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SWE30009 Software Testing And Reliability

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In this assignment, you are required to provide 6 distinct metamorphic relations for each of examples.

Testable Programs

  • A program is said to be testable if the output of any input can be verified

Example 1 - Testable Programs

  • To compute 41** (1/7)

Suppose the computed output is 1.7

How can we know whether this output is correct or not?

Example 2 - Testable Programs

  • To solve the following system of linear equations

3x + 2y – z = 4

x – 2y – 2z = -9

2x + y + z = 7

Suppose the solutions x=1, y=2 and z=3

Example 3 - Testable Programs

  • To find the values of x such that

x**67 + 3*(x**46) – x**37 +4.5 =0

Suppose the solutions for x are: 2.17, 6.5, ..

Non-Testable Programs

  • A program is said to be non-testable if the output of any input cannot be verified

Example 1 – Non-Testable Programs

  • A weather forecasting system which reports the amount of rain for a specific date
  • A clinical x-ray system

Example 2 – Non-Testable Programs

  • Compute the average for 10 million real numbers
  • Compute sine function
  • sin function

    sin(0o )=0


    • Suppose the program returns:

    sin(29.8o )=0.49876 correct?

Example 3 Non-Testable Programs

Shortest path program SP(G, a, b)

where G is a graph, a is the starting node and

b is the destination node

SP(G, a, b) returns a path like:

a – x – y - …. - s – t – b

Find all possible paths from node a to node b

Check against all these possible path to see

whether SP(G, a, b): a – x – y - …. - s – t – b is the shortest

Test Oracle Problem

  • Absence of test oracle
  • Test oracles are available but too expensive to be applied


To search how many times and where a string

(S1) appears in another string (S2)

S1 is abaccabacddaabcabdcdaabacccdbabaddc

S2 is abac


Identification of MRs

Various approaches

  • Machine learning (Kanewala and Bieman)
  • Data mutation (H. Zhu)
  • Coding (Zhang Chen Hao Xiong…)
  • Composition (Liu et al.)
  • Category-choice framework (Chen et al.)
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