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Discuss About The South African Institute Mining Metallurgy?

The shire is responsible for maintenance of thousands of kilometers of road in suburban sprawl and semi-rural areas (Usman, Fu and Miranda-Moreno, 2012). Every year the shire city council receives various kinds of request regarding repairing of road not only after torrential rain but also due to general type of wear and tear. As a result of housing development on a continuous basis the shire needs some ways or methods by which it can have ways for monitoring and proper management of road can be done easily. This report mainly deals with various technologies which can be used for maintenance of road with the shire council (Xia et al. 2012). The road network in every nation is considered to be principal foundation for proper functioning of transport. It contributes to provide wide range of benefits in economic and social terms. Proper maintenance of road based infrastructure is needed for achievement and preserving of those benefits.

In the coming pages of the report a comparison has been provided between two selected technologies as per the appropriateness of The shire city council area. After that various aspects like infrastructure, existing technology solution, data storage and processing facilities has been discussed in details. After that various aspects like storage, cost, security, ease of use and accessibility has been discussed in details. 

Proper system must be used which can be used for collection of data from all the state roads within the shire city council. The suggested way must determine the condition of road from the data prior to repairing (Usman, Fu and Miranda-Moreno, 2012). The system should have the capability for displaying information to the council road maintenance managers who can easily use that information for work orders for large number of crew members.

Internet connection can be considered to be helpful for management of traffic and maintenance of road. Various kinds of internet based device like GPS (Global Positioning System), camera are considered to be important for maintenance of road. IOT generally helps in collection of various kinds of information which totally based on traffic and collection of information in an automated and intelligent way (Wortmann and Flüchter, 2015). With help of internet system one can easily become more reliable and intelligent in tracing of various kinds of faults in roads. With help of WSN and sensor depended data can be easily traced and maintained.

Internet Connection

Bluetooth technology provides a platform where variety of devices can be connected easily (Whaiduzzaman et al. 2014). It generally provides a platform for transfer and sharing of data by making use of this technology. Bluetooth technology has many function and it can be easily used in various markets of wireless communication (Usman, Fu and Miranda-Moreno, 2012). There are lots of advantages of using Bluetooth technology like low power signal within the range of 50 feet which is used for transmission of data. There are many advantages of using Bluetooth that are:

  • It is wireless in nature.
  • It is cheaper
  • It has generally low interferences
  • It has low value of energy
  • One can easily share voice and data.
  • One can easily create personal area network.
  • This technology is upgradable
  • It is used worldwide and various universal standard.

Wide area network (WAN) is nothing but a kind of network which generally exists over a large geographical area. A WAN is generally used for establishment of connection between local area network and metro area network (MAN) (Thompson and Visser, 2013). With the help of this technology computers and user in one location can easily establish communication with computer in another location.

Implementation of different types of road ways in the IOT based network is known to be difficult in thing of various types of roads. Roadways can be considered to be an important thing for establishment of connection of various types of network devices (Thompson et al. 2014). OpenIoT is considered for simple for using as it can easily provide connectivity for various kinds of IOT depended resources and capabilities. It is considered to be an integral component for various kinds of future internet of things. OpenIoT is generally used by various kinds of communities which researchers and developers.

LoraWAN is nothing but a low powered wide area network which is generally used for wireless operation of battery in a regional or global network. It generally aims the main requirements of internet of things like bi-directional communication, mobility and various kinds of local services (Sultana, Rahman and Chowdhury, 2013). LoraWAN generally differs from kinds of network that it makes use of star architecture and central node which can be easily used for connection of gateway servers between end device and central network. It is used in various kinds of road technology for establishment of communication over a long distance. 

A data center is nothing a facility which provides IT operation and equipment in various organization. This is generally inclusive both computing and non-computing processes which are specific to data center environment (Streimikiene, Baležentis and Baležentien?, 2013). Data centers operations are generally inclusive of both automated and manual kinds of process for keeping the data centers operation. When various kinds of data centers are shared it led to the creation of virtual data center which can easily provide physical access to large number of organization.

Wireless Technologies

Cloud computing is a known term for delivery of various kinds of services over the internet. It generally provides various kinds of organization for consumption of compute resources like virtual type of machines for storage or application (Ruiz et al. 2012). There are number of benefits of using cloud computing that are

  • Reduction of cost
  • Speed
  • Global platform or scale.
  • Productivity
  • Performance
  • Reliability

Cloud computing provides a platform which removes the expenditure of purchasing of software and hardware and lastly setting up of data centers. Major of the cloud computing services provide self-services on demand with few minutes of click (Robbins and Judge, 2012). It creates a stage where same data can be accessed from any geographical position. Datacenters generally require racking and stacking of various kinds of hardware set up and other kinds of time consuming IT management things (Rittinghouse, and Ransome, 2016). The biggest benefit which can be obtained for cloud based services are worldwide networks which are based on secure type of datacenters that is generally upgraded on the latest generation of fast and efficient kind of computing based hardware. Cloud computing generally provides backup of data, recovery during disaster and many other kind of facilities. 

There are mainly three type of cloud based services that are IaaS, PaaS and SaaS (Nakamura and Chow-White, 2013). Major of the cloud computing services can be divided into three types namely Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service(PaaS) and lastly software as a Services (SaaS). There are generally three types of cloud deployment that are

  • Public Cloud
  • Private Cloud
  • Hybrid Cloud

Public Cloud: Public cloud are generally owned and maintained by various kinds of third party cloud providers. It can easily deliver various kinds of computing devices like storage and server which generally work on Internet.

Hybrid Cloud: Private cloud generally relates to various kinds of cloud computing sources which is generally done by single business and organization. It provides a platform by which data and application can easily move between private and cloud.

Private Cloud: A private cloud generally refers to cloud services which is own by a single organization. A private cloud is generally located on the on-site data center.

WAN stands for wide area network that generally provides network over a large zone or area. This particular technology is generally used for monitoring or management of various types of roads (Jamil and Zaki, 2016). WAN services are considered to be cheaper in comparison to other kinds of services. It generally addresses various kinds of malware protection, intrusion and servers. WAN services help in elimination of ISDN, reduction in cost and increasing of profits of organizations in a large number of ways.

Existing Technology Solutions

RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) which is known to be a well-known technology that uses radio frequency for transferring of data between reader and various kinds of moveable items which is tagged with this. RFID technology can be easily like a transponder which is used in registration of different vehicle (Huidrom, Das and Sud, 2013).  RFID tag or sensor is generally used in various individual cars so that adequate data can be collected from spot and can be easily delivered to the destination. Various kinds of RFID tag generally store data containing detail information of the vehicle along with number plate. This particular technology can be considered to be useful for estimating the number of vehicle and its speed. RFID is generally considered to be as the leading technology due to number of factors like low cost and support to various business (Gao and Zhang, 2013). RFID technology can easily transform every object into a smart object.

The data of various road segment is generally saved in the database as soon as it is connected to internet for various kinds of purpose and application (Frow et al. 2015). GPS receiver is generally installed in various kinds of workstation which can communicate through GPS for obtaining of various kinds of information (Dupont et al.  2012).  As soon as the data is transmitted by the help of GPRS which is generally based on various kinds of central database where data can be easily updated on a regular interval or basis.

There are generally two types of RFID that are active and passive RFID. RFID tags which are active cost around 1250 to 2000 dollars while passive reader cost around 3000 to 20000 dollars (Denisov, Kamaev and Kizim, 2013). There are generally two type of security problems in RFID that are violation of security and privacy.  In the matters of violation of privacy attackers generally focus on harvesting information which is generally given by the object. It checks the communication between object and reader by tracking it. This kind of security attacks damages the physical tag by giving undeniable kind of communication (Botta et al..2014). RFID tag are generally easy to use as has information embedded in it that can be transferred by the help of radio waves. It does not work like bar or codes between tag and reader.


The above discussion relates us to shire city council which is involved in maintenance of thousands of kilometers of roads in urban and semi-rural areas. The report focuses on suggesting of new methods and ways which can be used for monitoring and maintenance of various roads. This particular organization addresses repairing of road due to heavy rain and wear and tear. The shire needs some techniques which can be used for collection of data of road within the city.  This ability can be used for displaying of information to the council of road maintenance manager which can turn information into work orders for various kinds of crew members. Two technology solution has been compared depending on appropriateness of the shire city area. Various kinds of infrastructure like internet connection, LAN, Bluetooth, RF, WAN and IOT based technologies has been discussed. Different kinds of existing technology like LoraWAN, OpenIOT has been discussed in brief. Apart from that data storage and processing facilities like data center, cloud computing, distributed storage and processing has been discussed. All the parameters have been discussed taking into account the parameters like power usage, cost, security, ease of use and accessibility. Two technologies like WAN and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) has been compared in details. Various kinds of cloud computing like public, hybrid and private has been discussed. An idea has been provided regarding LoraWAN and open IOT has been provided. Various kinds of wireless technology like Bluetooth and wide area network (WAN) has been discussed.

Contrast and Comparison


Botta, A., De Donato, W., Persico, V. and Pescapé, A., 2014, August. On the integration of cloud computing and internet of things. In Future internet of things and cloud (FiCloud), 2014 international conference on (pp. 23-30). IEEE.

Denisov, M.V., Kamaev, V.A. and Kizim, A.V., 2013. Organization of the repair and maintenance in road sector with ontologies and multi-agent systems. Procedia Technology, 9, pp.819-825.

Dupont, C., Schulze, T., Giuliani, G., Somov, A. and Hermenier, F., 2012, May. An energy aware framework for virtual machine placement in cloud federated data centres. In Future Energy Systems: Where Energy, Computing and Communication Meet (e-Energy), 2012 Third International Conference on (pp. 1-10). IEEE.

Frow, P., Nenonen, S., Payne, A. and Storbacka, K., 2015. Managing co?creation design: A strategic approach to innovation. British Journal of Management, 26(3), pp.463-483.

Gao, H. and Zhang, X., 2013. A Markov?Based Road Maintenance Optimization Model Considering User Costs. Computer?Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 28(6), pp.451-464.

Huidrom, L., Das, L.K. and Sud, S.K., 2013. Method for automated assessment of potholes, cracks and patches from road surface video clips. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 104, pp.312-321.

Jamil, D. and Zaki, H., 2016. Security issues in cloud computing and countermeasures. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), 3(4), pp.2672-2676.

Nakamura, L. and Chow-White, P. eds., 2013. Race after the Internet. Routledge.

Rittinghouse, J.W. and Ransome, J.F., 2016. Cloud computing: implementation, management, and security. CRC press.

Robbins, S.P. and Judge, T., 2012. Essentials of organizational behavior.

Ruiz, A.R.J., Granja, F.S., Honorato, J.C.P. and Rosas, J.I.G., 2012. Accurate pedestrian indoor navigation by tightly coupling foot-mounted IMU and RFID measurements. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and measurement, 61(1), pp.178-189.

Streimikiene, D., Baležentis, T. and Baležentien?, L., 2013. Comparative assessment of road transport technologies. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 20, pp.611-618

Sultana, M., Rahman, A. and Chowdhury, S., 2013. A review of performance based maintenance of road infrastructure by contracting. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(3), pp.276-292.

Thompson, R., Visser, A., Miller, R. and Lowe, T., 2014. Development of real-time mine road maintenance management system using haul truck and road vibration signature analysis. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (1819), pp.305-312.

Thompson, R.J. and Visser, A.T., 2013. Mine haul road maintenance management systems. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 103(5), pp.303-312.

Usman, T., Fu, L. and Miranda-Moreno, L.F., 2012. A disaggregate model for quantifying the safety effects of winter road maintenance activities at an operational level. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48, pp.368-378.

Whaiduzzaman, M., Sookhak, M., Gani, A. and Buyya, R., 2014. A survey on vehicular cloud computing. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 40, pp.325-344.

Wortmann, F. and Flüchter, K., 2015. Internet of things. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 57(3), pp.221-224.

Xia, F., Yang, L.T., Wang, L. and Vinel, A., 2012. Internet of things. International Journal of Communication Systems, 25(9), p.1101.

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