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You need to make an annotated biliography on four articles pertaining to the same subject you need to explain what happens in those papers what the research is about and what the end result is in other words you are making notes on those papers.

How Anisidine Value Test Works

Importance of Anisidine Value Test in the food industry

  • Principles of Anisidine.

Anisidine Value test is normally used in the assessment of the secondary oxidation of the products such as fats and oil. 

Górna? et.al (2014). An alternative RP?HPLC method for the separation and determination of tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues as butter authenticity markers: A comparative study between two European countries. European journal of lipid science and technology, 116(7), 895-903.

These products are commonly known to be imputable to aldehydes and even ketones according to the research done by authors of Gornas et.al. They help in guiding in the analysis thus giving the relevant information on the oil and fat. In addition, this analysis on the fats and oil are used as indicators of the excessive oil reduction in the process of frying. This type of the analysis uses Aldehydes that is obtained from the secondary sources of oxidation of the matrix of the fat, subsequent reaction with the p-anisidine thereby determining the changes in the absorbance. The measurement is taken at 366nm.The expression of the value of the Anisidine value is normally expressed as AOCS (Cd 18-90) which normally points to the method of the reference.

  • Primary and secondary products

The primary products of the oxidation are normally formed through the reaction of the alkyl radical that comes from the reaction of the heat with the oxygen so as to give a radical that I free from the peroxyl.

Rajauria et.al (2013) Antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical?scavenging capacity of brown seaweed Himanthalia elongata from western coast of Ireland. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 37(3), 322-335.

 The researchers and authors of the Rajauria found that this peroxyl radical that is free reacts with the fatty acid that has not been attacked thereby forming a fat hydroperoxide and another radical that is free as an alkyl. This is through the propagation resultant product is tasteless and has no odour. Such reaction will continue until there will be no more oxygen.

The secondary oxidation products are obtained through the decomposition of the compound called hydroperoxide. This happens as a result of radiation and heating in the presence of the heavy metals like copper and Iron. This gives the products such as alcohols, ketones, acids and aldehydes.

(c) The relevant equation that is required in the explanation of the total oxidation is as indicated in the figure below.

  • Retardation of the process of the oxidative rancidity.

Nollet et.al (2012). Food biochemistry and food processing. John Wiley & Sons.

In very many occasions, the antioxidants are used in the preservation of the foods that contain fats. These preservatives assist in the delay of the development of the rancidity that occur due to the oxidation. The naturally used antioxidants include ascorbic acid while the synthetic samples include butylated hydroxy anisole, propyl gallate. It is important to note that the natural preservatives are normally short-lived. A combination of the water soluble and the fat-soluble antioxidants is normally ideal especially when they are put in the ratio of one to one.

Primary and Secondary Oxidation Products

Mohanlal et.al (2013). Chemical indices, antioxidant activity and anti?inflammatory effect of extracts of the medicinal rice “njavara” and staple varieties: a comparative study. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 37(3), 369-380.

Research done by the authors of Mohanlal et.al shows that rancidification can be reduced by having the products of the oil and fats stored in the dark place that is also cool so as to reduce the much exposure to oxygen. This is done so because heat and light are normally known to accelerate the rate of the reaction of the fats with the oxygen. The use of the anti-microbial agents can assist in the retardation of the of the rancidification by preventing the growth of the bacteria or other micro-organisms that may hinder the process either directly or indirectly. In order to have the oxygen completely removed from the food stuff, a technology called oxygen scavenging can be utilised thus ensuring removal of the oxidative rancidification.

These factors are there to ensure the long shelf –life of the oil. They include:

The fatty acid composition is important in that they promote the giving of the required information on the oil stability. The fatty acids like oleic-(C18:1), linoleic-(C18;2) and linoleic acid (18:30) which are considered to be unsaturated are easily oxidized. an extensive study showed that linoleic can be 10 to 100 times oxidation susceptible than both the saturated fatty acids and the monoene.

Alais, C. (2012). Food biochemistry. Springer Science & Business Media

 In the year 2012 the authors and researchers of Alais did an extensive research on the fat content and made recommendations. The unsaturation degree effect was determined in the comparison of the low linolenic canola oils and the stored regular oils (2.5 and 12.5 of 18:3 respectively). The conclusion was that linolenic canola has a longer shelf life compared to that of the canola oil.

 Therefore, the oxidative stability of the oil of the maize increased with the increased in the composition of the total saturation of the fatty acid as per the evaluation. The comparison shows that there was a lot of stability on the maize oil with the elevated saturated fatty acids compared to that of the traditional maize oil which were 15-17% and 13% respectively. Similarly, the result from the oxidation of the soybeans oil s with the increased palmitate (C16:0) showed a reduction of the linoleate content as per the evaluation. The was either an increase or a decrease of 16:0 or18:3 respectively thus more soybeans stability.

Factors Affecting Oxidation and Shelf-Life

Oxygen plays a very important part in determining the oxidation rate since oxidation cannot occurs without oxygen. Oxidation rate in lipids is measured by the formation of hex anal increased in comparison with the increasing oxygen concentration (1.2%, 4.5%,10.0%, 15.4%) within a closed system. This is also referred to as the sample with a high surface area that is exposed to the air this has a rapid rate of oxidation.

Temperature also has a great influence on the shelf life just like the rate of oxygen reaction with fats do double roughly at every 10 degrees Celsius temperature increased.

Paliyath et.al (2012). Biochemistry of fruits. Food Biochemistry and Food Processing, 531-553.

The research done by the Paliyath et al (2012) showed that the PV and AV have a faster increased in the higher temperature of storage of 30, 47 and 67 degrees Celsius. The result that was confirmed by the sensory tests was that the difference between storage at 50 and 60 degree Celsius of the blends shortening are also clear at the PV 60 degree has rapidly increased as compared to that of 50 degrees. Light promotes oxidation of the oil through photo-oxidation. Oxidation mechanism by photosensitization differently proceeds than oxidation in the normal free radical. The photosensitized oxidation composes of the activation of substrate that subsequently reacts with unsaturated fatty acids like riboflavin which react double bonds of fatty acids.

These are the retard oxidation onset by extending the fats and oil shelf –life and food products but neither prevent it.

Siger et. Al (2014). Isolation and purification of plastochromanol?8 for HPLC quantitative determinations. European journal of lipid science and technology, 116(4), 413-422.

The authors and researchers of Singer et.al that it is similar in the synthetic antioxidant e.g. BHA, BHT, TBHQ and natural antioxidants like tocopherols. Antioxidants react both with primary chain breaking antioxidants and secondary preventatives antioxidants. AH is the most common food antioxidant which duty is to break chains by donating atoms of hydrogen to lipids radicals that were manufactured during initiation hence halting the oxidation rate.

References

Alais, C. (2012). Food biochemistry. Springer Science & Business Media.

Górna?, P., Siger, A., Czubinski, J., Dwiecki, K., Segli?a, D., & Nogala?Kalucka, M. (2014). An alternative RP?HPLC method for the separation and determination of tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues as butter authenticity markers: A comparative study between two European countries. European journal of lipid science and technology, 116(7), 895-903.

Iwaniak, A., Minkiewicz, P., & Darewicz, M. (2014). Food?originating ACE inhibitors, including antihypertensive peptides, as preventive food components in blood pressure reduction. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 13(2), 114-134.

Mohanlal, S., Parvathy, R., Shalini, V., Mohanan, R., Helen, A., & Jayalekshmy, A. (2013). Chemical indices, antioxidant activity and anti?inflammatory effect of extracts of the medicinal rice “njavara” and staple varieties: a comparative study. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 37(3), 369-380.

Nollet, L. M., Toldrá, F., Benjakul, S., Paliyath, G., & Hui, Y. H. (2012). Food biochemistry and food processing. John Wiley & Sons.

Paliyath, G., Tiwari, K., Sitbon, C., & Whitaker, B. D. (2012). Biochemistry of fruits. Food Biochemistry and Food Processing, 531-553.

Rajauria, G., Jaiswal, A. K., ABU?GANNAM, N. I. S. S. R. E. E. N., & Gupta, S. (2013). Antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical?scavenging capacity of brown seaweed Himanthalia elongata from western coast of Ireland. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 37(3), 322-335.

Siger, A., Kachlicki, P., Czubi?ski, J., Polcyn, D., Dwiecki, K., & Nogala?Kalucka, M. (2014). Isolation and purification of plastochromanol?8 for HPLC quantitative determinations. European journal of lipid science and technology, 116(4), 413-422.

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[Accessed 27 February 2024].

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