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The Earliest Relationship between Hunter-Gatherer Communities and Animals

Discuss about the Relationship Between Human Beings and Animals.

The relationship between man and other animals dates back to millions of years ago. Although man has been able to dominate over other creatures within his ecosystem, he has always created a close relationship between some animals. According to scientists, man is a ‘special' animal. The evolutionists argue that man evolved from apes. The evolution saw man advance from simple forms to advanced changes over the years (Stokes, 2006). That is to imply that man is an animal though due to his enhanced thinking, he had to isolate himself from other animals and probably a reason as to why he came to dominate other primates. After becoming dominant over other species of animals, the man still maintained a close relationship with other them.

Their relationship grew up to fascinating levels. They became ‘great' friends over time. Some animals even were free to share the same ecosystem with the man. These animals commonly known as tamed or domestic animals have maintained the connection up to date. The relationship has seen both sides benefit from each other (Beatson & Halloran, 2007). The animals have ever since been assured of food, security and medical attention from the man. On the other hand, the animals have been useful to man in offering him security, food, wealth, among others. In this paper, my objective is to show the relationship that exists between human beings and animals within the shared environments. 

The earliest relationship between people and animals was recorded among hunter and gather communities (Kalof et al, 2007). Perhaps, it is the oldest history recorded between man and animals. Most of these communities were and can still be found in some parts of Africa. Majorly, the communities depended on food from the animals. The population of the communities was directly proportional to the number of animals around. That is to imply that the animals determined the human population. With their advanced thinking, the hunters could even kill large animals for the purpose of food. The relationship endured well until there was a significant climatic change.

The Role of Dogs in the Human-Animal Relationship

The change affected the animal population a situation which in reverse modified man's way of life. (Plomin,1977) Having realized that the food that he was used to was no longer accessible, human beings opted for other methods of survival. It was the first instance when man started eating some types of plants, a factor which led to the introduction of agriculture and farming. Earlier on, the man had realized that some animals were friendly enough. Some of these animals were not edible but were of great importance. The first animal in this category was the dog. The dog is a small animal, but when well trained, it helped the man in hunting. The dog assisted man in capturing hares and other small animals.(Jones, S. 1999) the dog as well offered security to the man at night. Over the years, the relationship between the dog and human beings has grown profoundly. Today, apart from being used for security, highly trained dogs are used for investigative purposes. They can help in sniffing toxic drugs like cocaine.

The other important animal that man has tamed over the years is the donkey. The donkey is such a powerful animal that assists in carrying heavy luggage. During the early years, the donkey could be used by man for carrying luggage for long distances. The horse is another animal that has been of great importance to man over the years. Unlike the donkey, the horse is larger and attractive. It can move for longer distances while moving at a higher speed. Equally, it can also be used in carrying luggage. Today, the horse is still an important animal to human beings. It is used for different purposes. Horses are used in marathon races. Highly trained horses have the ability to follow human commands. They can turn corners, move at high speed or lower speed by following simple commands. Apart from racing, horses are kept as pets. With their lovely and attractive bodies, they are adored by man people.

Animals as well are a good source of food to man. They are the leading source of protein that aids in building the human body. Animal products that are a source of protein for the man include eggs, milk, and meat. These products can be found from domesticated animals like the cows, goats, sheep and hens. Animals products are not only restricted to food. The sheep is known for its fur which is sheared and manufactured in industries to produce cotton. Cotton products are used in many different ways (Comber & Griffin, 2007 They are used to make clothes and duvets. Products made from cotton last long and are protective from cold. Hooves from animals like cows are used in making bracelets and other decorative items.

The Importance of Donkeys and Horses to Humans

Animal skin is also widely used. The skin is used in shoe processing industries. Other leather products such as bags and coats are made from animal skins. Meat from some animals can be processed and stored for long periods. Processed meat aids in saving lives during hunger and is used by soldiers who are on more extended missions. The meat can also be treated in bulky and be sold to other countries. Ox as well aids in drawing wagons. Although the method is outdated, it is still used in some places around the world. Snakeskin is used in many various ways. It is used in making beautiful products such as bags, belts, and hats. The fur from some birds is equally important because it is used in making jackets.

The human and animal relationship has also seen a significant advancement in the agricultural field (Tim, 2006). Most industries that process fertilizer use animal products (De Mello, 2012). Droppings from cows, pigs, hens and other domesticated animals are taken to the industries where they are treated and turned into commercial fertilizer. The compost aids in increasing farm yields. In some parts of the world, tamed elephants are used to pull heavy luggage. Other trained elephants can even raise circus tents. Making elephants work for man is such a bizarre thing that has ever happened in the whole human history. Additionally, the fish as well aid man in numerous ways. Majorly, they are used as a source of food because their meat contains a good percentage of protein.

Some of the common types of edible fish include tilapia, sea urchins and lobsters.  Fish range in many different species, some of which are edible and others can only be used for research purposes. In many places, fish help in the control of mosquitoes. Mosquito fish is such a species of fish that is well known in eating mosquito larvae in marshy areas. Fish are also kept for recreational purposes. The aquarium is such a good example of where fish are kept for fun. As well, fish are also used for scientific research purposes. Most laboratories have either living fish or even frozen ones kept for research (Hind, 2015).

Animals as a Source of Food and Other Products


Keeping animals as pets is also one of the remarkable things that has ever happened in the whole human history. The man has always built a close relationship with different types of animals. The animals range from cats, dogs, fish and even the dangerous ones like snakes, cheetahs, alligators, and lions (Knight, 2008). The harmless ones like the dogs are let to mingle freely around the man while the dangerous ones are kept in cages. The purpose of maintaining a pet is to show love for the animal someone loves. The tamed animals are always shown great care whereby there are given specific medical attention, particular types of food and excellent protection. Tamed animals are always clean and attractive. 

As well, animals have been a good source of revenue to man over the years (Esposito et al., 2011). People who have come to realize the whole importance of some animals have eventually changed their lives (Aubrey et al., 2013). For instance, the case where some citizens in Asia can tame elephants is quite astonishing. Funny as it looks, it always attracts the attention of tourists to such places. Some of the tourists will always value such efforts with some cash. Some people as well tame animals with a major aim of attracting tourists. Animals such as lions are rare to be found anywhere and taming them can draw the attention of tourists who in return can pay some money.

Past essay

According to the current United States Constitution, only people who have attained 18 years are permitted to take part in the national elections. A good percentage of the American citizens believe that it is good to allow people who have attained the age of 18 to take part in the elections because they have learned enough at that age to let them make proper suggestions. On the other, some people, however, feel that the current voting age is okay, and it should not be altered. In my opinion, I propose that the current voting age should be lowered. The aim of this paper is to give reasons why I feel that the voting age should be lowered.

The Agricultural Impact of Human-Animal Relationship

Just like adults, youths are equally subjected to all American laws. As well, they also pay taxes, and this implies that they take part in building the state economy. American teens pay an estimated tax of $9.7 billion dollars. As a matter of fact, 80% of teens especially in high school and campus work (Vanessa., 2014). The government requires them to pay taxes. As well, there are laws that teens should follow. For the government to promote sincerity among all people, teens should be allowed to vote for the people whom they think can fight for their rights.

Moreover, youths have a particular perspective. They have experiences that won't come again in their lives. Disallowing them from voting is undoubtedly similar to denying women from voting. Giving them a chance to vote allows them to choose candidates who can represent their views. There are young candidates seeking positions in the Senate. The young candidates understand the troubles that they undergo and can, therefore, make better decisions if allowed to take part in elections. The result of denying the youth the rights to vote is that their constitutional rights are poorly represented by the people who have been elected to serve them by the older citizens.

Additionally, I feel that the age should be lowered just a little bit but not too much. 16 years should be the appropriate age. Actually, at the age of 16, most youths have grasped a good information on what is taking part in their local and general government. At the age of 18, many teens leave home either for college or even in the hunt for jobs (Vanessa, 2011). Leaving home implies that they have to meet a new community of people whom they are not used to. Even though they have been approved to vote at that time, most of them find themselves far away from home possibly missing the chance to vote for the contenders they knew for many years.


Lowering the voting age as well can escalate the voter turnout. The higher the number of voters a specific election has, the more accurate the outcome. As well, having a high voter turnout implies that a better population of the citizens are satisfied with the leaders they elect to power. It is also a good idea to teach young people healthy habits at a younger age. The behavior of voting is important to the citizens especially if they are introduced to it while they are young (Graham 2010)If they start voting while they are young there are high, chances that they will vote even when they are old. 

Fish: A Versatile Resource for Humans

Likewise, if the government allows the youth especially at the age of 16 to vote, schools can begin an educative program aiming to make them better voters (Neale, 2010). At the age of 16, most youths are finishing their high school studies and ready to join college. It is the age that teens have started to know more about what their surrounding entails. The believe that they can make poor decisions should, therefore, be dismissed as they can fantastic decisions. There is also a likelihood that some adults do not take part in the elections, yet they are registered, voters. It is wrong to deny an opportunity to people who are willing to vote yet some people have the same opportunities but end up wasting them. The reasons discussed in this paper are enough to trigger the government of the United States to lower the voting age. 

References

Beatson RM & Halloran (2007) Humans rule! The effects of creatureliness reminders, mortality salience and self-esteem on attitudes towards animals. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 46:619–632.

Comber, J., & Griffin, G. (2007). Genetic engineering and other factors that might affect human-animal interactions in the research setting. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 10, 267-277

De Mello, M. (2012). Animals and society: An introduction to human-animal studies. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. 

Esposito, L., McCune, S., Griffin, J. A., & Maholmes, V. (2011). Directions in human-animal interaction research: child development, health, and therapeutic interventions. Child Development Perspectives, 5, 205-211.

Kalof L, Fitzgerald A Mithen S (2007) The Hunter-Gatherer prehistory of human–animal interactions, eds Kalof L, Fitzgerald A (Berg, Oxford), pp 117–128.

Knight AJ (2008) “Bats, snakes and spiders, oh my!” How aesthetic and negativistic attitudes, and other concepts predict support for species protection. J. Environ. Psychol 28:94–103.

Stokes DL (2006) Things we like: human preferences among similar organisms and implications for conservation. Hum. Ecol. 35:361–369.

Vanessa., W. (2014) ‘current Voting age in US should not be lowered’ The Stylus https://www.thestylus.net/news/view.php/849902/Current-voting-age-in-US-should-not-be-l

Aubrey Manning, James Serpell,(2013) Animals and Human Society: Changing Perspectives

Tim Ingold(2006)Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment, and Development

Plomin, Robert; DeFries, J. C.; Loehlin, John C. (1977) Genotype-environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 84(2), Mar 1977, 309-322. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.84.2.309

The Rat Poison, Fence and Biodiversity Crisis in Qinghai-Tibetan Pastures——An Ethnographic Study on the Relationship among Tibetans and Animals and Ecological Actions, Modern Anthropology, 2014, 02, 01, 1

Jones, S. (1999) Becoming a pest: Prairie dog ecology and the human economy in the Euroamerican west. Environmental History, 4, 531-552.

J. Hind(2015), A review of the past, the present, and the future of fishers' knowledge research: a challenge to established fisheries science, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 2015, 72, 2, 341

Neale, Thomas H.,(2010) "Lowering the Voting Age was not a New Idea", in Amendment XXVI Lowering the Voting Age, ed. Engdahl, Sylvia (New York: Greenhaven Press, 2010), 35.

Graham, Fred P., in Amendment XXVI Lowering the Voting Age, ed. Engdahl, Sylvia (New York: Greenhaven Press, 2010), 67.

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