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Many people are affected by mental health and neurological disorders including depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar schizophrenia and dementia as NCD' s (WHO 2018). The goal of this assignment is for students to choose a topic Mental illness (including self harm). Students are then to conduct library research and to acquire knowledge and understanding about their chosen topic. In a written essay format, students are required to:

  1. Clearly state your chosen topic Mental illness (including self harm). Discuss the incidence and prevalence (epidemiology) of reported cases globally, including the current estimated morbidity and mortality rates of the condition.
  2. Discuss the cohort most at risk of the condition (the age of the population mostly affected).
  3. Review the current strategies for health promotion of the chosen topic and discuss the effectiveness of the programs. Do the programs appear to be working? Consider if the programs are suitable to the cohort most at risk.

Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Illness Worldwide

A large number of individuals in the community get negligible to no health care services since they cannot access or afford them (World Health Organization, 2010). In fact, Nuntaboot (2006) explains that the increasing populace of chronically-ill and aging patients coupled with complicated economic and social circumstances have strained the care of such individuals. This scenario calls for the need for community development nursing whereby community development nurses are mandated to undertake various tasks such as promoting health, preventing disease and injury, providing and managing care, and so forth (World Health Organization, 2017). When considering this information, this paper concentrates on conducting library research and acquiring understanding and knowledge about mental illness, which is a health problem affecting many people in the community.

From the info presented above, it is clear that the topic of interest in this paper is the mental illness that also includes self-harm. Mental illness’ prevalence and incidence highlight the serious nature of the health problem being discussed. Kessler et al. (2009) highlight that mental illnesses are common health conditions worldwide. Furthermore, they are often seriously impairing conditions in several nations around the globe (Kessler et al., 2009). As of 2003, around four hundred and fifty million individuals experienced the ill effects of a behavioral or mental disorder (World Health Organization, 2003). The World Health Organization (2003) indicates that neuropsychiatric disorder and intentional injury accounts for 33% and 2.1% of years lived with disability (YLD) respectively. As for unipolar depressive disorder, it accounts for 12.15% of YLD and stands out as the third chief contributor to the worldwide illnesses’ burden (World Health Organization, 2003). Some of the mental illnesses that are leading causes of YLD include bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcohol use disorder, and depression (World Health Organization, 2003).

Apart from the above-stated statistics, in excess of one hundred and fifty million people endure from depression, almost one million commit suicides annually, around twenty-five million encounter the ill impacts of schizophrenia, thirty-eight million encounter epilepsy’s harmful impacts, and over ninety million encounter the adverse influences of drug- or alcohol use disorder (World Health Organization, 2003). Individuals with extreme mental disorders by and large tend to die sooner than the general populace due to the 10-25 year reduction in their life expectancy (World Health Organization, n.d). World Health Organization (n.d) explains that mortality rates among individuals with schizophrenia are two to two and a half times higher than the common populace. Individuals with the bipolar mood disorder possess high death rates extending from thirty-five percent higher to two times as high as the all-inclusive community (World Health Organization, n.d). There is a 1.8 times higher danger of dying that is related to depression. These statistics stand out amongst many when considering mental illness as one of the major global health problems.

Mortality Rates Associated with Mental Illness

Mental illness is a condition that affects a broad scope of people around the world. Mitchell, Natalie, Melvyn, & Edwige (2010) outline that specific groups of people exist that are most vulnerable to mental illness. Gatherings at higher danger of developing mental illness incorporate individuals with chronic or serious physical ailments and adolescent and youngsters, whose childhood has been disrupted in one way or the other (World Health Organization, 2001). Other factions include individuals living in neediness or troublesome conditions, the jobless, female casualties of savagery and abuse, and neglected elderly people (World Health Organization, 2001). These groups prove that the cohort most at risk of the health problem includes children, adolescents, adults, and even persons at their old age, a fact that proves that individuals at their teenage ages to their old periods are at danger of developing mental illness.

In spite of different settings, wellbeing promotion work displays regular highlights in view of cooperation and repetitive cycles of program arranging, usage, and assessment. World Health Organization (2004) outlines that powerful models underscore the expectation of constructing individuals' ability to deal with their particular well-being and to function cooperatively. Almost all wellbeing promotion practice frameworks comprise of three elements. The first one includes a cautious investigation of a community’s history, assets, needs, and structure in a joint effort with the community (World Health Organization, 2004). The second element comprises of concession to an arrangement of activity, accumulation of assets, execution, and observing of activity and change forms. Smoothness is always required in arranging and acting to accomplish the demands of the novel or evolving circumstances, and steady reconnaissance of and reflection over training (World Health Organization, 2004). World Health Organization (2004) explains that the last element includes an accentuation on assessment and scattering of best practices, with regard for keeping up and enhancing quality as dissemination unfurls.

When considering the information already stipulated above concerning health promotion strategies, it is worth mentioning that those particular frameworks incorporate executing wellbeing upgrading public policies such as anti-discriminatory laws and employment opportunities (Kabau et al., 2011). Other strategies include making supportive situations like child rearing intercessions, reinforcing community activity such as media campaigns and participatory research, creating individual aptitudes like resilience, and reorienting wellbeing administrations like post pregnancy anxiety screening to improve health (Herrman, Saxena, Moodie, & World Health Organization, 2005). Public wellbeing has concentrated its endeavors on these wellbeing determinants basically as they identify with avoiding physical disease, damage, and incapacity, bringing about expanded longevity Kabau et al., 2011). Similarly, Kabau et al. (2011) highlight that medical psychiatry and brain science have been effective in distinguishing, treating, and ordering psychological maladjustment and illness, bringing about better personal satisfaction for many individuals. These strategies appear to be working because the life quality of many people is constantly being improved. Furthermore, the strategies focus on the vulnerable groups already mentioned above thereby making them outstanding.

Groups Most Vulnerable to Mental Illness

In conclusion, mental illness affects many people around the globe. Its incidence and prevalence around the world are alarming. Furthermore, its mortality and morbidity rates also prove that mental illness is a serious health problem. It affects various groups of people such as children, adolescents, adults, and even the elderly. Due to these alarming statistics, various strategies have been developed and implemented to assist in dealing with the health problem. Those particular frameworks are working and seem to be suitable for all the vulnerable groups already mentioned.

References

Herrman, H., Saxena, S., Moodie, R., & World Health Organization. (2005). Promoting mental health: concepts, emerging evidence, practice: a report of the World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation and the University of Melbourne. World Health Organization Report. Retrieved 18th August 2018, from, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43286/9241562943_eng.pdf?sequence=1.

Kobau, R., Seligman, M. E., Peterson, C., Diener, E., Zack, M. M., Chapman, D., & Thompson, W. (2011). Mental health promotion in public health: Perspectives and strategies from positive psychology. American Journal of Public Health, 101(8), e1-e9. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2010.300083.

Kessler, R. C., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Chatterji, S., Lee, S., Ormel, J., ... & Wang, P. S. (2009). The global burden of mental disorders: an update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 18(1), 23-33. Retrieved 18th August 2018, from, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039289/.

Mitchell, F., Natalie, D., Melvyn, F., & Edwige, F. (2010). Mental health and development: Targeting people with mental health conditions as a vulnerable group. World Health Organizational. Retrieved 18th August 2018, from, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44257/9789241563949_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y&ua=1.

Nuntaboot, K. (2006). Nurses of the Community, by the Community, and for the Community in Thailand. In Regional Health Forum (Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 11-28). Retrieved 18th August 2018, from, https://apps.searo.who.int/pds_docs/B0234.pdf#page=16.

World Health Organization. (n.d). Premature death among people with severe mental disorders. Information Sheet. Retrieved 18th August 2018, from, https://www.who.int/mental_health/management/info_sheet.pdf.

World Health Organization. (2001). Mental health: A call for action by world health ministers. 54TH World Health Assembly. Retrieved 18th August 2018, from, https://www.who.int/mental_health/advocacy/en/Call_for_Action_MoH_Intro.pdf.

World Health Organization. (2003). Investing in mental health. World Health Organization. Retrieved 18th August 2018, from, https://www.who.int/mental_health/media/investing_mnh.pdf.

World Health Organization. (2004). Promoting mental health: Concepts, emerging evidence, practice: Summary report. Summary Report. Retrieved 18th August 2018, from, https://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/en/promoting_mhh.pdf.

World Health Organization. (2010). A framework for community health nursing education. World Health Organization. Retrieved 18th August 2018, from, https://apps.searo.who.int/PDS_DOCS/B4816.pdf.

World Health Organization. (2017). Enhancing the role of community health nursing for universal health coverage. Human Resources for Health Observer Series No. 18. Retrieved 18th August 2018, from, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255047/9789241511896-eng.pdf?sequence=1.

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