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## Question1

What were the research findings?What statistics were included in this section?Did the authors report any reliability data for their measures? What were they? Did you note construct validity in this experiment? If so, what type?Describe the possible research findings and measures that would be used to assess the experimental outcomes.Define the proposed statistical methods as either descriptive or inferential with a specific example that supports your choice.

For analyzing the hypothesis on the effects of stress on the memory of a person it is important to understand the two perspective of hypothesis conducted for completing the research study. It is important to notice that is there any difference on the basis of procedure of conducting the test or on basis of time (Blonna, 2014). For commenting on the reliability and validity of the results of a hypothesis, it is important to understand the difference between the observations from the participants in the interview session. A self assessment test was conducted with about 20 participants and it was found that the response of the participants was different in two different sessions (CAO, LIU, TIAN & GUO, 2012). In the first session the participants were full of stress and the memory of the participants did not work that much as compared to the session after the break. It was found from the experiment that the memory of the participants responded more effectively when there is less stress, i.e. after the break. As the participants got time to rest, their mind went through a restoration period and the capacity of their mind to memories the words increased. Hence, it was found from the hypothesis that a human minds works better when the stress level is low (Carmines & Zeller, n.d.).

For conducting the research different types of participants are used, those who faces stress in their daily job. Through the research different types of variables are used that are analyzed to get the outcomes of the research (Franzen, Robbins & Sawicki, 1989). These variables are of two types. One is dependent variables and the other is the independent variables. Dependable variables are different from that of independent variables because of their dependency with other variables. The variables that are directly related with stress and memory capacity are dependent variable whereas those variables which are correlated with the other variables are independent variables. Here in this hypothesis, the correlation between the dependent and the independent variables are utilized to get a huge difference in the observation of the hypothesis. These variables are compulsory for conducting a research study. The variables are collected by conducting the interview and self assessment program in which the T-test was done with the use of the variables (Kirk & Miller, 1986). The variables collected can be represented in tabular format that will help the researcher in solving the research problems. Here the data that sates that the participant is able to “answer how many questions” and “job of the participant” are useful variable that helps to find the outcome of the research.

Yes the author has provided reliability of data because the author has supported the data with a personal interview and self assessment session that proves the reliability of the data collected for analysis in the research study (Aven & Heide, 2009). The measurement of number of words remembered by each participants, result for each session, etc. are the examples of reliability of data that is been used in the research study. The hypothesis also shows signs of construct validity because it is conducted on the basis of the personal interview and self assessment of the participants. No external source of data is been used in the hypothesis.

The results from the interview can be used as variables which would help in statistical analysis. Through statistical analysis the finding and measures can be utilized to get the final outcome of the research study (Koc & Erdemoglu, 2010). The variables can be used to find the standard deviation to know the difference in the observation of the variables and correlation and regression to know the inter dependency of the variables. From this measures and findings the outcome of the research is obtained that shows the statistical analysis of the data. The statistical data for how many words the student remembers, stress level of the student, etc. helps the researcher to make the statistical analysis with numeric values and this further helps to find the actual outcome of the hypothesis (Sherif, 1987).

Here in this hypothesis, descriptive statistical analysis is used to show the results of the findings and measures (Litwin, 1995). The analysis done explains the outcome of the report and provides enough information to know the final outcome of the hypothesis. Hence, the descriptive method is suitable in this hypothesis. This hypothesis generally depends on descriptive analysis therefore a descriptive statistical method is been used in this research study.This shows that the variables used in the hypothesis are reliable and valid because it is supported by a personal interview and self assessment of the participants (Acaroglu, Suhonen, Sendir & Kaya, 2010).

Did the research findings support the hypothesis?Was the research reliable? Why or why not?Did the study list any suggestions for improvement and replication? How? Write your answer with examples.A discussion of any potential ethical concerns related to the experiment design.A discussion of potential variables that could influence internal validity.Comments about how the outcomes of this experiment would be generalized to the general population.

After all the research work has been done it can be said that the research findings are certainly supported the hypothesis to a great extent. After thoroughly examined of the research studies one can easily find impact of stress on the memory of human beings. As it is told in the hypothesis human brain can be certainly affected by daily life stress to a huge extent (Schubert, 2009). The memory power can be decreased if the level of stress exerted on brain is increased. For example the persons who have been working regular for about 14 to 18 hours and have lack of sleep can lose the memory power to some of extent.

## Question2

The research work which has been done is certainly reliable. As shown in the research work, human brain can react to stress. It can cause shortage of memory to those who are very busy and have lead to live stressed life for their studies or work or for some other reasons. A lot of important statistics can be obtained from this research on this particular subject such as the pattern of the memory shortage of a particular group of people who lead same sort of life and goes through the same amount of pressure.

Of course, the study indeed listed some suggestions for improvement (Liu & Li, 2014). There are more scopes to ensure how human brain acts when it is gone through the stress of some variable levels. This particular study shows that more experiments should be done to determine the stress level of a human brain. It can be elaborated through the following examples.This type of experiments should be done more and more on different type of people to understand the different reaction of human brains in different circumstances. That should enlarge the information about the behavior of human brain and the whole society should be benefited from this (Patchen, 1965). To avoid any potential ethical concerns the experiments should be monitored very carefully and one has to make sure that results are well verified before it is published publically. For the society it is very important to ensure this type of measures should be taken.One has to keep an eye on the potential variables such as the people who are taking part in the studies as they possibly could affect the outcome of the experiment. The more the variable are the more different types of result have to be emerged (Saipanish, Lotrakul & Sumrithe, 2009). Therefore the experiment should be done on the people in proper way and the observation part becomes more and more important. People is tend to get carried away in these types of experiments and thus the outcome could be different. That part should be taken under huge consideration too.

After all the hard works have been done the outcomes of the particular experiment from different types of variables become more and more important. Therefore the analysis of the outcome is too much essential for the experiment (WU, 2008). Through the outcome people should able to understand how the human brain can act in certain stressful situation. People can also learn to deal with their stress if they can control their brain to some extent through practice. The people who are undecided in stress can find a way out through these types of experiments’ outcome to a great extent. So far it can be said that human brain can adopt itself when it comes to memory in stressful situations too if it can be trained in a proper way.

References

Acaroglu, R., Suhonen, R., Sendir, M., & Kaya, H. (2010). Reliability and validity of Turkish version of the Individualised Care Scale. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 20(1-2), 136-145. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03468.x

Aven, T., & Heide, B. (2009). Reliability and validity of risk analysis. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 94(11), 1862-1868. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2009.06.003

Blonna, D. (2014). Validity and reliability of the SPORTS score for shoulder instability. Jts. doi:10.11138/jts/2014.2.2.059

CAO, X., LIU, X., TIAN, L., & GUO, Y. (2012). The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of nurses’ self-concept questionnaire. Journal Of Nursing Management, 21(4), 657-667. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01419.x

Carmines, E., & Zeller, R. Reliability and validity assessment.

Franzen, M., Robbins, D., & Sawicki, R. (1989). Reliability and validity in neuropsychological assessment. New York: Plenum Press.

Kirk, J., & Miller, M. (1986). Reliability and validity in qualitative research. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

Koc, R., & Erdemoglu, A. (2010). Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Self-Administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) Questionnaire. Pain Medicine, 11(7), 1107-1114. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00837.x

Litwin, M. (1995). How to Measure Survey Reliability and Validity. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Liu, P., & Li, Z. (2014). Corrigendum to “Comparison of task complexity measures for emergency operating procedures: Convergent validity and predictive validity” [Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 121 (2014) 289–293]. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 127, 97. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2014.03.002

Patchen, M. (1965). Some questionnaire measures of employee motivation and morale. [Ann Arbor]: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

Saipanish, R., Lotrakul, M., & Sumrithe, S. (2009). Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the WHO-Five Well-Being Index in primary care patients. Psychiatry And Clinical Neurosciences,63(2), 141-146. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.01933.x

Schubert, A. (2009). Validity and Reliability of Faculty Evaluations. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 108(6), 1992. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e31819f9775

Sherif, Y. (1987). The reliability and validity of correlating human health hazards and nicotine content in cigarettes. Microelectronics Reliability, 27(5), 859-865. doi:10.1016/0026-2714(87)90334-9

WU, W. (2008). Assessment of reliability and validity of food frequency questionnaire. Acad J Sec Mil Med Univ, 28(5), 571-573. doi:10.3724/sp.j.1008.2008.00571

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