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# SWE30009 Software Testing And Reliability

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## Question:

In this assignment, you are required to provide 6 distinct metamorphic relations for each of examples.

### Testable Programs

• A program is said to be testable if the output of any input can be verified

### Example 1 - Testable Programs

• To compute 41** (1/7)

Suppose the computed output is 1.7

How can we know whether this output is correct or not?

### Example 2 - Testable Programs

• To solve the following system of linear equations

3x + 2y – z = 4

x – 2y – 2z = -9

2x + y + z = 7

Suppose the solutions x=1, y=2 and z=3

### Example 3 - Testable Programs

• To find the values of x such that

x**67 + 3*(x**46) – x**37 +4.5 =0

Suppose the solutions for x are: 2.17, 6.5, ..

### Non-Testable Programs

• A program is said to be non-testable if the output of any input cannot be verified

### Example 1 – Non-Testable Programs

• A weather forecasting system which reports the amount of rain for a specific date
• A clinical x-ray system

### Example 2 – Non-Testable Programs

• Compute the average for 10 million real numbers
• Compute sine function
• sin function

sin(0o )=0

sin(30o)=0.5

• Suppose the program returns:

sin(29.8o )=0.49876 correct?

### Example 3 Non-Testable Programs

Shortest path program SP(G, a, b)

where G is a graph, a is the starting node and

b is the destination node

SP(G, a, b) returns a path like:

a – x – y - …. - s – t – b

Find all possible paths from node a to node b

Check against all these possible path to see

whether SP(G, a, b): a – x – y - …. - s – t – b is the shortest

### Test Oracle Problem

• Absence of test oracle
• Test oracles are available but too expensive to be applied

### Example

To search how many times and where a string

(S1) appears in another string (S2)

S2 is abac

### Identification of MRs

Various approaches

• Machine learning (Kanewala and Bieman)
• Data mutation (H. Zhu)
• Coding (Zhang Chen Hao Xiong…)
• Composition (Liu et al.)
• Category-choice framework (Chen et al.)

### Cite This Work

My Assignment Help (2021) Software Testing And Reliability [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/swe30009-software-testing-and-reliability/metaphoric-testing.html
[Accessed 18 April 2021].

My Assignment Help. 'Software Testing And Reliability' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/swe30009-software-testing-and-reliability/metaphoric-testing.html> accessed 18 April 2021.

My Assignment Help. Software Testing And Reliability [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 18 April 2021]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/swe30009-software-testing-and-reliability/metaphoric-testing.html.

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