: The ability model of emotional intelligence: Consistency with intelligence theory. Emotion Review, 1754073916650500.

McDermott, P. A., Watkins, M. W., & Rhoad, A. M. (2014). Whose IQ is it?—Assessor bias variance in high-stakes psychological assessment. Psychological assessment, 26(1), 207.

Mellers, B., Stone, E., Atanasov, P., Rohrbaugh, N., Metz, S. E., Ungar, L., & Tetlock, P. (2015). The psychology of intelligence analysis: Drivers of prediction accuracy in world politics. Journal of experimental psychology: applied, 21(1), 1.

Miciak, J., Fletcher, J. M., Stuebing, K. K., Vaughn, S., & Tolar, T. D. (2014). Patterns of cognitive strengths and weaknesses: Identification rates, agreement, and validity for learning disabilities identification. School Psychology Quarterly, 29(1), 21.

Ritchie, S. J., Bates, T. C., Der, G., Starr, J. M., & Deary, I. J. (2013). Education is associated with higher later life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed. Psychology and aging, 28(2), 515.

Shum, D., O'Gorman, J. G., Myors, B., & Creed, P. A. (2013). Psychological testing and assessment. https://ukcatalogue. oup. com/product/9780195520415. do.

Taub, G. E., & McGrew, K. S. (2014). The Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III’s Cognitive Performance Model Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors Within CHC Theory. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 32(3), 187-201.

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