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Transformer for Power Station

Discuss about a Report on Space Electric Power Transmission ?

1

Labelling of the figure of the steam power plant

Fig: Labelling of the figure of the steam power plant

2

 figure showing the different power station in UK

Fig : figure showing the different power station in UK

electrical supply system

3

The aid of supporting diagram for the above  electrical supply system:                    

(a)

Use of transformers for feeding into and out of the grid network:

The general purpose of the transformer used for supplying power in the different receivers after the exit form the power station.

These transformers are used to convert the facility distribution voltage to the load’s distribution voltage .

The majority of general purpose transformers are generally the step down transformer .As in the the power stations , generally there is no such mechanism to store the electricity produced .firstly after the generation of the power by any means , by nuclear power, hydropower or by the generation of power from the gas plants. After the complete expansion of the steam , when the power is produced it goes  for the transmission line .this process of transmission of electricity is done by the use grid system of the power station. In the transformer ,there is the feeding used for the transmission of the power.

For feeding in process:

For the transmission of the power , outside the station  , generally  we convert the voltage from high to low. In feed in device we first reduce the voltage by the help of the step down transformer . by such process the loss reduces in the wire and the possibility of the accident reduces very  much. The most commonly built polyphase transformer has a 480 volt three phase delta primary and 208/120 volt three phase , four wire wye type secondary transformer.

For feeding out process:

After the step down of the voltage , then it transmitted to the grid lines of the outside cables . in such cables several step down transformer are used which again reduces the voltage further. After the voltage reduction the grid is connected to the different line of phases current. After the transmission of the current the losses is very due to the low voltage ,when this current is sent to the streets then it connects to the step –up transformer of the cities ,it again increases the voltage and rated the voltage to 75 KVA , 60htz 480 volt three phase.

Construction and operation of switchgear and protection systems.

Construction and Operation of Switchgear and Protection Systems

Switch gear:

The switchgear are the device which is used to cut the electric current supply from the circuit . As generally it is used to break the circuit from the accident time. Generally these switchgears works automatically as per the value of the current or voltage inceases as per the prescribed limits.

Construction and operation of switchgear and protection systems

Protection system:

Actually the circuit breakers are used as the protection system in the power station for the safety of the other appliances connected to the power source. For the protection of the wires and the circuit connected in the grid different circuit breaker act as the protection equipment used in the power station. It performs the device to save the circuit from the interruption and the smooth power supply.

The circuit breaker is an electromechanical device . it is used to make or break a circuit eithermanually or by remote control under the normal condition.as it is the main component to automatically break the circuit under the fault condition.

Protection system

Fig: structural diagram

The main function of the circuit breaker protection system is used for the low and medium voltage  (230V/660V)

These are classified to the medium for arc extinction into:

Air circuit breaker which employs air as medium for arc extinction.

Air blast circuit breaker which uses pressurised air as the medium for the arc extinction .

Oil circuit breaker which uses transformer oil for the arc extinction.

Sulphur hexa fluoride type of the circuit breaker in which the SF6 gas is used for the arc extinction.

Vacuum circuit breaker in which vacuum is used for the arc extinction.

Cross-channel links.

These are the device which are used for the connection of the high tension wire the grid of the power station . These cross channel links are made from the wire generally the aluminium one, or the alloy. The designation used for these cross links are as per the load required for the power station . generally in the Asian type countries where the load on each wire is very high. So the type of the wire used in the power station is an alloy of copper and aluminium . as the transmission system is the bulk power transfer between the power generation transfer and the distribution center from which the power is carried to customer delivery points. The transmission system includes the step down and the step up type of the transformer.

Cross-Channel Links

Sub-stations, plant and equipment.

In the plant whether is the nuclear power, coal power plant, thermal power plant the different types of the accessories , sub-stations and the plant are used in the power station .

The equipments used are having a range of minute to the robust one.

In the equipment it includes :

Transmission lines:

Transmission lines supply distribution substations equipped with the transformers which step the high voltage down to lower levels . the transmission of the large quantities of the power over very long distance is very economical by having the very high voltage. In the transmission lines we consider very high voltage at every point of the transmission line and maintaining the current to be the minimum we do this because the current  decreases then the losses in the wire also decrease.

Remote control substation:

In these substation short distance is maintaine by maintaining the suitable distance . in such cases pilot –wires cables provides the communication link to receive indication of circuit breaker. The designation used for these cross links are as per the load required for the power station . generally in the Asian type countries where the load on each wire is very high. So the type of the wire used in the power station is an alloy of copper and aluminium . as the transmission system is the bulk power transfer between the power generation transfer and the distribution center from which the power is carried to customer delivery points. The transmission system includes the step down and the step up type of the transformer.

Engine driven generators:

These are the main stand by units used to fulfil the demands at te emergency and at the stand by . these generators are basically designated and work on the basis of the horse power. They are available from KW units to units of several thousands KW. In such generators the main function is to provide the power when the  current produced in the power station is less the actual demand  of the client. So in order to maintain the demands of the  client we increase the supply of the power by providing the  power by the diesel generator or by the small units generator in order to fulfil the demands. The generator rated at 500 kW or the less operate at utilization voltages .

Cable specification:

A cable is defined as  a single or an assembly of conductor covered by solid electrical insulation . cable specification generally start with the conductor and the progress radially through the insulation and the coverings . Along with  these cables different circuit breakers are also involved with the cables. Actually the circuit breakers are used as the protection system in the power station for the safety of the other appliances connected to the power source. For the protection of the wires and the circuit connected in the grid different circuit breaker act as the protection equipment used in the power station. It performs the device to save the circuit from the interruption and the smooth power supply.

Substations, Plant, and Equipment

The circuit breaker is an electromechanical device . it is used to make or break a circuit eithermanually or by remote control under the normal condition.as it is the main component to automatically break the circuit under the fault condition. As the cable have its own specification for the temperature. So different alloys are used for the manufacturing of such cables.

Ring and radial feeders.

The are two fundamental types of the feeders , each of the two types of the systems has the number of the variation . the primary feeders arrangements used are:

Ring feeder:

The main function of a ring feeder is to connect two sources. It may connect two substation buses in parallel to provide services continuity for the load supplied from each bus.

Radial feeder:

a radial feeder connects between a source and a load point , and it may supply one or more additional load points between the two. Each load point can supplied from one direction only . radial feeder are most widely used by the Navy because the circuits are simple, easy to protect, and low in cost.     

4

The application of the electricity in the following two sectors

Manufactures:

 As we know that the manufacturing department in the world owing to the maximum amount of the energy used in the world .  As the application used in the manufacturing department by the electricity are as follows:

Application:

For the running of different of different high voltage machines

For the operation of different casting factories

In the production of high automated machines and in their operation.

In the operation of different guided machines

The circuit diagram to illustrate the operation:

The circuit diagram used in the application of the electricity in the manufacturing department;

circuit diagram to illustrate the operation

Fig:

In the manufacturing industry

Utilisation of the energy In the manufacturing department:

Firstly the power is distributed to different substation , then it uses the technique of the power supply to main grid of the manufacturing system. The main utilisation is done by the machines using high voltages.

Entertainment:

As the existence of the world without the entertainment can not be done. So entertainment is now a great sector in which the great amount of the energy is used .

In the entertainment sector for the broadcasting and telecasting demand for the high amount of the energy.

 Application:

In the broadcasting of the different programmes by the satellites

Engine-Driven Generators

For telecasting of the satellites.

In the media

In the home entertainment

The circuit diagram to illustrate the operation:

The circuit diagram used in the application of the electricity in the entertainment sector;

The circuit diagram to illustrate the operation

Fig:

The schematic diagram of the broadcasting in the entertainment sector.

Utilisation of the energy In the entertainment sector:

Firstly the power is distributed to different substation , then it uses the technique of the power supply to main grid of the entertainment system. The main utilisation is done by the broadcasting and the telecasting of the programmes. In such broadcasting a huge amount of the energy is needed.

References: -

BILLS, G. W. Space Electric Power Transmission In-text: (Bills, 1959) Bibliography: Bills, G. (1959). Space electric power transmission. Electr. Eng., 78(10), pp.1021-1024.

COTTON, H. AND BARBER, H. The transmission and distribution of electrical energy In-text: (Cotton and Barber, 1970 Bibliography: Cotton, H. and Barber, H. (1970). The transmission and distribution of electrical energy. London: English Universities Press.

CRARY, S. B. Long-distance power transmission In-text: (Crary, 1950) Bibliography: Crary, S. (1950). Long-distance power transmission. Electr. Eng., 69(11), pp.984-989.

ELECTRICAL POWER TRANSMISSION AND INTERCONNEXION In-text: (Electrical Power Transmission and Interconnexion, 1931) Bibliography: Electrical Power Transmission and Interconnexion. (1931). Nature, 127(3199), pp.268-268.

ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF FORCE AND STORAGE OF POWER In-text: (Electrical Transmission of Force and Storage of Power, 1883) Bibliography: Electrical Transmission of Force and Storage of Power. (1883). Nature, 27(700), pp.518-520.

FARRELL, L. Analysis: Electrical transmission. Take your partners In-text: (Farrell, 2007) Bibliography: Farrell, L. (2007). Analysis: Electrical transmission. Take your partners. Power Engineer, 21(1), p.8.

ERS, J. M. AND HOLMES, E. J. Protection of electricity distribution networks In-text: (Gers and Holmes, 2011) Bibliography: Gers, J. and Holmes, E. (2011). Protection of electricity distribution networks. Herts, U.K.: Institution of Electrical Engineers.

GJORGIEV, B., KANČEV, D. AND ČEPIN, M. A new model for optimal generation scheduling of power system considering generation units availability In-text: (Gjorgiev, Kančev and Čepin, 2013) Bibliography: Gjorgiev, B., Kančev, D. and Čepin, M. (2013). A new model for optimal generation scheduling of power system considering generation units availability. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 47, pp.129-139.

HORSLEY, W. North-Eastern Centre: Chairman's address. “The generation of electrical energy” In-text: (Horsley, 1938) Bibliography: Horsley, W. (1938). North-Eastern Centre: Chairman's address. “The generation of electrical energy”. Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 82(493), pp.61-66.

KURUSEELAN, S. A Novel Method for Generation Rescheduling to Alleviate Line Overloads In-text: (Kuruseelan, 2014) Bibliography: Kuruseelan, S. (2014). A Novel Method for Generation Rescheduling to Alleviate Line Overloads. IJOEE.

ANSINI, A. J. Electrical distribution engineering In-text: (Pansini, 2007) Bibliography: Pansini, A. (2007). Electrical distribution engineering. Lilburn, GA: Fairmont Press

PATRICK, D. R. AND FARDO, S. W. Electrical distribution systems In-text: (Patrick and Fardo, 1999) Bibliography: Patrick, D. and Fardo, S. (1999). Electrical distribution systems. Lilburn, GA: Fairmont Press.

POWER GEOMETRY OF GENERAL TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS In-text: (Power geometry of general transmission systems, 1945) Bibliography: Power geometry of general transmission systems. (1945). Electr. Eng., 64(6), pp.493-493.

RALLS, K. The growth of power electronics in electrical power transmission systems In-text: (Ralls, 1995) Bibliography: Ralls, K. (1995). The growth of power electronics in electrical power transmission systems. Power Engineering Journal, 9(1), pp.15-23.

RAWORTH AND MANCE, H. Reply to discussion on “The generation of electrical energy for tramways” In-text: (Raworth and Mance, 1897) Bibliography: Raworth, and Mance, H. (1897). Reply to discussion on “The generation of electrical energy for tramways”. Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 26(130), pp.493-501.

ROUHANI, A., HOSSEINI, S. H. AND RAOOFAT, M. Composite generation and transmission expansion planning considering distributed generation In-text: (Rouhani, Hosseini and Raoofat, 2014) Bibliography: Rouhani, A., Hosseini, S. and Raoofat, M. (2014). Composite generation and transmission expansion planning considering distributed generation. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 62, pp.792-805.

SNELL, J. F. C. AND TUDSBERY, J. H. T. Distribution of electrical energy In-text: (Snell and Tudsbery, 1905) Bibliography: Snell, J. and Tudsbery, J. (1905). Distribution of electrical energy. London: The Institution.

WADHWA, C. L. Generation, distribution, and utilization of electrical energy In-text: (Wadhwa, 1989) Bibliography: Wadhwa, C. (1989). Generation, distribution, and utilization of electrical energy. New York: Wiley.

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