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Communication and Society

Discuss About The Satisfaction And Population Size Victoria.

Communication can be referred to the methods of exchanging information between two individuals by the means of a proper systematic and convenient behaviour or action. In order to receive the benefits a society has to offer, one should be able to communicate well with other people of the society (Reinke et al., 2017). This study acknowledges the communication gap between the Greek and Macedonian group of people and the society thereby. The Greek and Macedonian people in the area have distinct believes of culture, dialect, customs and religious convictions (Georgiades, 2015). These believes also include life care and terminal ailments. Some of these believes along with lack of ability to communicate properly, has turned out be a problem specially for the elderly people (Yiakoumetti & Papapavlou, 2018). Since most of these people migrated as adults, English is not there first language, creating a barrier in the communications for these people in Australia.

This particular study has been conducted in Whittlesea city with the help of “La Trobe University Palliative Care Unit City of Whittlesea Positive Ageing Program”.  The ‘Way to Go’ project of the University is focused on helping out the Greek and Macedonian communities regarding the healthcare of them in the latter stage of their life. 

In order to have a better understanding of the situation, various literatures have been explored on the Greek and Macedonian health care rituals (Karadzinska?Bislimovska et al., 2014). The process of the ‘Way to go’ program has also been analysed in detail to have thorough comprehension on the subject matter. Assessment of this venture is expected to recognize the best methods for corresponding the vital health care issues in aforementioned groups and the identify the most appropriate method for creating systems that reinforce existing resources and address all the issues that need rectifications.

The least a person deserves is to receive a proper end of life care. End of life care is designated to help the patient or individual under the care to pass away as peacefully and with dignity as possible (Brinkman-Stoppelenburg, Rietjens & van der Heide, 2014). A lot can be decided before hand so that the person or the family of the patient need not have trouble making decisions at critical situations in the last stage of life (Villanueva et al., 2016). Generally, an individual is considered to be nearing the end of life when the individual has around 12 months more to live. The individual is considered eligible to receive the end of life care at this point of time. A lot of such services can be found now days, in all parts of the globe. Apart from all the personal wishes and requirements, this service also covers all the legal aspects of life. Thus one can plan ahead in case he or she is not being able to in the last stages of life.

The Way to Go Project

As mentioned before, this particular study is concerned with the end of life care regarding the Greek and Macedonian communities in Australia. The chosen organisation for this project is “La Trobe University Palliative Care Unit”. Their service, named 'Way to Go' is under the Positive Aging system of the Council and will is primarily focused on supporting the Greek and Macedonian people group regarding their end of life concerns (Reed, Fitzgerald & Bish, 2017). It is critical to outline resources effectively accessible to these groups in Whittlesea, to recognize the faults in administrations and to create appropriate methods or techniques to address these faults. Process assessment of this undertaking is expected to distinguish the best methods for correspondence about end of life issues in these groups and the best method for creating procedures that reinforce existing resources and address any ambiguity or inadequacy in end of life support and care.

The Municipal Association of Victoria have joined hands with the La Trobe University Palliative Care Unit to provide the funding for monitor the role of local governments in employing the end of life care. It is specifically focused on finding whether or not the people belonging to the Macedonian or Greek communities are receiving proper end of life care.

The ‘Way to Go’ project is aimed at development of the community as a whole. The organization is works to build a compassionate community (Drew, Dollery & Kortt, 2016). The major goal is to provide assistance and motivation to those who are in the last stages of their lives. The term used for such services is ‘Palliative Care’. The other aspect of this scheme is to provide services on a one to one basis. Each individual may have different requirements or services as per their need.

The wellbeing of the people in a community are dependent on the conditions in which individuals are conceived, brought up, live and age. These conditions are molded by the circulation of cash, power and assets at every level (Feischmidt & Szombati, 2017). The unjustifiable and avoidable contrasts in wellbeing status seen inside and between nations can distinctly be identified in today’s world (Wiener et al., 2015). The wellbeing of an individual is also dependent on the social, monetary and the physical condition.

The major goal of this project is to look in to the procedures maintained by the organisations to provide the end of life healthcare support. The evaluation of the processes is to be carried out in this project to indicate the necessary changes or alterations in the service policy (Beach, 2016). As communication between the people of the community and those who provide the service are a major cause of discordance, objective of this study revolves around solving such issues and providing a guideline for better service (Yulia, 2015). In the process of doing so, the most effective and constructive method is also to be found out. However, it is essential to recognise and address all inadequacies beforehand. Upon which a suitable solution can be instituted.

End-of-Life Care and Planning

The three following methods or activities have been chosen in accordance with the subject matter. Initially, a broad exploration on the literature concerned with the end of life care shall be done. This section of the research will enlighten the major faults and drawbacks of the service as far as the Macedonian and Greek community are concerned in Australia. After the detailed literature review, available resources in the area, that is near the Whittlesea city, are to be found out (Jones, Phipps & Ashcroft, 2018). This will help in setting a guideline to assess the procedures of the ‘Way to go’ project. Finally, a thorough evaluation of the process of ‘Way to Go’ scheme will be carried out. All the discords found in between the system and the culture of the Macedonian and Greek community people will be presented along with the possible solutions.

This study has a major impact on the livelihood of the Macedonian and Greek community, currently residing in Australia. Although only a small portion of the Australian population have arrived in the post-war era from Greece, matter such as end of life care cannot be neglected under any circumstances (Colic-Peisker & Robertson, 2015). The rigid believes among the said community in the matters of death and living make the matter far more complicated as well (Strezova, 2017). Thus upon detailed research, a service method is to be found out that will eliminate the communication gap as well as respect the believes of those people. Thus it is essential to establish or rectify the existing service regulations.

As this is more of a review work, primary data have not been collected. Instead previously recorded data have been obtained from the organization under consideration and reviewed to find relevant solutions (Bossaert et al., 2015). The reports of attendance in the various events organized have been collected and showcase the proportion of people who are actually interested and are well informed about the service. Documents and reports collected from the present workers have also been helpful in evaluation.

The literature review on the subject matter is to make all the regulations and effects of the service are recognized and are well comprehended. The cultural regulations in the Greek and Macedonian community are to be understood before suggesting an alternate procedure. Any sort of disrespect towards the culture of any community may hinder the outcome of this project (Teodoro et al., 2018). Thus it is imperative to understand and acknowledge the cultural believes. At the same time, it is also crucial to ensure that these people receive the proper end of life care. After through search of the relevant literature, the local available sources are to be recognized in order to draw a proper comparison of their service methodologies. It is to be kept in mind that since the people receiving the service will be in their last year of life, wandering or visiting facilities far away would generally not be a comfortable choice. It also depends on the individual’s personal choice as well. These issues are to be addressed while evaluating the ‘Way to Go’ project. The final phase of the study would be to evaluate the regulations and corresponding actions taken by the workers under the ‘Way to Go’ project. This would include visits to the patients, accompanying current workers with their work and reviewing documents and reports of the past. Attending various seminars or workshops, organized by the Palliative Care Unit of the LA Trobe University is also included as part of the evaluation.

Evaluation of the Way to Go Scheme

The reason for this code of morals is to build up an management of standards and techniques to manage the service procedurals to accomplish the objectives and goals of ventures of this sort (Gjerberg et al., 2015). The moral guidelines ensure the commitments of every one of those working on the project through the greater part of the periods of the venture, from the plan of the exploration through to the production and correspondence of the encounters of the undertaking.

Since the matter is delicate in nature, as it involves patients who have a certain period of time to live, maintaining a certain level of ethics of vital importance. Their wishes may be subject to confidentiality (Seale et al., 2015). Thus a certain level of confidentiality also needs to be maintained. Approval of publication is mandatory from each of the patients involved in this study.

As mentioned before, since the project is concerned with the cultural believes of the Greek and Macedonian community, it is important to not offend any individual in the process. Through this report, these people will not only have a better understanding of the major drawbacks of the service, but also help the organization point out the issues which will eliminate the communication gap between the people and the organization. People of the said communities will benefit immensely from this service. However, it also important to justify the needs of those individuals.

The following derivable have been identified for his project.

  • Policies to ensure finer communication regarding end of life care in the Greek and Macedonian communities.
  • Reports and suggestions to the Council and to other ‘Victorian Councils’ projects.
  • Poster

Communication gap is one of the major concerns and drawbacks for the people belonging to the Greek and Macedonian community. Thus this report focuses on building the bridge between the people belonging to the communities and the people working for the organization. Sending the report and reviews on this subject to the Board of Council for further study may provide standard base work for the organization to follow. The Council may choose to advertise or spread the awareness of such services through other organizations or events. Pestering is always an effective method of spreading awareness in a society. Sticking posters related to the service in different languages should make people much more aware of the service and its benefits.

As an outcome, it is expected that people belonging to the said communities will become more aware of the service and its procures. The communication gap should also be reduced to a point that any individual should be able to have a basic idea and knowledge of the service. The working regulations of the service may also need to altered so that it is in accordance with the believes of the community people.

Impact on Greek and Macedonian Community

The people who are to be affected the most by this project are the Greek and Macedonian people residing in Australia. The project is going to bring a positive change for those people. Not only will they have a better understanding of the service procedures, they shall grow as a community in whole. The major stakeholders for projects of this kind primarily include the patients, doctors and the administrative heads of the project concerned. With the higher awareness, it is expected that the stake holders shall benefit as more and more people will invest in such a service. As these stakeholders are a crucial part of the service system, they hold great power to influence the service either way, for better or for worse. With proper management strategies, these people can spread awareness regarding the benefits of such services.

Apart from these, independent stockholding sectors such as the housing firms, or the care homes also have importance in the marketing. Although this cannot be sole source of investment for the independent stake holders, it can for sure be a good investment. Services related to funerals or transportation may also be included in this project’s marketing ventures. A few voluntary stakeholders can also join the project to widen the horizon of marketing in this field.

One of the major complications of this service is the determination of whether or not an individual is subject to receive the service. There is a huge ethical conundrum in this regard. As the idea of palliative care was initially promoted for patients diagnosed with cancer, it has now become an issue as more and more people with different medical background are opting for the service (Hui et al., 2014). This has brought forward an issue of subjectivity and choice. The ailments that are defined to require end of life care needs to updated and looked into on a regular basis.

In case of children, the major conundrum is to whether to take the child to the healthcare facility or set up a health care system at home. This largely depends on the financial state of the parents or guardians (Friedrichsdorf et al., 2015). Even today, health care systems are poor in interior rural regions, thus eliminating the option of proper health care at home.

Palliative care needs professionally trained healthcare assistants. Irrespective of the nature of their service in terms of healthcare, they need to have adequate training before providing such service. Evidently, it has also been witnessed that there is a lack of leadership in this service (Bone et al., 2018). Without an authoritative figure to conduct the business, it may fail in just a matter of time. In lieu of this, as this is a comparatively new type of venture, proper business guidelines and regulations also need to be maintained.

Review of Existing Data

Conducting a project based on end of life care requires substantial resources. It also needs personnel which includes all travelling and lodging expenses. Since this particular project is based in the Whittlesea city, it reduces the cost of transportation to a great length. However, the study does require a lot of ground work as the procedure of the services need to evaluated (Aldridge & Kelley, 2015). In order to do so, it is essential to be physically present while conducting the interviews or assisting the professionals with their work.

The study can be best conducted with the help of a coordinator. Apart from noting down the outcomes of the interviews and detailed functionalities of the service system, not a lot of resources are required to finish this project. With a thorough research and planning beforehand it should not be hard project to carry out.

Since the early 1980s, Logic Models have been in use and are an integral part of any project now days. Logic models are followed at every stage of a project. Starting from initial designing of the project to establishing a relation between the outcome and expectations of a project, these models are followed for conventions and to maintain a systematic approach. The Logic Model used in this report is called the ‘Outcomes Approach Model’.

The initial steps towards establishing a logic model includes acknowloding and addressing the major issue at hand. This stands for a major obstruction while planning for projects concerning health care as they tend to change and evolve rapidly. Palliative care is all about taking care of patients at their last stage of life and this needs to incorporated in the logic model.

Components

Objectives

INPUTS

The relevant resources that are required to conduct the project and to deliver the output are the inputs of the study.

ACTIVITIES

The actions that are taken according to the needs of the project are considered to be the activities of the project.

OUTPUTS

This is the area where we have the results of the experiment or project conducted. It is important to remember that these are the direct results of the study. They must be explored and analyzed carefully before coming to a conclusion.

OUTCOMES

The basic difference between outcomes and outputs are that outputs are basically the results. Whereas, outcomes are what have been represented at the end of report. In other words, outcomes are usually what the researcher is aims for.

IMPACTS

Impacts are the effects of the study.

Activities

Week 1-2

Week 3-4

Week 5-6

Week 7-8

Planning and Designing

»

Interviewing the patients and assisting the professionals

»

Analysing and reviewing the reports

»

Presentation of the report.

»

Stakeholder

Internal/
External

Interest

Effect

Power

Likelihood

Capacity for change ?

Needs

Management  strategies

Frequency

Communication strategy

People of Greek and Maceonian Community

Internal

Patients

Positive

Major

Must

Large

Proper Communication

Raise awareness

Regularly

Through doctors and local administrators. 

doctors

External

Business

Positive

Major

Must

Large

Regular correspondence with patients

Spread Awareness

Regularly

Through local patients and administrative heads.

Description of Risk

Consequence

Probability

Impact

Risk Rating

Mitigation Strategy(ies)

Determining the need of the service

Ethical dilemma

High

On all the people of the community

High

Service policies should be constructed with proper management strategies.

Transportation

Failure of providing service

Medium

On children and consequent families

Medium

Arrangement of proper transportation.

References

Aldridge, M. D., & Kelley, A. S. (2015). The myth regarding the high cost of end-of-life care. American journal of public health, 105(12), 2411-2415.                                                     

Beach, S. R. (2016). Expanding the Study of Dyadic Con? ict: The Potential Role of Self-Evaluation Maintenance Processes. In Couples in conflict (pp. 113-124). Routledge.

Bone, A. E., Gomes, B., Etkind, S. N., Verne, J., Murtagh, F. E., Evans, C. J., & Higginson, I. J. (2018). What is the impact of population ageing on the future provision of end-of-life care? Population-based projections of place of death. Palliative medicine, 32(2), 329-336.

Bossaert, L. L., Perkins, G. D., Askitopoulou, H., Raffay, V. I., Greif, R., Haywood, K. L., ... & Georgiou, M. (2015). European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015: Section 11. The ethics of resuscitation and end-of-life decisions. Resuscitation, 95, 302-311.

Cultural Beliefs and Regulations

Brinkman-Stoppelenburg, A., Rietjens, J. A., & van der Heide, A. (2014). The effects of advance care planning on end-of-life care: a systematic review. Palliative medicine, 28(8), 1000-1025.

Colic-Peisker, V., & Robertson, S. (2015). Social change and community cohesion: an ethnographic study of two Melbourne suburbs. Ethnic and racial studies, 38(1), 75-91.

Drew, J., Dollery, B., & Kortt, M. A. (2016). Can't Get No Satisfaction? The Association Between Community Satisfaction and Population Size for Victoria. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 75(1), 65-77.

Feischmidt, M., & Szombati, K. (2017). Understanding the rise of the far right from a local perspective: Structural and cultural conditions of ethno-traditionalist inclusion and racial exclusion in rural Hungary. Identities, 24(3), 313-331.

Friedrichsdorf, S. J., Postier, A., Dreyfus, J., Osenga, K., Sencer, S., & Wolfe, J. (2015). Improved quality of life at end of life related to home-based palliative care in children with cancer. Journal of palliative medicine, 18(2), 143-150.

Georgiades, S. D. (2015). Greek Immigrants in Australia: implications for culturally sensitive practice. Journal of immigrant and minority health, 17(5), 1537-1547.

Gjerberg, E., Lillemoen, L., Førde, R., & Pedersen, R. (2015). End-of-life care communications and shared decision-making in Norwegian nursing homes-experiences and perspectives of patients and relatives. BMC geriatrics, 15(1), 103.

Hopper, M. J., Curtis, S., Hodge, S., & Simm, R. (2016). A qualitative study exploring the effects of attending a community pain service choir on wellbeing in people who experience chronic pain. British journal of pain, 10(3), 124-134.

Hui, D., Kim, S. H., Roquemore, J., Dev, R., Chisholm, G., & Bruera, E. (2014). Impact of timing and setting of palliative care referral on quality of end?of?life care in cancer patients. Cancer, 120(11), 1743-1749.

Jones, C. E., Phipps, D. L., & Ashcroft, D. M. (2018). Understanding procedural violations using Safety-I and Safety-II: The case of community pharmacies. Safety science, 105, 114-120.

Karadzinska?Bislimovska, J., Basarovska, V., Mijakoski, D., Minov, J., Stoleski, S., Angeleska, N., & Atanasovska, A. (2014). Linkages between workplace stressors and quality of care from health professionals' perspective–Macedonian experience. British journal of health psychology, 19(2), 425-441.

Reed, F. M., Fitzgerald, L., & Bish, M. R. (2017). A practice model for rural district nursing success in end?of?life advocacy care. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences.

Reinke, L. F., Feemster, L. C., McDowell, J., Gunnink, E., Tartaglione, E. V., Udris, E., ... & Au, D. H. (2017). The long term impact of an end-of-life communication intervention among veterans with COPD. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care, 46(1), 30-34.

Seale, C., Raus, K., Bruinsma, S., Van der Heide, A., Sterckx, S., Mortier, F., ... & UNBIASED consortium. (2015). The language of sedation in end-of-life care: The ethical reasoning of care providers in three countries. Health:, 19(4), 339-354.

Strezova, A., O’Neill, S., O’Callaghan, C., Perry, A., Liu, J., & Eden, J. (2017). Cultural issues in menopause: an exploratory qualitative study of Macedonian women in Australia. Menopause, 24(3), 308-315.

Teodoro, I. P. P., Rebouças, V. D. C. F., Thorne, S. E., Souza, N. K. M. D., Brito, L. S. A. D., & Alencar, A. M. P. G. (2018). Interpretive description: a viable methodological approach for nursing research. Escola Anna Nery, 22(3).

Villanueva, G., Murphy, M. S., Vickers, D., Harrop, E., & Dworzynski, K. (2016). End of life care for infants, children and young people with life limiting conditions: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ: British Journal (Online), 355.

Wiener, L., Weaver, M. S., Bell, C. J., & Sansom-Daly, U. M. (2015). Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer. Clinical oncology in adolescents and young adults, 5, 1.

Yiakoumetti, A., & Papapavlou, A. (2018). Evaluation of cultural universality with reference to culture-specific lexicon in Greek. Selected papers on theoretical and applied linguistics, 14, 412-421.

Yulia, K. (2015). The development of information technologies in the sphere of housing service and utilities as a factor of national life quality increase. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 166, 557-561.

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