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Material and Methods

Discuss about the Sever based Vibration Sensor using Microcontroller.

Vibration Sensor

The purpose and objective of the vibration sensor is to test the impact force. It has the property of high sensitivity for the vibration detection and has the suppression of the sound signal (Sujith, et al., 2012).

Considerations

Piezoelectric sensor has majorly two parameters that are primary and they are sensitivity and frequency range. Generally, high sensitivity sensors consists low frequency ranges, conversely high frequency sensors are having low frequency. The inertia of mass shows this relationship. Generally, if mass increases sensitivity also increases. Accordingly, as the sensor quickly approaches its resonance frequency, usable frequency reduces. So it needs compromise in between the frequency response and sensitivity.

Range of Temperature

Temperature transients such as steam, hot air, result in expansion of metal case that affects erroneous output in low frequency measurements up to less than 5Hz. To such cases to limit temperature transients, protective sensor housing needs consideration. Such errors are possible to overcome by using monitors along with the band pass filters as well as the techniques.

Humidity

To prevent the humidity and moisture the sealing of the sensors is needed. Jackets are available for overcoming the integral cables, high humidity, splash proof cable connectors.

Amplitude

If sensor’s amplitude range exceeds, there is a distortion to the entire operating frequency range. It means mechanical shock loading can overload the sensor’s response capacity.

Hazardous Environments

Vibration sensors must be certified by agency to avoid hazardous concentrations of gas, vapour and combustible dust (Robert & Andrew, 2009).Fuel-to-air mixture can even be hazardous in that environment, if it has better volatile concentration, also vibration sensors that are certified, may cause ignition. This reduces risks in the specified environment, and avoids explosions. These days industrial sensors are certified by and agencies or manufacturers, like, Canadian Standards Association, Factory Mutual (FM), and CENELEC.

A constant DC power is needed for the amplified vibration sensors. Normally, the power supply may be in the range of 18 to 30 volts with 2 to 10 mA current.

Amplitude Range & Supply Voltage

The manufacture of sensors keeps bias voltage in between lower and upper cut off voltages. The main difference between the bias and cut off voltage performs the voltage swing available at the output (Robert & Andrew, 2009).

The use of the vibration sensor SW – 420 is in the project for the purpose of detecting the vibration that goes beyond the threshold. For the purpose of experiment, the threshold will be adjusted with the help of potentiometer present on-board. It consists of an LED. The output of the LED and so the module will be low or zero, when there is no vibration and when there is vibration, the LED glows and the output indicated will be high.

Environmental Requirements

The vibration sensor has the following specifications.

  • Digital output
  • Switch to have close as the default state
  • Supply voltage required, 3.3 to 5V
  • LED to show the output or results

The applications of the SW-420 vibration sensor would be as burglary protection system, in addition to the vibration detection. Other important applications are as security and alarm systems. As an alarm system, it has the applications for safety boxes, motor vehicles, doors and windows of treasury, etc.

A web server is defined as a system that processes various requests, which are sent through HTTP and also network protocol that information passes through World Wide Web.

The main aim of the web server is to process web pages, store to clients. Web server function is to communicate between client and server through Hypertext Transfer protocol. The pages that transfer through HTTP are HTML documents which are images, scripts and style sheets (Rani & Based, 2012).

A user agent is a web browser which requests are send through HTTP to the web server and server responds the resource with the content and if sending requests fails displays error message.

The main function of server is to send and receive the content of clients and submitting the information through uploading of files and web forms (Sujith et al., 2014).

Generally the web servers use server side scripts using PHP, Active Server Pages and some other scripting languages. It means content or information is scripted in separate files but the software or actual server script remains unchanged. It indicates the generation of dynamic HTML documents dynamically and returns static documents. Previously, the information is retrieved from databases only. After, the documents and information is cached fast, but cannot deliver dynamic content.

Not only World Wide Web, web servers serve embedded devices such as routers, webcams, printers and local networks. And no other software needs to be installed on client computers, the web browser or software included with the operating systems.

A microcontroller (MCU) shortly microcontroller unit is one integrated circuit consists of memory, processor core, and input/output peripherals that are programmable. Each program memory includes chip contains in the form of Ferroelectric NOR flash, RAM, or OTP ROM and RAM of small amount. The microcontroller is used for general purpose applications mainly used and designed for embedded applications in the form of discrete chips (Peng et al., 2011).

Microcontrollers are used in embedded systems in remote controls, office machines, power tools, toys. Mainly used in automatically controlled products and devices.  Microcontrollers are used in reducing cost and size and make cost effective economical digitally control uses individual input/output devices and microprocessor memory. Mixed signal microcontrollers are used in non-digital electronic systems also.

Requirements of Electrical Powering

Some of the microcontrollers work at low frequency as 4 kHz can use for low power consumption and can use for four-bit words. Microcontrollers use functionality such as button press, power consumption while sleeping or other interrupt just at Nano watts. And also use for applications of the long lasting battery, some other microcontrollers has the roles that are performance-critical such as power consumption, higher clock speeds and digital signal processor (DSP).

There are various microcontrollers, such as Arduino, Parallax Basic Stamp, Phidgets, Netmedia’s BX and many others. However, the reason for choosing the Arduino, is because it is not messy as the others, for programming of microcontrollers and the operations. Arduino, is easy to access for the beginners and yet is made to be very flexible for the advanced users. Arduino can simplify the working process with microcontrollers, with no deviation of advantages of others (Moubarak et al., 2011).

Arduino is an electronics platform, which is available as open-source. The application is made for both the hardware and software for easy to use. The project will use Arduino and the Arduino boards will be used to read the inputs, which are given from the output of the vibration sensor or detector. So, it takes the input from the vibration sensor and produces the output accordingly. The output in this project is shown through the web server. The instructions will be given to the board, to perform set of instructions. The microcontroller present on the board takes the inputs, process the inputs and then produces the outputs, based on the programming requirements. It needs Arduino programming language, which can also be done on wiring as well as the IDE of the Arduino software.

Initially, Aruino was developed by Ivea Interaction Design Institute, as a simple tool. The purpose of this tool was for fast prototyping, enabled to be operated by even, non-electronic and non-programming professionals. Very soon, it became an open source, from the wider community developed. It started embracing new challenges, needs and started differentiating the offers from simple boards towards wearables, IoT applications, embedded environments, 3D printing, etc.

The reason for selecting the Arduino is because of the simplicity and better accessibility of it and it can be applied to wider range of projects, including the web-server based vibration detector using microcontroller. The application can be run over Windows, Linux and Mac as well.

  • Inexpensive
  • Clear and simple programming environment
  • Cross-platform
  • Open source as well as extensible hardware
  • Open source as well as extensible software

It has all its components that are easier to understand, use and control as per the requirements,

Vibration Sensor

The Arduino product that will be used in this project is, ESP 8266. So, it is going to function as the brain of the project. Since it is available as an open source platform, it will be accessed and used easily and its accessible knowledge help exploring the ways of using it.

The measurement of the building is done in peak velocity or rms velocity. Vibration usually enters the body, in different axes, x, y and z-axis. The vibration in z-axis is more sensitive compared to the x and y-axis vibration. Measurement is done for the human exposure to various vibrations in three different axes and all these results are compared and combined to the criteria.

It needs appropriate transfer function for converting the levels at the point of measurement to the ones that are likely to occur at the point of the assessment internal to the building.

  1. Web Server
  2. Piezoelectric Sensor

These are the typical sensors that are used for detection of the vibration. The piezoelectric sensor generates electricity automatically, by itself. When the same material has sensed the vibration, by the effect of the materials of the piezoelectric, electric charge will be generated. Then the voltage is amplified by the charge amplifier or voltage amplifier. Then the impedance conversion is done, where this charge of electricity becomes the power output. The power output generated will be directly proportional to the force generated or suffered by the sensor, outside. Eventually, the goal of vibration parameters measurement, in the form of non-electricity signal could be realized. The major purpose and objective of the piezoelectric sensor is to measure the acceleration and dynamic force (Lamb, 2013)

  1. The piezoelectric sensor has no moving parts and so is enough stable, against vibration of the sensor itself
  2. It has good frequency band width to measure wider range of the vibration
  3. The sensor has high sensitivity, so that the vibration is measured completely
  4. The sensor has very simple structure to understand and use it for the measurement of vibration
  5. It is very light in weight
  6. The senor, on an overall, is a reliable sensor to detect the vibration
  1. Resonant frequency
  2. High input impedance
  3. Amplification is needed because of the weak output signal
  4. Vulnerable to the external environments, in terms of interference

Though there are certain disadvantages, they can be overcome by employing certain methods, such as adding cable of low noise, secondary instrument, small capacitance and high insulation resistance, so that the piezoelectric sensors can be used widely (Ludlow & Chris, 2008).

The vibration of the metallic objects is measured by the inductive sensor, without touching them. So, it is also called as an electronic proximity sensor. The principle of the inductive sensors is over the electromagnetic induction (Sujith et al., 2014). It makes use of the self-inductance coil or mutual inductance coil for achieving the goal of detection of the electrical signal, which is realized after it gets converted from the input vibration.

The following figures shows, the principle structure of the inductive sensor.

 

Figure: Inductive Sensor Principle Structure

Specifications

Here, 1 indicates a fixed iron  and 2 indicates the armature that is movable. Over the fixed iron, the number of circles of wire circled would be N.

Based on the magnetic circuit function, the induction produced, while the fixed iron is worked during non-saturation, is,

L = N2 µ0 A0 / 2l0

Here,

µ0 = magnetic permeability  

A0 = equivalent cross-sectional area

l   = gap length

When the object’s vibration result to the thickness or real or the magnet length, in between the armature and iron, there will be change of the inductance, inductance change is measured, to measure the object’s vibration.

  1. High accuracy of measurement
  2. Greater or increased output power
  3. Zero stability problems
  4. Simple structure
  5. Overall reliability
  6. Can detect vibration of any ferrous metal
  1. Linearity restricted with the other parameters
  2. Range and sensitivity are restricted from each other
  3. Unsuitable for high frequency dynamic signal measurement

The project requires the following material and devices for implementation.

  1. Arduino
  2. Vibration sensor
  3. Ethernet shield
  4. Internet connection and router optionally
  5. Resistors

Step 1

Take the Arduino microcontroller board and set the circuitry, along with the vibration sensor, resistors, according to the circuit

Step 2

Ethernet shield has to be set up. This Ethernet shield is provided by the Arduino board. It is needed for the establishment of communication among the network and internet.

Step 3

Employ the web server. The webserver can be employed simply, as a web server app, which can act as a storage of the data related to the object and the vibration. The data from the web server is taken as the input to measure the vibration. Any vibration sensor can be used to provide the output through the microcontroller, based on the program. The web server App can also be obtained by the Arduino, like by merging the library and DHTxx code from Lady Ada, for example.

Step 4

Build access from the remote area. The network has to be built by enabling the internet connection. The internet connection can be made through the Ethernet. In addition to that Wi-Fi connection can be made through the router, so that the vibration sensor information can be passed and stored in the webserver from the multiple locations and sites, where the objects are present.

Conclusion

Vibration is one of the parameters of an object, which is created or generated by the impact force. The vibration of the object can be measured through various methods and sensors. The vibration sensors can be measured through webserver as one method and alternately, there are multiple solutions and some of the solutions are addressed in this report.

Reference

Al-Ahmar, E. et al, 2008, “Wind Energy Conversion Systems Fault Diagnosis Using Wavelet Analysis”, International Review of Electrical Engineering.

Alkar, Z. A., & Atif, M, 2009, An Internet-Based Interactive Embedded Data-Acquisition System for RealTime Applications, VOL.58, NO.3.

Daniele, M, Gabriele, M., Giacomo, B. & Gualtiero, F. 2015. Changing the programming paradigm for the embedded in the IoT domain. Internet of Things (WF-IoT), 2015 IEEE 2nd World Forum on. Milan: IEEE

Harris, D. & Harris, S. 2012. Digital Design and Computer Architecture, Second Edition, p. 515.

Lakes, Roderic, 2013, Electrical Properties of Bone - a review. University of Wisconsin

Lamb, F. 2013. Industrial Automation: Hands-On. McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 74–75. 

 Ludlow, Chris, 2008, Energy Harvesting with Piezoelectric Sensors . Mide Technology

Manivannan M. & Kumaresan N. 2011, Design of On-line Interactive Data Acquisition and Control System for Embedded Real Time Applications, IEEE.

Moubarak, P. et al., 2011, “A Self-Calibrating Mathematical Model for the Direct Piezoelectric Effect of a New MEMS Tilt Sensor”, IEEE Sensors Journal, 12.

Patil, D. D & Slokhe, B. T, 2015,  “Design of remote data acquisition system based on 3G”, International Journal of Engineering Research Online, Department of Electronics, TKIET, India.

Paul, W. R. 2012, An electronic nose to differentiate aromatic flowers using a real-time information-rich piezoelectric resonance measurement. Procedia Chemistry

Peng, Z., Hu, C., Liao, J., & Chang, T, 2011, Design of embedded remote monitoring terminal based on 3G network", IEEE/ICME International Conference on May 2011.

Rani, R, C, & Kumar, P, A., 2012, “Location Based Services In Android", International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 209-220.

Robert, B. O., Andrew, M. A. 2009, Piezoelectricity. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.

Singhal1, M, & Shukla, A, 2012, “Implementation of Location based Services in Android using GPS and Web Services” IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 9, Issue 1, No 2.

Sujith, G., Vinod, P. V., Vinaya, M. S. & Babu, S. S, 2014,  “Real-time vibration monitoring in Android smart phone using location based service”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, India.

Suyog A. W &. Chaudhari, R.P. 2012, Ethernet Enabled Digital i/o Control in Embedded Systems, IEEE

Wang, P, 2011, “Design of Temperature and Humidity Intelligent Control System Based on C8051F” 2011 International Conference on Electronics and Optoelectronics IEEE

Wang, Y., Chen, R., Yu, R, 2011, Remote data acquisition based on the EDGE, International Conference on, June 2011.

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