Statement of the research problem
Discuss About The Research Methodologies Analytical Techniques in Research.
The employees of an organization works in the manner they are being directed by the managers. The way the managers handle the employees decides the production from the employees and eventually decides the performance of the entire organization. However, the way of handling people differs among the senior level managers and among the entry level managers. The senior level managers have a direct approach solve any issues while the entry level managers prefer to be empowered so that they are able to take the decisions. The research will investigate the previous statement and find out the validity of the statement in the real world. It might happen the way of dealing the employees will vary with the managers. The research will throw light on the way the managers deal with the employees in the organization.i. Population
As the study will be about the function of the managers in an organization and their way of handling the employees in the organization, hence managers from multi-national companies will interviewed in the research paper (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015). The population for the study will be ten multinational companies where the number of employees will be more. The research will mainly study the way the employees are handled by the managers, hence, the number of employees should be more so that the researcher could study the actions of the managers properly. The division of the departments in the multi-national companies will be more as well, hence, the multi-national companies will be best suited for the study.
Out of the population considered for the study, two senior managers who have experience of ten years and more and two entry level managers of each company will be studied in this paper. The entry level managers who will be interviewed for this paper should not be more than six months old in the organization. If an employee got promoted to a material post from an executive in the past six months, then also the employee can be considered to be an entry level manager. The employee might have been in the organization for a long period, but the experience of the employee as a manager will be considered for the study. Thus, there will be four managers from each company who will be interviewed for the present research work.
The sampling for the research will be carried with the help of random probability sampling (Mackey and Gass 2015). An individual can make use of probability sampling once he or she has a proper idea about the number of people needed to carry out the research work (Smith 2015). In the present research, the number of people is known and hence, probability sampling will be best suited for the research work (Merriam and Tisdell 2015). Moreover, random sampling will be used because the respondents will not be divided based on race, gender, ethnicity or way of work in the organization (Flick 2015). The main thing that should be look for among the participants will be the experience they have in the present organization. As random sampling will be implemented in the research, the names of the managers with the letter A will be selected first, if there are not enough managers with names starting with A or are not ready to take part, then it will move on to the next alphabet (Brown 2015). The entry-level managers will be selected from alphabets in the reverse order, that is with the names starting with Z and eventually will move in the reverser order. By implementing this type of sampling, chances of biasness will be less from the part of the researcher (Bryman and Bell 2015).
Research designi. The role of interviews
1. Way of carrying out the interview
The interviews will be carried out face-to-face rather than carrying out the interview over the telephone or through e-mail. As they are the managers of an organization, hence, prior appointment is needed to be taken. The availability of the managers will be a major issue in this case (Weber 2015). The researcher has to wait till the manager would be available to give the interviews about their experiences (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015). It will be time consuming process and a considerable amount of time should be kept by the researcher while carrying out the study so that the project could be completed on time (Mackey and Gass 2015). The research need to know their way of working with the employees and managing the employees and hence, a detailed approach towards the interview is required to complete the research work (Campbell and Stanley 2015). Once the researcher carries out a face-to-face interview, more information will be retrieved rather than the to the point answers that they might have given of the interview is done over the mail or telephone (Wellington 2015).
The questionnaires will have open-ended questions where there will be ample chance for the respondents to reply to the questions descriptively (Brinkmann 2014). At times, the close-ended questions are not enough to get the idea about the ways the employee are being managed by the managers (Panneerselvam 2014). The managers would be able to tell about their problems and difficulties that they faced while managing the employees with their style of management (Reynolds et al. 2014). The open-ended questions will give space for further conversation between the researcher and the respondents and a deeper insight of the topic will be retrieved from interview process.
1. Purpose of the survey
The main purpose of the survey is to understand the management styles of different managers in an organization and evaluate whether the hypothesis taken in the beginning is rejected or supported. Once the survey will be over, the research will be able to throw light on the style of management that is helpful for the employees to work in (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015). The managers will be able to tell about the performance of the department. The annual report of the company will be another proof that whether the management style of the managers are helpful in garnering better profit for the organization or it is the other way around (Mackey and Gass 2015).
Approach to analysis
2. Structure of the questions
The questions will be open-ended questions. The managers need to tell about the way they manage their employees and whether they have found any difficulty in implementing their styles, or they feel that there is a need to improve their style (Smith 2015). The open-ended questions will give them the opportunity to describe their experiences in detail (Flick 2015). The interviewer will also be able to understand the perspectives of the manager and evaluate the management styles with the help of the open-ended questions (Wellington 2015). Some of the factors could not be measured by mathematical calculations (Campbell and Stanley 2015). The statistical analysis will not be able to throw light on the management styles and the way managers work in the organization. In addition to this, the number of managers is not huge and hence, getting their feedback in a descriptive manner would not be an issue for the researcher. The way the managers handle the employees and the difference in the management styles can only be evaluated with the help of narrations of experiences and styles and getting an idea about the styles from those narrations (Brinkmann 2014).
3. Sample of the question for the survey
- Do you like to take decision or you leave it to the team members to take the decision after telling them the situation?
- Do you mention in the beginning what are you talking about when you start a discussion? Why or why not?
- Have you seen any change among the employees once they come to know what the discussion or news is all about in the beginning? For example, a sense of eagerness when asked to give suggestions and a sense of loss of interest when there is a command.
- What is favorite mode of communication with the employees of the department?
- Do you think asking the employees to do a certain thing by taking the decision yourself makes the work process faster? Is it effective?
4. Survey instrument
There will be a total of ten questions in the questionnaire. the managers will be giving their feedback within the office hours and hence a lengthy questionnaire will make the interview process boring and the managers might not be ready to take the long interviews within the working hours of the office. Some of the informal questions can also be incorporated but that would not be out of context and the answer should be included in any of the questions in the questionnaire.
In the present research, there is no quantitative data and hence, there is no need of any statistical calculation to reach the conclusion (Merriam and Tisdell 2015). The feedback of the senior and the entry-level managers will be taken in a descriptive manner and hence, the narrative technique will be implemented for the present research work (Bryman and Bell 2015). The feedback of the senior managers from ten different companies and the feedback of the entry-level managers from the ten companies will compared. The management styles of the senior and the junior employees will then be compared to identify the differences between the management styles of different managers (Brown 2015). The narrative method will also help the researcher to incorporate ideas of self at the end of the evaluation (Weber 2015). The similarities and the differences will be described so that the hypothesis that has been taken in the beginning of the research is proved as either true or false.Time frame of study, with key milestones
Secondary research and writing the literature review
Prepare the research methodology
Primary data collection with the help of survey
Analysis of the data and interpreting the data
Evaluate the findings
Draw the conclusion
Preparing the final work and submission
The role of the survey
Resources required to conduct the study
Planning the resources required to carry out the research work is an important part of the study (Cohen, Manion and Morrison 2013). Pre-planning is required so that the researcher does not run out of resources in the middle of the study. The success of the research hugely depends on how well the resources are planned for the research work (Tarone, Gass and Cohen 2013). The main resources that will be required to carry out the work can be jotted down as follows:
Financial resources that will help the researcher to get the secondary data that will be required to carry out the work. Some of the websites do not give access to the data to every individual and the person who wishes to get the material have to pay the extra amount to see the data. In addition to this, buying stationeries travelling to various places will also require financial expenditure.
Other resources like books and study materials will also be important to carry out the research work. Other than the online materials, the books will give extra knowledge regarding any topic on which the research will be carried out.
Budget is another important part of the study. If the budget is not decided beforehand, it can result in an incomplete research work (Rossi, Wright and Anderson 2013). The budget about the research work will be as follows:
Retrieve the online materials
However, the entire budget for the research work will be around 4500 riyal. the research should be completed within the budget so that the researcher does not suffer from any over-expenditure in the study.
Brinkmann, S., 2014. Interview (pp. 1008-1010). Springer New York.
Brown, T.A., 2015. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. Guilford Publications.
Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2015. Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA.
Campbell, D.T. and Stanley, J.C., 2015. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Ravenio Books.
Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K., 2013. Research methods in education. Routledge.
Flick, U., 2015. Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project. Sage.
Mackey, A. and Gass, S.M., 2015. Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge.
Merriam, S.B. and Tisdell, E.J., 2015. Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons.
Panneerselvam, R., 2014. Research methodology. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd..
Reynolds, D., Creemers, B., Nesselrodt, P.S., Shaffer, E.C., Stringfield, S. and Teddlie, C. eds., 2014. Advances in school effectiveness research and practice. Elsevier.
Rossi, P.H., Wright, J.D. and Anderson, A.B. eds., 2013. Handbook of survey research. Academic Press.
Smith, J.A. ed., 2015. Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. Sage.
Tarone, E.E., Gass, S.M. and Cohen, A.D., 2013. Research methodology in second-language acquisition. Routledge.
Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., 2015. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.
Weber, M., 2015. On the methodology of the social sciences. Lulu Press, Inc.
Wellington, J., 2015. Educational research: Contemporary issues and practical approaches. Bloomsbury Publishing.
the questions in the questionnaire.
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