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Background

The ‘Sustainable Development Goals’ are global goals that aim to create a sustainable future for the entire planet by focusing on the key aspects of human activities and civilization, such as consumption, production, education, gender equality, etc. The goals were set by the United Nations General Assembly. The goals have indicators known as ‘global indicators’ that reflect the progress being made on each and every goal on a worldwide scale (UNEMG, n.d.). The achievement of these goals and their respective targets is important because they aid in the achievement of sustainable development that is set under many conventions and international agreements, such as the Paris Agreement, Rio Declaration, Agenda 21, etc. These goals are bound to act as targets that help secure the future of various human agendas and prevent the threat of global warming from causing a mass extinction of human civilization.

A number of targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) are interlinked, and the achievement of one target influences the success of the other target. The current research will evaluate the importance of responsible consumption and production patterns and their impact on sustainability. The scope of the research will primarily be around SDGs 11, 12, and 13.

Responsible consumption and production is one of the most important sustainable development goals and is crucial to the development of a sustainable global economy (UN, n.d. a). Some of the reasons for focusing on the goal are due to the global wastage of food, water, energy and other resources for human activities. As an example, almost one-third of the food produced globally is wasted in the bins of retailers and consumers (UN, n.d. a). This equates to 1.3 billion tons of food which get wasted due to poor transportation practices, careless harvesting and storage mechanisms, etc. Furthermore, the freshwater that is fit for human consumption comprises only 3% of the water bodies on Earth. Excessive use and wastage of this water create water scarcity as a result (UN, n.d. a). Poor industrial practices also lead to wastage of resources and energy, which burdens the stock of non-renewable resources available on the planet. Besides inefficient lighting, increasing personal motor vehicle ownerships are also a burden on the environment and the ability of the nations to become sustainable. Thus, developing efficient consumption and production patterns within the economy is necessary for the purpose of creating sustainable communities and securing resources for future generations of mankind.

Research Question

The current research primarily aims to focus on the progress of SDGs 11, 12 and 13 and will attempt to answer the following research question –

What is the extent to which responsible consumption and production can impact the sustainability of communities and global climate change?

A secondary data collection methodology will be used for meeting the objectives of the research. This will involve reliance on governmental reports, reports published by the UN and other authentic international organizations, scholarly research and journal articles, and books published on the subject matter. Grey literature will also be used in the form of news articles on sustainable consumption and production patterns and the global progress related to these matters. The inclusion criteria of the research will be the relation and relevance of the data to SDGs 11, 12 and 13. The geographical location of the research and data is not of prime importance or an aspect of the inclusion criteria, though research focusing on the global impact of the goals will be preferred. The exclusion criteria will be data that is not related to the research on the United Nation’s SDGs and thus would not be relevant to the research question of the current paper.

The research will take into consideration both qualitative and quantitative data for the data collection process. The research design will be that of descriptive research as the research will mainly focus on the progress of the relevant SDGs, and the role of the researcher will be limited to the interpretation and evaluation of the data.

Responsible consumption and production imply the efficient usage of resources and infrastructure that is available on the planet while ensuring development plans help lower economic, social and environmental costs (Ritchie et al., 2018). It is primarily governed by SDG 12, though the enforcement of other SDGs is interlinked to that of responsible consumption and production within the nation. The term ‘responsible’ implies a more economic and environmentally friendly usage of resources and also includes the reuse of resources (Lukman et al., 2016). The targets of the goal focus on the material footprint (indicator 12.2.1), domestic material consumption, food loss on the global level, generation of hazardous wastes, responsible management of hazardous wastes, etc. Between the years of 2000 to 2010, the material footprint of mankind has risen significantly (Chan et al., 2018). This implies the consumption of biomass, metal ores, fossil fuels and nonmetal ores has risen over the years. The material footprint is unequally distributed throughout the globe and is majorly high for OECD nations (Chan et al., 2018).

Methodology

Many nations have begun to enforce ‘extended producer responsibilities’ laws to ensure responsible production and consumption patterns are mandated throughout the life cycle of the product (Liu et al., 2021). Such regulations extend the responsibility for the product to the producer even after the post-consumption phase, such as recycling the packaging of the product. Such regulations attach responsible corporate behaviour to the production and consumption of the product. Enforcement of SDG 12 also requires upholding a circular economy. This is an industrial-based economy, wherein the natural capital of the system is enhanced and optimized through sharing, leasing, reusing, refurbishing and other such activities. This helps ensure minimal waste is generated, and the optimal value is created in the production and consumption of resources (Lukman et al.,  2016). Responsible consumption and production also help manage the ecological crisis occurring on the planet, and overuse of resources can be avoided through the enforcement of concepts such as the circular economy (Bengtsson et al., 2018). Other changes advocated under the goal are the usage of products with a higher quality that have a longer life span, advocating the utilization of such products that are less resource-intensive, engaging in energy conservation such as through the usage of renewable resources, etc. (Bengtsson et al., 2018). Through these mechanisms, the accountability and charge of ‘responsible’ consumption and production become the responsibility of the manufacturers of the products, the Government for enforcing relevant regulations, and consumers who make green and environmentally friendly choices. The stakeholders for responsible production and consumption have intertwined responsibilities, and national level sustainability policies can have an adverse impact on the implementation of responsible behaviour amongst the stakeholders (Liu et al., 2021).

Various studies have linked responsible, sustainable production practices within the nation to the achievement of a number of SDGs (Liu et al., 2021). Neglect in responsible production and consumption practices can cause environmental damage and risks to human health (Liu et al., 2021). In this regard, while responsible consumption and production are primarily associated with SDG 12, it is also interlinked to the achievement of other SDGs. Since responsible consumption and production practices enable communities to become sustainable and environmentally friendly, SDG 11 is also impacted by the achievement and progress of SDG 12. Target 11.3 of goal 11 requires the development of such urbanization within nations that is sustainable, inclusive and ensures sustainable human settlement planning (UN, n.d. b). The concepts of circular economy are also relevant under the sustainability protocols required for the enforcement of SDG 11 (Abastante et al., 2021). The ability of the nations to implement responsible consumption and production patterns also impacts global climate change. Climate change is primarily an aspect of SDG 13 and requires nations to take urgent actions for the purpose of managing the impact of climate change. Consumption and production systems within the planet are capable of impacting pollution, waste production, biodiversity loss. As SDG 12 primarily deals with consumption and production patterns of human activities, it can impact the consequences of human activities, which have a detrimental effect on the global climate (UN, 2021).

Responsible Consumption and Production

Current GHG emissions are required to fall by at least 45% of the 2010 levels on Earth so that the 2030 targets under SDG 13 can be met (UN, 2021). On average, 30  kg of clothing is thrown on an annual basis by a single family in the Global North. Out of this, approximately 15% of the clothing is reused or recycled, while the rest goes to landfills and is a major reflection of unsustainable consumption and production patterns, which also lead to a detrimental impact on the Earth’s climate (Doran, 2021). The production and wastage of clothing in the Global North is a major problem because around 70 million trees are cut on an annual basis and replaced by plantation of trees for wood-based fabrics (Doran, 2021). In this way, many endangered trees are further cut to make way for the excessive consumption of fabrics and clothes within the Global North, and a negative impact on the climate is created. To tackle this problem, besides climate change policies and national level production and consumption policies, the Government would also have to target the sustainability of the communities and cities within the Global North. This reflects how the progress on SDG 12 can impact the progress of SDG 11 and 13 as well.

Target 13.2 of SDG 13 requires the integration of climate change policies and measures into national-level planning and regulations so that the overall GHG emissions of the nations can be controlled on an annual basis and nations have long term strategies for combating climate change. Target 13. b also requires focusing on the development of states and communities of the nations, which is also linked to the achievement of SDG 11. Therefore, SDG 13 has a strong linkage to SDG 11 and 12. The achievement of one goal also depends on the achievement of the other two goals.

We would be mainly focusing on SDGs 11, 12, and 13 through this research question. But SDGs 8 and 9 can also be slightly touched upon through this topic.

The global progress on SDGs 11, 12 and 13 is unequally distributed amongst the nations of the world. For example, with regards to SDG 11, most of the slum dwellers in the world are present solely within Asia and Africa. The region of Eastern and South-Eastern Asia has almost 370 million slum dwellers as of 2021 (UN, n.d. b). Furthermore, as per a 2019 report, only 50% of the population in the 610 cities of the 95 countries in the world have access to public transportation (UN, n.d. b). With the spread of the covid-19 pandemic, this access to public transport was further disrupted due to restrictions and lowered capacities of public transport during this time (UN, n.d. b). Thus, goal 11.2 has not been met adequately, and individuals do not have sufficient access to public transport. Spatial urbanization has occurred at a fast rate between 1990 and 2019. In terms of protecting cultural heritage throughout the world, though there have been initiatives and regulations for protecting the heritage, public spending on the protection of cultural heritage has been limited (SDG Tracker, 2018).

Relevant Sustainable Development Goals

On a global scale, while 55% of the population resides in urban areas, around 1 billion individuals reside in informal settlements (Bond, n.d.). This implies that SDG 11 has not been adequately achieved throughout the world. In the matter of SDG 12, sustainable patterns for consumption and production have been implemented through the means of frameworks aimed at changing the manner in which resources are utilized and evaluating the environmental impact of the use of certain resources throughout the world (UN, n.d. a). However, between the years 2000 to 2017, there has been an almost 40% rise in the global material footprint per capita (UN, n.d. a). In 2016, there was a 14% wastage of global food production before the food could even reach the retail sector (UN, n.d. a). Another rising problem with regards to SDG 12 has been the increasing production of electronic wastes with the development of technology and the spread of the digital revolution. As of 2019, 7.3 kg per capita of electronic waste was generated on a global scale, and only 1.7kg of this waste per capita was managed in a sustainable manner (UN, n.d. a). One of the positive aspects that have been achieved with regards to SDG 12 has been the initiatives taken by the private sector to engage in sustainability reporting and environmentally friendly mechanisms. For example, 85% of the private organizations that are a part of the UN Global Compact Database have met the minimum requirements for managing sustainability issues (UN, n.d. a).

In terms of SDG 13, the progress that has been made has been significant, yet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have continued to rise throughout the globe (UN, n.d. c). The years from 2015 to 20202 have been the warmest years on record so far (UN, n.d. c). One hundred fifty-four developing nations have managed to undertake measures for national adaptation plans for tackling climate change as of 2021. Six least developing nations have also undertaken the same (UN, n.d. c). Global emissions would have to be cut off by 45% below the 2010 levels in order to meet the 2030 climate change targets of the world (UN, n.d. c). Worldwide learning and training about SDG for the purpose of spreading awareness about climate change have also been initiated and are ongoing as of 2021 (UN, n.d. c). Various international agreements and national frameworks have been developed for achieving the targets set under SDG 13. For example, the Paris Agreement is the principal framework aimed at the achievement of SDG 13 (Louman et al., 2019). USD 10.3 billion have been pledged to the Green Climate Fund for the purpose of tackling climate change and GHG emissions. This amount is minimal in comparison to the estimated costs of undertaking climate change actions, which is around USD 2.4 trillion (Louman et al., 2019). USD 3 billion can cover only 12% of forest emissions (Louman et al., 2019). However, the limited funds cannot be solely used for this purpose. It is evident that fund allocations for controlling climate change have been minimal, and the impact of GHG. (Louman et al., 2019). Reducing GHG emissions with limited funding and meeting the targets set under the Paris Agreement would be difficult without the allocation of sufficient funds. The limited progress of nations with respect to SDG 13 has been shown in figure 2. Limited progress in terms of other SDGs also impacts the GHG emissions of various nations and the progress on SDG.

The US is the second-largest emitter of GHG and may not be able to achieve the goals under SDG 13 with its current level of emissions and progress in the area. Trump administration further withdrew itself from the Paris Agreement so that it is not obliged to meet the climate change targets despite being one of the largest emitters of GHGs (McCarthy, 2020). In contrast, many least developed and developing nations, such as India, Vietnam, etc., have been able to successfully achieve their targets as reflected in figure 2.

The inability of nations to showcase sufficient progress in the area of climate change also has an impact on the ability of communities to be sustainable. For example, a large number of natural disasters have occurred in Latin America as a result of climate change in the past 20 years, while 20% of global natural disasters were a result of the global climate change patterns accelerating (CEPAL, 2019). The Caribbean has been considered to be one of the most vulnerable regions in the world due to climate change activities (CEPAL, 2019). Natural disasters also have large scale impacts on the sustainability of communities. Without a strong framework for disaster management due to climate change, the sustainability of communities cannot be adequately achieved (CEPAL, 2019). Climate change has also been leading to a rise in net costs of sustaining communities, and these will continue to grow over the years (Yohe et al., 2007). In 2016, air pollution was the cause of 4.2 million premature deaths (Parcitypatory, 2020). Overcrowding in urban areas also results in noise and air pollution. This further impacts both the environment and the sustainability of communities. Noise pollution and disturbances cause stress, insomnia, cardiovascular issues, etc. (European Commission, 2021). In the countries within the EU, it is estimated that 78.2 million people in urban areas are exposed to traffic noise as a result of road traffic. This noise level is estimated to be 55 decibels or higher on an average day and impacts both sustainable living and the environment (European Commission, 2021). EU has set a target of recycling 60% of the municipal waste by the year 2030. This impacts the overall climate change effect of the EU as well as the safe and sustainable living of communities in the EU. However, municipal waste within the EU is responsible for less than 10% of the overall waste generated in the EU (European Commission, 2021). Fifteen member states of the EU have been able to ensure that 80% of their population remains connected to secondary water treatment plants so that efficient water treatment and recycling can be made possible. It can be noted that human activities and the lack of sustainable living also have a significant impact on climate change. Various nations have been making different levels of progress in relation to the goals under SDGs 11, 12 and 13. Therefore, creating a balance between climate change and sustainable living can impact the quality of life of individuals within the State.

Both developing and developed nations have been making different levels of progress in relation to the SDG goals 11, 12 and 13. It is evident that while nations have been taking several steps to ensure responsible consumption and production of resources, the lack of sustainability within the communities is having a negative impact on climate change. Sustainable consumption patterns are a key to overcoming the impact of climate change. Responsible consumption and production is also important aspect of sustainable communities (Cohen & Munoz, 2016). Responsible consumption and production, which is the primary objective of SDG 12, includes both the manufacturing process of the production as well as the recycling and discarding process of the waste post-consumption. This includes the waste disposal systems of the city and the recycling initiatives. Herein, the housing and planning initiatives need to be taken into consideration (Cohen & Munoz, 2016).

Housing, planning and designing within the city is one of the most important future prospects for ensuring sustainable consumption of resources can be ensured. Ensuring housing initiatives are at the centre of domestic programs and policies is important. These housing initiatives need to take into consideration the sustainability of the ecosystem in terms of designing, planning, and housing interventions (Habitat for Humanity, 2021). Housing is an important aspect of achieving sustainability and creating better cities throughout the State. Since most of the population of the globe reside within urban areas, efficient urban design can help ensure pollution and recycling initiatives help control sustainability. With the rising economic growth of various nations, individuals tend to migrate to urban areas in search of jobs. Governments can prevent this practice with the help of developing smaller cities and making them resourceful places to reside (Satterthwaite, n.d.). Data collection and reporting mechanisms related to housing affordability should also be maintained for such purposes (Habitat for Humanity, 2021).  

Responsible and sustainable consumption and production can also help ensure poverty alleviation is possible through the city as resources can be distributed equally amongst the masses (UNEP, n.d.). Ensuring environmental degradation is avoided due to economic growth is the main concern of both responsible consumption and production, as well as the development of sustainable cities. For this purpose, ‘life cycle thinking’ would have to be implemented across all sectors and infrastructural initiatives (UNEP, n.d.). From the beginning of the life cycle, which involves resource extraction to production, distribution and waste disposal systems, all parts of the life cycle of products would have to be planned efficiently (UNEP, n.d.). This would also help ensure ‘sustainable public procurement’ is made possible. Sustainable public procurement is the mechanism by which public organizations are able to meet their needs for goods and services while also achieving the monetary value of those resources by utilizing the resources completely (UNEP, n.d.). It is a major instrument for developing sustainable development within the State and can help transform the nation into a green economy (Dziubi?ska, 2017). This requires broad policy goals within the nation and the implementation of sound management principles across all initiatives (Dziubi?ska, 2017). While the initiative has been introduced in the EU, it needs to be implemented across all nations throughout the globe for having a global level impact on climate change (Dziubi?ska, 2017).

A focus on science and technological campaigns and policy initiatives is not sufficient for ensuring the sustainability of communities and having an impact on global climate change. It is also necessary to have a drastic reduction in the material and energy demands within cities for creating sustainable communities. Behavioural change and a transformation within the mindset of individuals is also important (Marema, 2020). Overconsumption of resources is also leading to the alarming depletion of non-renewable resources within the globe. Implementation of best practices within the population is necessary. In the city of Vienna, a ‘best practice programme’ is run for the purpose of offering sustainable strategies for resolving problems (Adamec et al., 2020). Effective engagement with citizens can also help ensure they are involved in achieving the sustainability of the cities, and their perspectives are included in the development of the cities (Adamec et al., 2020). Such practices also help include socially deprived groups in sustainable planning and ensure best practices are followed by citizens throughout the city while enforcing a sense of responsible consumption and production (Adamec et al., 2020). Smart City Framework Strategies, such as the one implemented in Vienna, should also be enforced so that sustainable cities are created that have decarbonization and green spaces throughout the city (Adamec et al., 2020). By 2050, most nations are expected to witness a 70% rise in urbanization levels (Vaidya & Chatterji, 2020). Urban cities account for 55% of the population and 75% of GHG emissions (Vaidya & Chatterji, 2020). Therefore, local development and planning mechanisms that ensure the cities are not a burden on the environment while providing adequate employment opportunities and safe housing conditions to the populations should be ensured. Along with urban planning, smaller cities and rural areas should also be planned out and designed adequately so that the burden does not shift on small areas of the nation. These steps would also impact the climate change goals that the nation is able to achieve in the process as GHG emissions of the nation can be impacted through such sustainability initiatives, which take into consideration the wellbeing of the community and encourage the community to engage in sustainable consumption and production.

The UN SDGs are extremely important for preserving the resources for future generations and ensuring the future of humanity can be sustained. It is evident that all the SDGs are interlinked to each other and one cannot be achieved without fulfilling the targets set under the other SDGs. While the domestic governments have taken extensive steps to ensure patterns of sustainable consumption and production can be implemented throughout cities, the current report indicates that these steps and initiatives are not sufficient for impacting the climate change acceleration on the planet. As an example, only USD 10.3 billion were pledged to the Green Climate Fund for tackling climate change. Around USD 3 billion can cover only 12% of forest emissions (Louman et al., 2019). Besides this, urbanization has been increasing at a rapid rate and 70% of the global population is expected to reside in urban and metropolitan cities by the year 2050 at this rate (Vaidya & Chatterji, 2020). This is a challenging issue because rising urbanization is bound to create resource scarcity in specific areas of the world due to the overburden of the limited resources of the urban cities. It is evident that the governments need to take this into consideration and ensure smaller cities are able to undergo a similar development as larger urban cities. Furthermore, the need for advanced planning and designing is also necessary for ensuring non-renewable resources are not overburdened in cities. These plannings and initiatives, in turn, can help tackle the problem of climate change as well.

From the research, I was able to build an awareness of how various SDGs can impact each other and how the unequal achievements of one SDG can make it challenging to achieve the other SDGs. I will use this information in my professional expertise by creating plans for private organizations that take into consideration sustainable consumption and production practices, and also implement initiatives similar to the ‘sustainable public procurement’ initiatives in Vienna and other cities that help ensure the maximum value and utility of resources is gained by the organization.  The research has been helpful in extending my understanding of the importance of sustainable consumption patterns and their impact on the sustainability of communities and global climate change.

References

Abastante, F., Lami, I. M., & Gaballo, M. (2021). Pursuing the SDG11 targets: The role of the sustainability protocols. Sustainability, 13(7), 3858

Adamec, J., Holzinger, E. & Franz, C. (2020). Successful implementation of SDG 11. RAUN. https://bankimooncentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/12_BKMC_SDG11-Best-Practices_Adamec_Franz_Holzinger-FINAL-March-2020.pdf

Bengtsson, M., Alfredsson, E., Cohen, M., Lorek, S., & Schroeder, P. (2018). Transforming systems of consumption and production for achieving the sustainable development goals: moving beyond efficiency. Sustainability science, 13(6), 1533-1547

CEPAL (2019). SDG 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. ECLAC. https://www.cepal.org/sites/default/files/static/files/sdg13_c1900798_web.pdf

Chan, S., Weitz, N., Persson, A., & Trimmer, C. (2018). SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production. A Review of Research Needs. Technical annex to the Formas report Forskning för Agenda 2030. Stockholm Environment Institute. https://www.sei.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/sdg-12-responsible-consumption-and-production-review-of-research-needs.pdf

Cohen, B., & Munoz, P. (2016). Sharing cities and sustainable consumption and production: towards an integrated framework. Journal of cleaner production, 134, 87-97

Doran, P. (2017). Doing More with Less: Ensuring Sustainable Consumption and Production. IISD. https://www.iisd.org/articles/doing-more-less-ensuring-sustainable-consumption-and-production

Dziubi?ska, M. (2017). Sustainable public procurement as an instrument of implementation of sustainable development. Theoretical and practical approach. Zeszyty Naukowe. Organizacja i Zarz?dzanie/Politechnika ?l?ska

European Commission (2021). Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Eurostat. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=SDG_11_-_Sustainable_cities_and_communities#Quality_of_life_in_cities_and_communities

Habitat for Humanity (2021).   Progress Report: Sustainable Development Goal 11 (Target 11.1). City 2 City. https://city2city.network/progress-report-sustainable-development-goal-11-target-111

Liu, F., Lai, K. H., & Cai, W. (2021). Responsible production for sustainability: concept analysis and bibliometric review. Sustainability, 13(3), 1275

Louman, B., Keenan, R. J., Kleinschmit, D., Atmadja, S., Sitoe, A. A., Nhantumbo, I., ... & Morales, J. (2019). SDG 13: Climate action—impacts on forests and people. Sustainable Development Goals: their impacts on forests and people. Cambridge University Press, UK, 419-444

Lukman, R. K., Glavi, P., Carpenter, A., & Virti?, P. (2016). Sustainable consumption and production–Research, experience, and development–The Europe we want. Journal of cleaner production, 138, 139-147

McCarthy, J. (2020). African Countries Are Leading on Climate Action: SDG Report 2020. Global Citizen. https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/sdg-13-climate-action-rankings-progress/

Parcitypatory (2020). How Can We Measure the Progress Towards SDG 11? Parcitypatory. https://parcitypatory.org/2020/09/09/urban-agenda-platform/

Satterthwaite, D. (n.d.). Urbanization and sustainable development. United Nations. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/pdf/commission/2008/keynote/satterthwaite-text.pdf

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