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The aim of this assignment is to ensure that you have the necessary knowledge and skills to prepare and care for the most commonly used flowers and plants in Australia. Please refer to your Flower Care Workbook, as well as the following sections which can be found in ‘further reading’:

  • Recognise flower and plant materials
  • Prepare and care for floristry stock

Your report should be compiled based on current information obtained from Sydney Flower Market and research from other sources.

Assessment Instructions · You must complete ALL of the questions and meet ALL of the Assessment Benchmarks to be deemed Satisfactory for this assessment task. · The Base Medium Floral Recognition and Care Assignment is to be completed outside of class during your independent research work time. You must have access to a computer, camera (or phone with camera) and Internet.

Has the student accurately named each design?

Have they listed the correct botanical name; Have they listed the correct common name/s

Has the student included a picture (either a photograph or coloured sketch) of the floral material?

Is the floral material clearly identifiable from the image?

Has the student described the Appearance and other key characteristics and features including: Flower form, Appearance of Flower, leaves and Stem

Has the student accurately listed the seasonal availability of the floral material?

Has the student accurately listed Vase Life?

Has the student accurately listed Bunch Size?

Has the student accurately listed the BUYING TIPS?

Has the student accurately listed described the Care & Handling, Floral Preservative and Ethylene requirements?

Has the student accurately listed storage temperature?

Has the student included Special notes? (This may not be applicable for all materials)

Has the student accurately notes whether the flower has a perfume?

Has the student accurately notes whether the flower has any Toxicity or allergy characteristics and described them?

Has the student accurately described Design Uses in Floristry?

Has the student accurately listed the country/countries origin (if known)/region/environment and storage of the floral material?

Has the student accurately listed Cultural significance? No

Has the student listed references?

Question:

low to lime-green candle-shaped flower heads, with long, narrow serrated leaves. Candles and nuts or cones can also be used. Available November–January.

Banksia baxteri(bird’s nest banksia, Bax- ter’s banksia): Greenish-yellow. The most desired shape is a compact flower head on a thin, straight stem with fewer than 30% of individual florets open. The foli- age adds drama—stiff green leaves and a deep zigzag edge. The nuts or cones are also very attractive. December–March.

Banksia burdettii: Apricot/orange flower heads similar to B. hookeriana, but slightly smaller. Aim to buy when fewer than 20% of individual florets are open, so the flower head has an apricot-orange ruff of florets open at the base. Decem- ber–February.

Banksia coccinea (scarlet banksia): Red/ grey; yellow flowers sometimes available. The most desired shape is a tall cylinder with fewer than 20% of individual florets open and the rest still “looped”. Avail- able May–November.

Banksia ericifolia× spinulosa ‘Giant Candles’: Very large yellow/orange flower heads. Stems may be quite short. Foliage from the B. ericifoliaparent is also com- monly used in floristry. March–August.

Banksia hookeriana(Hooker’s banksia, acorn banksia): Flower heads are very large (7–12 cm long). Aim to buy and sell when fewer than 20% of individual florets are open so most of the flower head is creamy pink to peach with a rich orange ruff of florets open at the base. Candles can also be used. April–Sept.

Banksia marginata: Flower head is candle shaped, 5–10 cm tall and yellow to bronze. Foliage is needle-like. Sept–Feb.

Banksia menziesii(firewood banksia, Menzies’ banksia): Domed flower heads are 10–12 cm long. A range of colour variants exist—deep burgundy-red to chocolate-brown, orange, pinks, apricot, bronze, yellow. The nuts or cones are also used. February–September.

Banksia occidentalis: Cylindrical flower heads 12–15 cm tall, bright red and sometimes pinkish red. February–August.

Banksia plagiocarpa(Hinchinbrook bank- sia, silver banksia): Flowers are a striking metallic to bluish grey, or sometimes yellowish. Candles and cones or nuts can also be used. Very long vase life (up to 28 days). Attractive foliage covered with rusty red hairs. Reject stems with blem- ished and blotchy foliage. Nov–June.

Banksia praemorsa: Very long wine red flower heads (up to 35 cm). June–Nov.

Banksia prionotes: The large flower head is mostly cream with an orange ruff of florets open at the base. The common name comes from the acorn-like shape of the flower head. Candles can also be used. February–August.

Banksia sceptrum: A large, slender flower head, up to 20 cm long, in pale yellow to whitish tones. Aim to sell when most florets are still closed and a lemon ruff of florets is open at the base. Available October–November.

Banksia speciosa: A chunky, long, cream to pale yellow flower head. Cones can also be used. Available November–March.

Dryandra(now botanically reclassified as Banksia):

  1. heliantha(D. quercifolia): Medium flower head of reddish-orange flowers surrounding a yellow centre; oak-shaped leaves. Available May–October.
  2. formosa(D. formosa): Large, terminal, orange to bronze flower head, becoming orange to golden when open; narrow (fern-like) serrated leaves. Available May then September–December.
  3. robur: Cylindrical flower spikes to 17 cm long are blue/green in bud and yellow /green when open. March–August.
  4. victoriae: The woolly orange banksia. Cream florets with an orange ruff at the base, aim to sell the large tapered flower head with most florets still closed. Leaves are long and deeply toothed. Jan–Feb.

Banskia seed pods are utilised as the aromatherapy oil for their perfume.

Toxicity and allergy characteristics for humans and pets:

Highly toxic for that reason all parts of the plants are highly poisonous for all animals, humans or pets.

Assessment Instructions

Commercial Availability

And Natural Season The main flowering season is February to November, but some spe- cies, such as B. baxteri, flower over the summer (November–March). Immature flowers (called “cones”) and the dried “nuts” of some banksias can also be used for floral arrangements. There are many species and cultivars of Banksia used in florist

Colour Range Cream to yellow, peach to pink, orange, red, rusty brown, metallic silver, green, depending on species

Buying Tips Buy when the flower head is firm to the touch (not soft) and before 20% of the florets have opened. Avoid flower heads on which half or more of the florets have opened (giving a brush like appearance), as these are getting overmature and unattractive, are more easily damaged during handling and transport, and may have abundant nectar.

Care and Handling Recut stems and place in water ASAP with added biocide. Change the water at least every second day. Ban

To date, banksias have not responded to floral preservatives. To increase water uptake, it may be worth holding stems in deep water (e.g. 20 cm). Do not mist.

Special notes Banksias may come from commercially grown plants or wild-har- vested material, which is more variable in flower form and quality. They need to be kept well hydrated as the flower heads and leaves become dull if allowed to dry out, and can’t then easily be rehydrated. The immature flower heads (called “can- dles”) of some banksias (e.g. B. plagiocar- pa) can be used. The woody cones (fruits) of a number of banksias (e.g. B. baxteri) can also be used.

Design uses in floristry Focal. May be integrated into a wide range of floral designs.

Cultural significance of Red flowers indicates towards love, romance and joyful events Banskia has also such a colouration.

Appearance and other key characteristics Flower Form: Spiked, cones and head aided flower and wildflower in appearence

Toxicity and allergy characteristics for humans and pets:

Highly toxic and poisonous in nature for all living beings

Colour Range White; pale pink; pale pink with candy-pink stripe

Buying Tips Buy when the bracts are loosening and with the central fluffy flower mass just visible inside the blooms. Avoid stems indicating signs of Botry- tis—for example, small pink spots on the bracts—as this will cause the stems to collapse. Avoid stems with yellow leaves, poor flowering stems and overmature flowers. Leaf blackening may indicate that stems have been submerged or have been stored for too long.

Care and Handling Serruriaflowers dry out quickly and need to be handled gen- tly. The pedicels (the little stem that holds each floret) are vulnerable to Botrytis infection, which causes them to collapse.

Special notes Perfect for winter and spring weddings and functions where the customer has requested wildflowers, they are beautiful (and cost effective) when arranged with other spring blooms such as paper daisies, flannel flowers and waxflowers. Does not seem to suffer from leaf blackening like Protea species do. However, leaves may turn black if  submerged in buckets of solution or if held for too long.

Answer:

Design uses in floristry Single stems or as grouped focal flowers. Highly desir- able and sought-after blooms while in season, and frequently presented in a wide range of design styles, from simple vase arrangements to grouped focal, in modern, contemporary and traditional arrangements. Perfect for hand-tiedbou- quets and appropriate for wired wedding bouquets and accessories.

White flowers bears the cultural significances of spirituality and decency along with peacefulness

Botanical name Xerochrysum bracteatum

Common names Bracteantha, Everlasting daisy, Paper daisy, Straw flower

Appearance and other key characteristics Flower Form: This flowers has papery bracts which looks like petals, flowers are found to be present with wild form of flora

Toxicity and allergy characteristics for humans and pets:

This wildflower is highly toxic in nature. As a result, any touch with human body, animals and pets it creates a great allergenic reaction. As a result, it creates skin rashes, itching, and hives. To withstand this allergenic reaction, mainly Sulfonamide antibiotics are utilized.

Colour Range White, cream, yellow, gold, orange, burgundy, pale to dark pinks

Buying Tips Look for clean, undamaged, open blooms on long, strong stems.

Care and Handling Best held at room temperature. Add flower food and change the water every 2–3 days. Do not store wet, as leaf blackening may occur. Remove plastic sleeves while product is in storage.

Floral Preservative Yes

Ethylene sensitivity Unknown

Storage Do not store in cool-room

Special notes The modern range of hybrid Xerochrysumcut flowers include pale and bright colours with large flower heads on long stems. When the flowers are dried the brittle stems will snap. So remove the stem and insert a heavy- gauge wire up into the flower head for support.

Design uses in floristry Transitional

or grouped as a focal flower. Used as a fresh flower in bunches or wildflower arrangements, wedding bouquets and accessories. Also used as a dried flower, as the papery bracts will last indefinitely if protected from insect attack. To dry, hang bunches upside down in a cool, dry, well ventilated place. Dried product holds its colour well.

White flowers is always significantly signifies the simplicity, peacefulness, along with spirituality.

Native environment Mainly moistureland of South Africa Zantedeschia

Common names Calla Lily

Appearance and other key characteristics Flower Form:

Flower form of Zantedeschia, is of two types which are hard outdoor form along with white colored flowers. Another form is  tender forms along with soft leaves with white spots, where flower colors may vary with pink, orange, yellow colored variations.

Zantedeschia is exotically beautiful along with their white colored flowers. Flowers are along with spathes which are looks like funnels. Inside this funnel there is a central spike. Enormous tiny yellow colored flowers are present there. It is slightly wavy in appearances.

For this attractive appearances this flowers are utilized as the ornamental garden plants.

This flower of Araceae family has a very mild perfume. This mild scent is present mainly in the pollens, and waxy petals of the flower Zantedeschia.For that reason, this is highly utilized in the perfumery manufacturing companies.

Design Uses in Floristry

Toxicity and allergy characteristics for humans and pets:

This plant is highly toxic in nature. All of its parts are highly poisonous. It creates Dermatitis. Its consumption by cattle or children may lead them towards death also. This

plant parts contains the Calcium oxalate enriched crystals. After coming in contact with human body, it may create breathing troubles, asthma, or other digestion related physiological issues.

Commercial Availability

And Natural Season Calla, naturally summer flowering but varies with greenhouse- grown and imported product year round;

Buying Tips Buy when the spathe (the large flat “petal”) is half opened (bud stage) and the spadix (the centre spike) is cream and fresh, not yellow. When the inflorescence is aged, the spadix yellows and becomes fluffy. Pick when the buds are unfurled at least 5 cm and they will continue to open; if picked too early, they may not open. Avoid any stems that feel slimy—this is likely to be due to the bacterial disease Erwinia, which leads to rapid stem collapse.

Care and Handling Check the level of water frequently, as these flowers use a lot of water. Be careful of the bleeding sap on fresh- picked stems—place stems immediately in water, taking care not to get the sap on clothing, as it will stain and is extreme- ly difficult to remove. The stem end will seal over when left in water overnight. Alternatively, the sap can be squeezed out or sealed with cold glue to ensure the stems will not bleed further. Calla lilies do not like to be placed into deep water. Place them instead in clean water con- taining a commercial biocide.

Floral Preservative Yes

Ethylene sensitivity Not sensitive to ethylene

Storage Can be stored in cool-room (2-4 degrees)

Special notes Available in a multitude of shades and colours. As they can be used in virtually any flower arranging style to create a striking, sophisticated look, it is not surprising they have become the flower of choice for interior designers and event planners. The flowers are phototropic and so may turn towards the light. Not ideal for ar- ranging in floral foam because the stems are thick, and stem collapse is common in foam.

Design uses in floristry Transitional

or grouped as a focal flower. Used as a fresh flower in bunches or wildflower arrangements, wedding bouquets and accessories. Also used as a dried flower, as the papery bracts will last indefinitely if protected from insect attack. To dry, hang bunches upside down in a cool, dry, well ventilated place. Dried product holds its colour well.

Origin or

native environment Availability varies; the natural season for calla lilies is summer, but the plants are susceptible to the bacterial disease Er- winiain humid climates. Hence, flowering bulbs are often grown in heated green- houses out of season. As it is imported at various times of the year, check with your supplier before committing to having calla lily available for orders.

As it is a white colour so most of the provinces of South Africa, this flowers are utilized in worshipping procedure. On the other hand, it is a signal of peace. As it is of white colored so its species and subspecies are carrying highly spiritual significances from developing coutries like South Africa, China, India and others.

References

What cut flower is that-Delwyn Thomas, Bettina Gollnow

Photo-https://www.macys.com/shop/product/nearly-natural-calla-lily-flower-arrangement-with-cylinder-vase?ID=6083996

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[Accessed 24 February 2024].

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