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The Evolution and Planning of Urban Cities

Question:

Explain the history of urban development and discuss about more than one factor.
 

The particular assignment deals with the history of urban development and thus discusses about more than one factor. It includes the factors like telematics technologies, and at the same time it includes the socio, economical and political factors at the same time. The factors like industrialization also accounted for the evolution of the urban places at the same time. The particular essay deals with the difference that was there in the Fordist and in the post-Fordist era. The particular era talks of the consequences that the present day urban cities face in the post-modernist era, which has seen, both the liberalization and globalization

Keyword: Urban Development, Telematics, Industrialization 

The urban cities forms an important part of the society, in the urban cities, there are not only the wealthy people but at the same time there are poor inhabitant, as well as artesian and the small business owners too lives in that particular city. The history of the development of the cities is not something that is new to the people but rather it is something that is quite old and complex. The oldest or rather the earliest example of a city can be the city of Hippodamus, which can be found in Greece. The antiquity of the city has helped the city to earn the fame of the Father of the City Planning.

The present day design and the planning of the cities are different from the ancient days design and planning mainly because of the fact that earlier cities used to be an isolated centre. The urban centres in the present day are the centre of the economy of the country and are not isolated in any way. The urban centres include both the industrial as well as the service-oriented community and thus the particular centre has gone through lots of economic as well as physical and infrastructural changes.

The Need of Telematics in Urban Development

The urban development and the developments of the cities depend largely on the theoretical perspective of telematics. Telematics help in the development of the urban centres in three ways. Telematics help in accessing information at a faster rate, at the same time it helps in accessing the information in more and more quantities (Firmino, 2016). Telematics help in accessing the quality of the information as well (Code, 2016). Telematics therefore, brings a direct change in the development and the improvements in the cities. The physical development of the city, which include the developments of the parks, amenity centres, buildings and roads are depended on the telematics technologies, on the new invention and innovation. Therefore, it can be stated that the socio-economic and the structural development of the urban centres depends a lot on the telematics and on the technological factor. The telematics could help the urban centres and the cities to develop in such a way that it become a good place to live as well as to carry on work. Thus, it can be said that the utopian urban centres and its development depends largely on the telematics (Hall, 2014). Utopianism supports technological innovation and changes for the development of the cities. A continuous development of the technologies and the innovation is something that has always proven to be helpful for the cities (Morris, 2013). Thus, for the improvement and the development of the cities depends largely on the telematics improvements. The telematics technologies to the problems related to the social and the economical problem and at the same time to the spatial and to the physical urban development problem. Thus, the telematics technologies could help in the improvement as well as in the development of the urban centres. 

Telematics Technologies and Urban Development

If utopianism believe that the development and the growth of the urban centres and the cities depends on the technological innovation and invention, then the viewpoint that dystopianism has quite a different view. Dystopianism is something that is depended largely on the socio-political factors and it looks into the factors like telematics as something that is the part of the society (Code, 2016). The society is capitalist in nature; therefore, the telematics too are capitalist in one way or the other. The telematics technological development, thus, is no longer seen as an instrument of development rather it is being regarded as the instrument of capitalism. It helps in earning money and it is being utilized for its own good, thus, it is being used to convince the customers to purchase a product of various kinds. 

Industrial revolution is again another important factor that plays an important role in the perspective of the urban development and in the perspective of the development of the cities. The industrial revolution during the eighteenth and the nineteenth century brought a huge change in the society and in the urban centres. The industrial revolution has a long-term impact on the society and on the various strata of the society (Knox & McCarthy, 2012). The introduction of the industrial revolution in the city leads to the rise of the middle class in the society. Along with the rise of the middle class in the society there is the swelling of the poor population in the society, as well as in the urban centres and in the cities (Modern History Sourcebook Friederich Engels: Industrial Manchester, 1844. 2016). The industrial revolution had lead to various movements of the people and at the same time it had lead to the civil unrest, as well as  it became one of the drivers of institutionalize change during the period.

The process of urban development depends on various things, which include the social, economical as well as the political process. The key process, although, is the economical process that plays an important role in the development, as well as, in the evolution of the urban development (Code, 2016). The factors, such as the political, social and the economical factors, plays an important role in the process of the development of the internal structure of the urban places.

It is true that the historical evolution of the urban places depends largely on the economical as well as on the technological factors. The historical urban Toronto Skyline of 1950, therefore, is different from the present urban skyline. The reason behind this could be the technological or the economical progress that took place in the society; although, it is true that they are not everything for the development of the city. Thus, it is not possible to have a total redevelopment of the city.

Urbanization is a world phenomenon today and this particular phenomenon depends a lot on the industrialization. The industrial areas have lead to the unprecedented growth of the urban areas. Thus, the industrial area, and in fact large amount of the industrial area was turned into towns and cities. The structure, plan and the design of the cities, before there was the industrialization around the globe, was different from the plan, structure and the design of the postindustrial cities. The pre-industrial cities have three distinct social stratification and these are the elite class, the lower class and the outcast (Grace, 2013). The pre-industrial cities were designed in such a way that the pedestrian could walk easily in the cities and they do not have to face much problem in walking on the roads. Only the people belonging to the elite class used the carriages or the horse carts that are there in the cities. The pre-industrial cities have little, difference between the workplace and the residential homes. The nature of thee cities are compact and thus both the rich and the poor living in the city live within a close proximity.

Utopianism and Dystopianism views on Telematics in Urban Development

The cities that have the characteristic of both the pre-industrial and the industrial cities are known as the transitional cities. The process of industrialization is a long process and it took place in a slow pace. Thus, the industrialization has some effect on the pre-industrial cities, but then that does not brought a big change in the cities. The transitional cities, like the pre-industrial cities give more emphasis to “walking” although, the expansion of the cities made it difficult for the people to walk and communicate with the people (Code, 2016). Thus, walking with the growth of industrialization became an inconvenient means of connecting with other places. Importance developed for other modes of transport with the growth and the development of the urban centres and the cities. Thus, the transitional cities have got the elements of both the pre-industrial and the industrial cities. 

The growth of the modern cities, according to many critics and scholars have lead to the unleashing of the human potential, the forces that is being possessed by the human beings. The modern cities, therefore, according to these critics, are the result of the Faustian bargain although; the bargain has started during the twentieth century. The development of the New York City in a modern city took place between the 1940 and 1970. The modern cities were designed in such a way that the cities could very easily utilize the technological improvements that are there in the country (Code, 2016). The modern city is different from the Commercial city in the sense that this particular city gives more importance to the mature industrialization and mature capitalism. The modern cities are mostly surrounded by the ring of well developed suburban areas. The modern cities are not only dynamic in nature but at the same time according to the size of these cities, the modern cities are really big in sizes. Thus, due to these characteristic features and due to many other characteristic features this particular city is being developed as the centre where the major invention as well as the innovation of the technologies would take place (Levi, 2014). The modern cities have developed not only in terms of technological development but at the same time the development was there in terms of transportation as well. The places that were previously connected very poorly, now with the help of railroads are connected in a better way. The adoption of the technologies such as the telegraph, also lead to the development of the cities and the urban centres. Thus, the modern cities are different not only from the pre-industrial cities; rather they are different from the transitional cities at the same time. The development of the automobiles too, had contributed a lot to the development of the transportation of the modern cities that were there (Yan, Yi, Zhu & Fu, 2013).

The Ford motor car emerged as a company that had provided more importance to the repetitive performance of the workers in the factory. The result of following this particular method resulted in producing cars at a cheaper rate. The particular phenomenon although, faced a crisis during the 1970s, when the terms like liberalization, globalization became very common for the public (Code, 2016). The method that was adopted by the Ford motor car company, in the initial stage, in the society’s viewpoint proved to be such a method that encouraged the growth and the development of the workers and the workers were encourage to work for the organization. The buying power of the workers increased at the same time and thus things like development and the improvement of the suburban area also took place during this period (Marshall & Niles, 2014). The development of the suburban areas is one such thing that did not have much significance during the pre-industrial or in the transitional cities. The post-Fordist period is characterized as a less sustainable period (Audirac, 2013). The era after the post-Fordist period is recognized as the post modernist period that too, lead to the problems and crisis that remained in the city for a long time. 

Conclusion

Therefore, it can be concluded that the urban development is a slow process that include various factors. The telematics technologies are the most important factors for the growth and the development of the cities and the urban centres. The telematics technologies actually help in fulfilling the utopianism that is there in the city. Apart from this particular utopianism there is the dystopianism that proves that telematics technologies are capitalist in nature. The social, economical and the political factors play an important role in the development of the cities and the urban centres and thus these factors are the key factors in the process of the urban development. The urban development of the cities also depends on the industrial revolution and the adoption of technologies such as the telegraph. The post-Fordist era, although, is not that fruitful or helpful in the process of urban development. The process of the urban development was rather disrupted by the post-Fordist era, which brought lots of crisis in the city. Thus, it hinders the growth and the development of the cities.  

References

Audirac, I. (2013). Shrinking cities in the fourth urban revolution?. In Shrinking Cities: International Perspectives and Policy Implications (pp. 42-58). Routledge New York, NY.

Code, L. (2016). From Fordism to the Post-Fordist City Introduction (1st ed.).

Code, L. (2016). Introduction to Module 2 (1st ed.).

Code, L. (2016). Introduction to Module 4 (1st ed.).

Code, L. (2016). The Unraveling of the Modern City Ideal (1st ed.).

Code, L. (2016). Welcome to CyberCities (1st ed.).

De Cindio, F. (2016). Augmented Urban Spaces: Articulating the Physical and Electronic City. Routledge.

Firmino, R. J. (2016). Planning and Managing the Augmente d City: ICT Planning in Medium-sized Cities in São Paulo, Brazil. Augmented Urban Spaces: Articulating the Physical and Electronic City, 313.

Grace, G. (2013). Education and the city: Theory, history and contemporary practice. Routledge.

Hall, P. (2014). Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design Since 1880. John Wiley & Sons.

Knox, P. L., & McCarthy, L. (2012). Urbanization: An introduction to urban geography. Boston: Pearson.

Levi, S. (2014). On The Role of Culture in Urban Development.

Marshall, S., & Niles, J. (2014). Synergies Between Vehicle Automation, Telematics Connectivity, and Electric Propulsion. In Road Vehicle Automation (pp. 215-227). Springer International Publishing.

Modern History Sourcebook Friederich Engels: Industrial Manchester, 1844. (2016) (1st ed.).

Morris, A. E. J. (2013). History of urban form before the industrial revolution. Routledge.

Yan, X., Yi, P., Zhu, D., & Fu, L. (2013). ICTIS 2013: Improving Multimodal Transportation Systems-Information, Safety, and Integration. ASCE.

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